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Baltzopoulos A.,Nordregio | Baltzopoulos A.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Brostrom A.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Regional Studies | Year: 2013

Baltzopoulos A. and Broström A. Attractors of entrepreneurial activity: universities, regions and alumni entrepreneurs, Regional Studies. This paper investigates how universities may affect regional entrepreneurship through the localization decisions of entrepreneurial alumni. Empirically, a comprehensive, individual-level data set from Sweden for the period 2003-2005 is employed. The results suggest that even when controlling for their spatial history, individuals have an increased propensity to set up in the region where they studied. This effect is found to substitute for both urbanization economies and localization economies as drivers of regional-level entrepreneurship. Thus, the present analysis provides evidence on how universities affect regional economic development that complements the strong focus on spin-off activities by university researchers in previous studies. © 2013 Copyright Regional Studies Association.

Globalization is one of the key challenges facing rural regions in Europe, bringing significant social, economic, cultural and political changes. Current studies on the impact of globalization on rural regions tend to focus on specific sectors or processes or localities. The absence of an overarching integrative analysis has resulted in the inability of regional development strategies to cope with these challenges. The objective of the DERREG project is to produce an interpretative model that will enable regional development actors to better anticipate and respond to the key challenges for disadvantaged regions arising from globalization. In doing so, it will expand scientific knowledge and understanding, inform policy development, and identify examples of best practice. The project is innovative in adopting an integrative approach that synthesises research across four key themes and nine case study regions in different types of rural regions to produce an overarching analysis of the impact of globalization on rural Europe. The research will involve both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis. It will develop new methods in areas such as business network analysis. A further innovation is the linking of the scientific analysis with practical application through the development of an interpretative model. The consortium comprises 9 partners with expertise in rural and regional research, focusing on Eastern Europe. The consortium has been assembled to provide an appropriate combination of expertise in the areas examined in the project, including rural businesses, migration, sustainable development, capacity-building and gender. The proposed research will enable policy makers and other stakeholders involved in regional development to better anticipate and respond to the challenges of globalization. It will support initiatives to increase the capacity of rural businesses to engage with new opportunities and to enhance social cohesion.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-4-11 | Award Amount: 3.26M | Year: 2008

The RuDI study will provide a thorough analysis of the design, delivery and impact of EU Rural Development Policy (incl. LEADER). The study combines quantitative and qualitative approaches starting with a critical review of the state-of-the-art in RD theory and the conceptual frameworks and approaches used in RD policy evaluation. In the study the Common Monitoring and Evaluation Framework (CMEF) and the underlying intervention and impact logics will be critically examined. The positive and negative effects of rural development policies on institutional, social, economic and environmental level will be identified and described in a set of carefully selected and framed case studies. The impact assessment will also include those impacts that have not been anticipated. The case studies will be representative of the structural differences that can be found in the characteristics of rural areas across the EU. Focus will be on different types and characteristics of territory, interrelations with RD programme priorities and measures, and an assessment of their 'hard' and 'soft' impacts. The comparative cross-national analysis of the case studies will provide a better understanding of driving forces in policy design, the strengths and weaknesses of different delivery and governance models, the positive and negative impacts of RD policies and, most importantly, a more convincing conceptual and methodological framework for evaluating RD policy. Consultations with RD policy actors and evaluators will ensure that the analyses are closely coordinated with the demands and possibilities of practitioners. The RuDI study will be concluded with recommendations for a more appropriate RD policy design, delivery, impact monitoring and assessment.

Andersson M.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Baltzopoulos A.,Nordregio | Loof H.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Research Policy | Year: 2012

This paper analyzes how different R&D strategies of incumbent firms affect the quantity and quality of their entrepreneurial spawning. When examining entrepreneurial ventures of ex-employees of firms with different R&D strategies, three things emerge: First, firms with persistent R&D investments and a general superiority in sales, exports, productivity, profitability and wages are less likely to generate entrepreneurs than firms with temporary or no R&D investments. Second, start-ups from knowledge intensive business service (KIBS) firms with persistent R&D investments have a significantly increased probability of survival. No corresponding association between the R&D strategies of incumbents and survival of entrepreneurial spawns is found for incumbents in manufacturing sectors. Third, spin-outs from KIBS-firms are more likely to survive if they start in the same sector, indicating the importance of inherited knowledge. These findings suggest that R&D intensive firms are less likely to generate employee start-ups, but their entrepreneurial spawns tend to be of higher quality. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2013.1.1-1 | Award Amount: 3.03M | Year: 2014

