Nordsaat Saatzucht GmbH


Nordsaat Saatzucht GmbH

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Trankner C.,University of Kiel | Trankner C.,Leibniz Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops | Pfeiffer N.,University of Kiel | Kirchhoff M.,University of Kiel | And 6 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2017

Key message: Only few genetic loci are sufficient to increase the variation of bolting time inBeta vulgarisdramatically, regarding vernalization requirement, seasonal bolting time and reproduction type.Abstract: Beta species show a wide variation of bolting time regarding the year of first reproduction, seasonal bolting time and the number of reproduction cycles. To elucidate the genetics of bolting time control, we used three F3 mapping populations that were produced by crossing a semelparous, annual sugar beet with iteroparous, vernalization-requiring wild beet genotypes. The semelparous plants died after reproduction, whereas iteroparous plants reproduced at least twice. All populations segregated for vernalization requirement, seasonal bolting time and the number of reproduction cycles. We found that vernalization requirement co-segregated with the bolting locus B on chromosome 2 and was inherited independently from semel- or iteroparous reproduction. Furthermore, we found that seasonal bolting time is a highly heritable trait (h2 > 0.84), which is primarily controlled by two major QTL located on chromosome 4 and 9. Late bolting alleles of both loci act in a partially recessive manner and were identified in both iteroparous pollinators. We observed an additive interaction of both loci for bolting delay. The QTL region on chromosome 4 encompasses the floral promoter gene BvFT2, whereas the QTL on chromosome 9 co-localizes with the BR1 locus, which controls post-winter bolting resistance. Our findings are applicable for marker-assisted sugar beet breeding regarding early bolting to accelerate generation cycles and late bolting to develop bolting-resistant spring and winter beets. Unexpectedly, one population segregated also for dwarf growth that was found to be controlled by a single locus on chromosome 9. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Thorwarth P.,University of Hohenheim | Ahlemeyer J.,Deutsche Saatveredelung AG | Bochard A.-M.,Limagrain GmbH | Krumnacker K.,Limagrain GmbH | And 6 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2017

Key message: Genomic prediction was evaluated in German winter barley breeding lines. In this material, prediction ability is strongly influenced by population structure and main determinant of prediction ability is the close genetic relatedness of the breeding material.Abstract: To ensure breeding progress under changing environmental conditions the implementation and evaluation of new breeding methods is of crucial importance. Modern breeding approaches like genomic selection may significantly accelerate breeding progress. We assessed the potential of genomic prediction in a training population of 750 genotypes, consisting of multiple six-rowed winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) elite material families and old cultivars, which reflect the breeding history of barley in Germany. Crosses of parents selected from the training set were used to create a set of double-haploid families consisting of 750 genotypes. Those were used to confirm prediction ability estimates based on a cross-validation with the training set material using 11 different genomic prediction models. Population structure was inferred with dimensionality reduction methods like discriminant analysis of principle components and the influence of population structure on prediction ability was investigated. In addition to the size of the training set, marker density is of crucial importance for genomic prediction. We used genome-wide linkage disequilibrium and persistence of linkage phase as indicators to estimate that 11,203 evenly spaced markers are required to capture all QTL effects. Although a 9k SNP array does not contain a sufficient number of polymorphic markers for long-term genomic selection, we obtained fairly high prediction accuracies ranging from 0.31 to 0.71 for the traits earing, hectoliter weight, spikes per square meter, thousand kernel weight and yield and show that they result from the close genetic relatedness of the material. Our work contributes to designing long-term genetic prediction programs for barley breeding. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Herrmann M.H.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Yu J.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Beuch S.,Nordsaat Saatzucht GmbH | Weber W.E.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Plant Breeding | Year: 2014

Using the advanced backcross quantitative trait loci (AB-QTL) strategy, we successfully transferred and mapped valuable allelic variants from the high β-glucan (BG) accession IAH611 (PI 502955), into the genome of cultivar 'Iltis'. By backcrossing one BC1F1 plant to 'Iltis', we developed two BC2F2-6 populations A and B, comprising 98 and 72 F2-individuals, respectively. Genotyping of BC2F2 individuals with predominantly AFLP markers resulted in 12 linkage groups with a map size of 455.4 cM for Population A and 11 linkage groups with a map size of 313.5 cM for Population B. Both populations were grown at three sites in Germany over a three-year period. Individuals were then phenotyped for 13 traits including grain yield (YD) and β-glucan content (BG). QTL analysis via stepwise regression detected a total of 33 QTLs, most of which were clustered in three linkage groups. Two dense linkage groups A1 and B13 were found to be putatively homologous to groups KO_6 and KO_11 of the 'Kanota'/'Ogle' map, respectively. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Miedaner T.,University of Hohenheim | Hubner M.,University of Hohenheim | Koch S.,University of Hohenheim | Seggl A.,University of Hohenheim | And 2 more authors.
Plant Breeding | Year: 2010

