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Clausen T.,Nordland Research Institute | Korneliussen T.,University of Nordland
Technovation | Year: 2012

Incubators and incubator firms work to promote the development and commercialization of technology and products. This study shows that entrepreneurial orientation can help achieve this aim. Using survey data from incubator firms, we show that entrepreneurial orientation has a statistically significant positive effect on ability to bring technology and products quickly to the market. This finding is important for managers of incubator firms and managers of incubators alike as they have a common interest in speed to the market. An implication of our study is that managers of incubators should try to enhance the entrepreneurial orientation of the incubator firms. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Clausen T.Ho.,Nordland Research Institute | Madsen E.L.,Nordland Research Institute
Technovation | Year: 2013

Evolutionary theory of the firm argues that firms follow different approaches to innovation with implications for their performance. Consistent with evolutionary theory, this paper develops a taxonomy of innovation modes which capture the variation in firms' approaches to product innovation. The taxonomy is based on the open/closed innovation and exploration/exploitation literatures and identifies the following modes: Open exploration, closed exploration open exploitation, and closed exploitation. The paper theorizes that the identified innovation modes influence product innovation through their effect on the firms' technological and market resources. Using survey data from over 1000 R&D active firms in Norway analyzed with structural equation modelling it is shown how four modes of innovation are related to actual product innovation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Dannevig H.,Western Research Institute | Hovelsrud G.K.,Nordland Research Institute
Climatic Change | Year: 2016

For society to effectively manage climate change impacts, the need to adapt must be recognized. At the same time there is a disconnect between knowledge and action on climate change. The salience of adaptation to climate change may be a precondition for action, but this issue has so far been neglected in the adaptation literature. This indicates a missing link between perception, values and world-views, on one side, and policy formation on the other. The article analyses how actors in three occupational groups in a natural resource dependent community in northern Norway perceive and respond to changes in weather and resource conditions, as well as projections for future climate. The results indicate that the need to adapt is perceived differently, if at all, amongst different actors. By drawing on concepts from governance literatures and cultural theory of risks (CTR), the paper seeks to explain this divergence in perceptions and responses amongst different actors, which can help policy-makers understand when and why autonomous actors are willing to adapt. We find that adaptation to climate change cannot readily be expected among actors who fit the individualist category of CTR, who do not directly utilize scientific knowledge when in their work. © 2015, The Author(s).


Meier W.N.,NASA | Hovelsrud G.K.,Nordland Research Institute | Van Oort B.E.H.,CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research | Key J.R.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | And 8 more authors.
Reviews of Geophysics | Year: 2014

Sea ice in the Arctic is one of the most rapidly changing components of the global climate system. Over the past few decades, summer areal extent has declined over 30%, and all months show statistically significant declining trends. New satellite missions and techniques have greatly expanded information on sea ice thickness, but many uncertainties remain in the satellite data and long-term records are sparse. However, thickness observations and other satellite-derived data indicate a 40% decline in thickness, due in large part to the loss of thicker, older ice cover. The changes in sea ice are happening faster than models have projected. With continued increasing temperatures, summer ice-free conditions are likely sometime in the coming decades, though there are substantial uncertainties in the exact timing and high interannual variability will remain as sea ice decreases. The changes in Arctic sea ice are already having an impact on flora and fauna in the Arctic. Some species will face increasing challenges in the future, while new habitat will open up for other species. The changes are also affecting people living and working in the Arctic. Native communities are facing challenges to their traditional ways of life, while new opportunities open for shipping, fishing, and natural resource extraction. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding of Arctic sea ice and its role in climate, the ecosystem, and human activities. However, significant challenges remain in furthering the knowledge of the processes, impacts, and future evolution of the system. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Bay-Larsen I.,Nordland Research Institute
Local Environment | Year: 2012

This article aims at comparing power resources that opponents to environmental policy apply in shaping and constructing discourses that contest the implementation of marine and terrestrial area protection. Document analyses and qualitative interviews have been undertaken with key actors and documents in two case areas to show how actors, knowledge, and financial and organisational capacities are introduced in the planning processes in order to contest the dominating environmental discourse established by environmental authorities. The results demonstrate how opponents to the terrestrial case were rather fragmented, consisting of a wide range of local and regional actors with various interests and agendas, and without substantial financial and organisational strength. Here, the environmental administration managed to create a partnership with local authorities that eventually proclaimed the national park as a win-win situation for local society. As a contrast, the opponents to the marine case had strong organisational, financial and even scientific capacities that were effectively unified with local authorities in the Skjerstad fjord. Here, the win-win situation was not accepted by the local parties. Together, these resources seemed to explain some of the variance in institutional responses in environmental administration, and finally different outcomes of the two cases. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Gjernes T.,Nordland Research Institute
Health, Risk and Society | Year: 2010