SIMPACT advances understanding of social innovations economic dimensions, creating new concepts, models and instruments for policy makers, innovators, investors and intermediaries. It systematically investigates how social innovations can enable the most vulnerable in society to become economic assets, integrating critical analysis of current and previous work with future-oriented methodologies, new actionable knowledge and continual stakeholder participation. SIMPACTs multidisciplinary mixed-method approach advances knowledge and the state of the art by (i) elaborating a theoretical model of the economic dimensions of social innovation throughout its lifecycle; (ii) generating new empirical knowledge on the economic dimensions through rich, theoretically informed analysis of successful and less successful cases; (iii) analysing drivers and barriers shaping the economic impact of social innovations, and levers for their scaling and diffusion; (iv) developing indicators to measure social innovations and tailored methods to evaluate social and economic impact; (v) enhancing modes of public policy production, instruments and guidelines; (vi) generating foresight knowledge through agent-based modelling and scenario building. SIMPACT integrates theoretical, empirical and actionable knowledge to create evidence-based approaches to business development, public policy and research. A participatory research approach actively engages policy makers, innovators, investors and intermediaries of vulnerable groups. Action learning, indicator labs and stakeholder experiments facilitate processes of co-creation, stimulating shared learning, strengthening practitioner knowledge and enhancing conceptualisation of the economic base. Partners understanding of welfare regime diversity, including New Member State specificities, will ensure tailored, actionable deliverables. Eight high profile associate partners will help ensure the success of SIMPACTs dissemination activities.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2010-2.2-1 | Award Amount: 3.34M | Year: 2011

EUBORDERRREGIONS will investigate the manifold consequences of increasing cross-border interaction for the development of regions at the EUs external borders and, in this way, contribute to scientific and policy debate on the future of economic, social and territorial cohesion within the EU. Importantly, the project will contextualise development issues in selected EU Borderlands with regard to interaction between the EU and countries of the immediate neighbourhood. Within the context of these challenges, the regions at issue here are struggling to define new opportunities for social and economic development and are also attempting to create greater capacities for territorial cooperation with other regions. Despite all criticisms levelled at the European Commission, the EU as market and political institution has been absolutely essential in preparing the ground for greater economic and political interaction. Much will therefore depend on how EU policies and policy discourses translate into political capital for local/regional cross-border cooperation in the new borderlands. At the same time, the issue of capacity building and exploitation of the benefits of strategic cross-border co-operation must be clearly addressed at the local and regional level.As such, these border regions will be treated as interfaces between development dynamics and policy frameworks operating within the EU, on the one hand, and in neighbouring countries, on the other. In doing this, the project will also contribute to the state of the art of policy-oriented research on regional development and cohesion within Europe.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2007-4.3-01 | Award Amount: 2.01M | Year: 2009

Geographers are the most critical social scientists when it comes to the delimitation of borders of the so-called European continent. Continents as Huntingtons civilisation are ideological productions that are certainly not based on natural facts. But they are deeply enhanced in the mind of European citizens and policy makers because they were historically produced by Europeans as a tool of world power. It is therefore crucial to examine which divisions of the world are perceived by people located outside the European Union, in order to produce a non Eurocentric view. The project EuroBroadMap is based on a worldwide survey trying to catch both the perception of European Union global role and attraction power level and the definition of EU from a qualitative and spatial point of view as well as the relative attraction of countries, or even cities that compose it. The survey will be realized on a panel of license degree students in a relevant panel of external countries and in different academic fields. The questionnaire will combine different kinds of methods, like drawings on maps, open questions, ranking etc Variations in answer will be examined according to both geographical location and social status. The individual mental maps will be compared to collective representations: websites of organization, tourist guides, teaching books, international media, etc. Particular attention will be paid to (carto)graphic representations of Europe and other world divisions. Spiritual flows that are revealed by individual and collective mental maps will be then compared to four types of effective flows linking EU and the rest of the world (Trade, Aid, FDI, Migrations) in order to examine possible discrepancies. The diffusion of results in various formats (report, website, teaching material, ) will be organized in order to insure a growing awareness of the complexity of actual situation of Europe in the world, according to material and spiritual dimensions.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2007. | Award Amount: 3.63M | Year: 2008