Winter rye is an ideal crop for the agricultural energy production because of its vigourous growth, high nutrient- and water use efficiency, and low input production. For the use in biogas plants, maximal biomass yield with dry matter contents of >30% is an essential breeding aim. The objectives were to analyse the potential of 25 germplasm resources of various geographic origin for the rapid improvement of biomass yield compared with 22 and 12 full-sib families selected for forage and grain use, respectively. Population per se and testcross performance with two testers were evaluated for early growth, heading, plant height, dry matter content and dry matter yield across seven environments (location-year combinations) harvested as whole plants at late milk-ripening. Dry matter yield ranged, on an average, from 130 to 141 dt/ha for population per se performance and from 150 to 158 dt/ha for testcross performance (0% water content). Genotypic variances were significant (P = 0.01) throughout, entry-mean heritabilities for biomass yield were moderate to high (0.67-0.91). In both materials, germplasm resources and forage rye had on average the highest biomass yield. The best individual entry was a population hybrid with 'Florida Black' as pollinator (173 dt/ha). Three released hybrid cultivars selected for high grain yield were among the entries with the lowest biomass yield at milk ripening. Germplasm resources showed significant genotypic correlations between dry matter yield and early growth, heading date, dry matter content in the testcrosses. Genotypic correlations between populations per se and testcrosses were significant and high for germplasm resources and forage rye. In conclusion, germplasm resources have a high potential for maximal biomass yield when whole-plant harvest occurs at milk ripening. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Worch S.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Rajesh K.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Harshavardhan V.T.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Pietsch C.,KWS LOCHOW GmbH | And 6 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2011

Background: The increasingly narrow genetic background characteristic of modern crop germplasm presents a challenge for the breeding of cultivars that require adaptation to the anticipated change in climate. Thus, high priority research aims at the identification of relevant allelic variation present both in the crop itself as well as in its progenitors. This study is based on the characterization of genetic variation in barley, with a view to enhancing its response to terminal drought stress.Results: The expression patterns of drought regulated genes were monitored during plant ontogeny, mapped and the location of these genes was incorporated into a comprehensive barley SNP linkage map. Haplotypes within a set of 17 starch biosynthesis/degradation genes were defined, and a particularly high level of haplotype variation was uncovered in the genes encoding sucrose synthase (types I and II) and starch synthase. The ability of a panel of 50 barley accessions to maintain grain starch content under terminal drought conditions was explored.Conclusion: The linkage/expression map is an informative resource in the context of characterizing the response of barley to drought stress. The high level of haplotype variation among starch biosynthesis/degradation genes in the progenitors of cultivated barley shows that domestication and breeding have greatly eroded their allelic diversity in current elite cultivars. Prospective association analysis based on core drought-regulated genes may simplify the process of identifying favourable alleles, and help to understand the genetic basis of the response to terminal drought. © 2011 Worch et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Neglectus P.,University of Kiel | Sharma S.,University of Kiel | Friedrich J.K.-O.,University of Kiel | Keil T.,University of Kiel | And 4 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

The root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus neglectus can cause severe losses in barley cultivation. Multiplication rates had been found to vary greatly between different barley accessions. Two winter barley cultivars, Igri and Franka, had been found to differ in their ability to resist this parasite. An existing Igri 9 Franka doubled haploid population was chosen to genetically map resistance genes after artificial inoculation with P. neglectus in the greenhouse and climate chamber. A continuous phenotypic variation was found indicating a quantitative inheritance of P. neglectus resistance. An existing map was enriched by 527 newly developed Diversity Array Technology markers (DArTs). The new genetic linkage map was comprised of 857 molecular markers that cover 1,157 cM on seven linkage groups. Using phenotypic data collected from four different experiments in 3 years, five quantitative trait loci were mapped by composite interval mapping on four (3H, 5H, 6H and 7H) linkage groups. A quantitative trait locus with a large phenotypic effect of 16% and likelihood of odds (LOD) score of 6.35 was mapped on linkage group 3H. The remaining four QTLs were classified as minor or moderate with LOD scores ranging from 2.71 to 3.55 and R2 values ranging from 8 to 10%. The DNA markers linked to the resistance QTLs should be quite useful for marker-assisted selection in barley breeding because phenotypic selection is limited due to time constraints and labor costs. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Kalladan R.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Worch S.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Rolletschek H.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Harshavardhan V.T.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2013