This paper examines the possible responses for resistance to health information among women. The data are drawn from a broader qualitative study of how 60 women in Finnmark, a region of Norway, which examined how the participants responded to health information related to coffee, exercise, smoking and diet. This paper focuses on responses to health information about smoking. The study suggests that health information challenges the women's conception of their selves. This may make them take a distance to health information which then makes health information less effective. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Roaldsen I.,Nordland Research Institute
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management | Year: 2014

This explorative paper emphasises the drivers of business model innovation. Business model renewal may contribute to improved adaptation to the environment, enhance competitive advantage and facilitate entrepreneurship. I elaborate on the antecedents of and especially the role that dynamic capabilities may play in facilitating business model innovation. The investigations build upon longitudinal, in-depth case studies of the value chain within the food industry. The findings imply that SMEs holding specific dynamic capabilities are more likely to succeed in changing their business models for entrepreneurial purposes. Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Gjertsen A.,Nordland Research Institute
Urban Studies | Year: 2014

This article answers the question of why interlocal partnerships are seen as a viable route to effective governance among local elites in Norway. Co-operation between local governments is often seen as a way of overcoming transaction costs, increasing the quantity and quality of public service delivery-even if it comes at the price of less transparent local democratic processes. The analysis presented here shows that the legitimacy of interlocal partnerships is not only based on a perception of increased effectiveness in terms of direct policy outputs. Such partnerships are also based on a more general perception of increased decision-making power, specifically in relation to forces exogenous to the regional context in which such co-operation is forged. Nevertheless, the local elites' perceptions are conditioned by regional and local contexts. The article argues that demography, perceptions of local governance and ideology matter when elites assess the importance of interlocal partnerships. © 2013 Urban Studies Journal Limited.


Bay-Larsen I.,Nordland Research Institute
Local Environment | Year: 2010

This paper examines the Norwegian national authorities'responses to combined use and protection planning for huge protected areas and their buffer zone in northern NOR. The processes were chaired by county delegates and included a wide range of stakeholders. In-depth semi-structured interviews, participatory observation and document analyses have been conducted to investigate the potential of these processes and response from national environmental authorities. The paper suggests that national environmental authorities partly ignored the potential strengths associated with combined use and protection plans and over-emphasised the potential environmental threats stemming from local management. Moreover, these trade-offs seemed to be guided-on a rather vague scientific basis. In conclusion, the paper argues that central environmental administration needs to (i) engage actively in participatory processes, (ii) present clear rationales, if rejecting local initiatives, (iii) acknowledge the potential for man-nature relationships as beneficial for environmental assets, and (iv) relate interpretation of law to integrative policies. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


This paper examines the perception and implementation of scientific knowledge among Norwegian environmental bureaucrats in the process of preserving biodiversity. Based on interviews with environmental officials and scientists, and document studies, the data reveal a mismatch between the ideal administrative world presented by environmental managers, and the empirical reality of biodiversity vulnerability and preservation. The environmental officials depict a process where their mandate is merely instrumental, where science provides objective descriptions of biodiversity value, and where the spheres of science, policy and administration are strictly separated. Instead of a transparent strategy for handling scientific ambiguities inherent in biodiversity value assessments (such as complexity and uncertainty), and administrative judgments, the paper argues that these boundary objects and areas are perceived as 'trolls' that are ignored and hidden by environmental officials. This strategy appears intuitive and guided by a linear decision making paradigm where boundary objects are considered illegitimate. As a solution to possible obstacles stemming from this institutional vacuum, the article finally discusses the potential of adapting or assimilating the trolls to better meet the challenges of biodiversity preservation. A viable first step might be cross disciplinary characterisation of complexities and uncertainties of biodiversity assessments. This might help to articulate the binary ontology of value assessments and to better address the critical administrative, political and scientific intersections. These boundary areas must be re-institutionalised by environmental agencies, and cognizant strategies must be devised and implemented for making professional judgment and discretion. Finally, it may amount to a more honest stance on conservation, where the inherent complexities to biodiversity preservation may be managed as complexities, and not as trolls. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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