Societies in their urban (and also non-urban) segments, are extracting materials and energy from their natural environment, processing these flows, eventually accumulating portions of them as stocks and, in the end, deleting them into the environment as wastes, emissions or deliberate discharges. Urban settlements cities are a specific type of stocks in the metabolism of societies, and the way these cities are being built and operated has a substantial influence on the quantities and qualities of material and energy flows needed to sustain their existence. In SUME, the urban metabolism shall be understood as a metaphor for our societies way of dealing with its natural environment. With global climate change, limited resources and sources of energy, the question of how a healthy level of metabolic exchange with the environment can be achieved is gaining a dramatic new actuality. It is the question of how existing urban areas shall be transformed and new cities or expansions should be planned to be researched in SUME with a truly comprehensive approach. The concept of urban metabolism, as understood and applied in SUME, will be including all relevant flows (material, energy, waste etc.), and as link to future planning consider the influence of the various urban spatial forms and ways of urban restructuring on the levels and qualities of the flows. In order to search for a reduced extraction of resources and energies, new criteria for planning and governing of urban development will be needed. The urban metabolism approach will be tested as a guideline for such knowledge and methodological improvement. As a comprehensive approach, the concept of metabolism also is scrutinizing the effects of investment, asking if an intensified use of flows for the renewal of urban structures will pay off in the future by lowering the levels of material/energy flows over time, thus attempting to make urban metabolisms more sustainable.

Olsen L.S.,Nordregio
Polar Geography | Year: 2016

Indigenous tourism has become an important component of the tourism industry. Previous indigenous tourism research has indicated three conflict areas that can have an impact on destination development: internal conflicts over indigenous identity, the use of indigenous culture in destination marketing, and land-use conflicts. To varying degrees these areas of conflict have been found to impact local and regional destination development in northern Europe. This paper draws on case studies to understand how conflicts in Sami tourism in local and regional destination development are addressed through stakeholder collaboration in Jokkmokk, Sweden and Kautokeino, Norway. The study indicates that collaboration between destination marketing organizations and Sami stakeholders has been initiated and has improved destination marketing. Conflicts relating to indigenous identity and land-use are more challenging to address through collaboration due to the history of colonization by nation states. Such prevailing conflicts place certain requirements on the facilitator of collaboration processes in tourism destination development. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: REV-INEQUAL-07-2016 | Award Amount: 4.89M | Year: 2016

There is an increasing need for developing European Union Cohesion Policy in terms of greater sensitivity towards territorial specificities, more supportive of community-based development and the facilitation of greater civic participation. This also relates to the concern over decreasing identification with the European project among the population. Place-based development, endogenous regional development and territorial capital are some of the policy approaches that have been invoked to facilitate a reorientation of Cohesion Policy and territorial development policy. These need to be connected more specifically to notions of the local and localism. RELOCAL will target this objective by exploring in depth the two dimensions underlying the challenge described in the Call text. The project will be based on case studies of local contexts (e.g. cities and their regions) that exemplify development challenges in terms of spatial justice. Among the research questions that have been identified are the following: - How can spatial justice be conceptualised, operationalised, adapted? - How processes of territorial inequalities in different localities be understood and analysed? - How does the local relate to cohesion in an EU context? - What factors and filters are operating that enhance or limit the relation between the local and cohesion? What might bridge abstract notions of spatial justice and local practises on the one hand and CP on the other? - Is there a territorial trap in thinking locally, endogenously? Can enhanced autonomy contribute to spatial justice? How can processes of place-making be related to spatial justice? - What is the scope for alternative development, stabilisation, sustainability, solidarity models/scenarios?

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