Drought is a major limiting factor for barley production, especially in the primary areas of its cultivation. Wild barley represents a major source of favourable alleles for increasing the genetic variation for multiple traits including resistance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. We used advanced backcross quantitative trait locus (AB-QTL) analysis of a BC3-doubled haploid population developed between the cultivated parent Brenda (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) and the wild accession HS584 (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) to study the contribution of wild barley in improving various agronomic and seed quality traits under post-anthesis drought. The experiment was carried out at two different locations (IPK, Gatersleben and Nordsaat, Böhnshausen) and terminal drought was imposed by withholding water or spraying with potassium iodide at 10 days after flowering under greenhouse or field conditions, respectively. QTL analysis indicated that wild barley contributed favourably to most of the traits studied under both control and drought conditions. A total of seven hot-spot QTL regions with co-localizing QTL for various traits harboured more than 80 % of the stable QTL detected in the present study. For yield and thousand-grain weight and their respective drought tolerance indices, most of the QTL were derived from Brenda. On the other hand, for traits like seed length and seed nitrogen content, all the QTL were contributed by HS584, the parent having higher trait value. A significantly reduced carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio in the selected contrasting inferior lines compared to superior ones suggests that C/N ratio could be a potential parameter for screening not just seed quality parameters but also grain weight performance under terminal drought. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Frerichmann S.L.M.,University of Kiel | Kirchhoff M.,University of Kiel | Kirchhoff M.,Nordsaat Saatzucht GmbH | Muller A.E.,University of Kiel | And 4 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Background: Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.) is an important crop for sugar and biomass production in temperate climate regions. Currently sugar beets are sown in spring and harvested in autumn. Autumn-sown sugar beets that are grown for a full year have been regarded as a cropping system to increase the productivity of sugar beet cultivation. However, for the development of these " winter beets" sufficient winter hardiness and a system for bolting control is needed. Both require a thorough understanding of the underlying genetics and its natural variation.Results: We screened a diversity panel of 268 B. vulgaris accessions for three flowering time genes via EcoTILLING. This panel had been tested in the field for bolting behaviour and winter hardiness. EcoTILLING identified 20 silent SNPs and one non-synonymous SNP within the genes BTC1, BvFL1 and BvFT1, resulting in 55 haplotypes. Further, we detected associations of nucleotide polymorphisms in BvFL1 with bolting before winter as well as winter hardiness.Conclusions: These data provide the first genetic indication for the function of the FLC homolog BvFL1 in beet. Further, it demonstrates for the first time that EcoTILLING is a powerful method for exploring genetic diversity and allele mining in B. vulgaris. © 2013 Frerichmann et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Galal A.,University of Kiel | Sharma S.,University of Kiel | Sharma S.,Urbana University | Abou-Elwafa S.F.,University of Kiel | And 5 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2014

Key message: This study demonstrates for the first time that resistance to different root lesion nematodes (P. neglectus and P. penetrans) is controlled by a common QTL. A major resistance QTL (Rlnnp6H) has been mapped to chromosome 6H using two independent barley populations. Root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.) are important pests in cereal production worldwide. We selected two doubled haploid populations of barley (Igri × Franka and Uschi × HHOR 3073) and infected them with Pratylenchus penetrans and Pratylenchus neglectus. Nematode multiplication rates were measured 7 or 10 weeks after infection. In both populations, continuous phenotypic variations for nematode multiplication rates were detected indicating a quantitative inheritance of resistance. In the Igri × Franka population, four P. penetrans resistance QTLs were mapped with 857 molecular markers on four linkage groups (2H, 5H, 6H and 7H). In the Uschi × HHOR 3073 population, eleven resistance QTLs (P. penetrans and P. neglectus) were mapped with 646 molecular markers on linkage groups 1H, 3H, 4H, 5H, 6H and 7H. A major resistance QTL named Rlnnp6H (LOD score 6.42-11.19) with a large phenotypic effect (27.5-36.6 %) for both pests was mapped in both populations to chromosome 6H. Another resistance QTL for both pests was mapped on linkage group 5H (Igri × Franka population). These data provide first evidence for common resistance mechanisms against different root lesion nematode species. The molecular markers are a powerful tool for the selection of resistant barley lines among segregating populations because resistance tests are time consuming and laborious. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Sharma S.,University of Kiel | Keil T.,University of Kiel | Keil T.,Syngenta | Laubach E.,Nordsaat Saatzucht GmbH | Jung C.,University of Kiel
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2011

Root lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus are important pests in crop cultivation that cause severe damage to crops throughout the world. P. neglectus is one of the most important members of this genus. The present study aimed to select barley accessions with resistance to P. neglectus in a greenhouse resistance test and to detect resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Infection rates have been found to vary greatly among different barley accessions; however, immunity could not be found. An existing Igri × Franka doubled-haploid mapping population was used to map resistance genes after artificial inoculation with P. neglectus under controlled environment. QTLs were found with a likelihood of odds score between 2.71 and 6.35 and explaining phenotypic variation of 8 to 16%. © 2011 NIAB.

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