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Langenstein, Germany

Longin C.F.H.,University of Hohenheim | Gowda M.,University of Hohenheim | Muhleisen J.,University of Hohenheim | Ebmeyer E.,KWS LOCHOW GMBH | And 6 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Key message: Commercial heterosis for grain yield is present in hybrid wheat but long-term competiveness of hybrid versus line breeding depends on the development of heterotic groups to improve hybrid prediction. Detailed knowledge of the amount of heterosis and quantitative genetic parameters are of paramount importance to assess the potential of hybrid breeding. Our objectives were to (1) examine the extent of midparent, better-parent and commercial heterosis in a vast population of 1,604 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) hybrids and their parental elite inbred lines and (2) discuss the consequences of relevant quantitative parameters for the design of hybrid wheat breeding programs. Fifteen male lines were crossed in a factorial mating design with 120 female lines, resulting in 1,604 of the 1,800 potential single-cross hybrid combinations. The hybrids, their parents, and ten commercial wheat varieties were evaluated in multi-location field experiments for grain yield, plant height, heading time and susceptibility to frost, lodging, septoria tritici blotch, yellow rust, leaf rust, and powdery mildew at up to five locations. We observed that hybrids were superior to the mean of their parents for grain yield (10.7 %) and susceptibility to frost (-7.2 %), leaf rust (-8.4 %) and septoria tritici blotch (-9.3 %). Moreover, 69 hybrids significantly (P < 0.05) outyielded the best commercial inbred line variety underlining the potential of hybrid wheat breeding. The estimated quantitative genetic parameters suggest that the establishment of reciprocal recurrent selection programs is pivotal for a successful long-term hybrid wheat breeding. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Wurschum T.,University of Hohenheim | Langer S.M.,University of Hohenheim | Longin C.F.H.,University of Hohenheim | Korzun V.,KWS LOCHOW GMBH | And 7 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Modern genomics approaches rely on the availability of high-throughput and high-density genotyping platforms. A major breakthrough in wheat genotyping was the development of an SNP array. In this study, we used a diverse panel of 172 elite European winter wheat lines to evaluate the utility of the SNP array for genomic analyses in wheat germplasm derived from breeding programs. We investigated population structure and genetic relatedness and found that the results obtained with SNP and SSR markers differ. This suggests that additional research is required to determine the optimum approach for the investigation of population structure and kinship. Our analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) showed that LD decays within approximately 5-10 cM. Moreover, we found that LD is variable along chromosomes. Our results suggest that the number of SNPs needs to be increased further to obtain a higher coverage of the chromosomes. Taken together, SNPs can be a valuable tool for genomics approaches and for a knowledge-based improvement of wheat. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Huttner E.K.,National University of Ireland | Huttner E.K.,University College Cork | Bello F.D.,National University of Ireland | Zannini E.,National University of Ireland | And 5 more authors.
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2011

The breadmaking potential of six oat varieties was compared with and related to their physicochemical properties. The most significant differences in the bread characteristics were found in the crumb structure. The varieties Buggy, Energie, and Zorro resulted in good bread quality with an even gas-cell distribution characterized by a high number of relatively small pores. In contrast, Typhon, Ivory, and Nord 08/311 each had a large hole in the center of the crumb and accordingly poor quality. Breads differed little in specific volume, bake loss, and density. Rheological analysis revealed positive effects of low batter resistance to deformation on oat bread quality. On the basis of the physicochemical characterization, protein and fat contents were identified as key factors responsible for differences observed in bread quality, provided that starch damage and water-hydration capacity were low. Additionally, high setback and final viscosity, as determined by Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) analysis, positively affected oat bread quality. High α-amylase activity was found to influence negatively the breadmaking performance of oats. Overall, protein, fat, dietary fiber content, starch pasting properties, and α-amylase activity were responsible for the breadmaking properties of oat varieties. © 2011 AACC International, Inc.

Gowda M.,University of Hohenheim | Zhao Y.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Wurschum T.,University of Hohenheim | Longin C.F.,University of Hohenheim | And 8 more authors.
Heredity | Year: 2014

The accuracy of genomic selection depends on the relatedness between the members of the set in which marker effects are estimated based on evaluation data and the types for which performance is predicted. Here, we investigate the impact of relatedness on the performance of marker-assisted selection for fungal disease resistance in hybrid wheat. A large and diverse mapping population of 1739 elite European winter wheat inbred lines and hybrids was evaluated for powdery mildew, leaf rust and stripe rust resistance in multi-location field trials and fingerprinted with 9 k and 90 k SNP arrays. Comparison of the accuracies of prediction achieved with data sets from the two marker arrays revealed a crucial role for a sufficiently high marker density in genome-wide association mapping. Cross-validation studies using test sets with varying degrees of relationship to the corresponding estimation sets revealed that close relatedness leads to a substantial increase in the proportion of total genotypic variance explained by the identified QTL and consequently to an overoptimistic judgment of the precision of marker-assisted selection.

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