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Meier W.N.,NASA | Hovelsrud G.K.,Nordland Research Institute | Van Oort B.E.H.,CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research | Key J.R.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | And 8 more authors.
Reviews of Geophysics | Year: 2014

Sea ice in the Arctic is one of the most rapidly changing components of the global climate system. Over the past few decades, summer areal extent has declined over 30%, and all months show statistically significant declining trends. New satellite missions and techniques have greatly expanded information on sea ice thickness, but many uncertainties remain in the satellite data and long-term records are sparse. However, thickness observations and other satellite-derived data indicate a 40% decline in thickness, due in large part to the loss of thicker, older ice cover. The changes in sea ice are happening faster than models have projected. With continued increasing temperatures, summer ice-free conditions are likely sometime in the coming decades, though there are substantial uncertainties in the exact timing and high interannual variability will remain as sea ice decreases. The changes in Arctic sea ice are already having an impact on flora and fauna in the Arctic. Some species will face increasing challenges in the future, while new habitat will open up for other species. The changes are also affecting people living and working in the Arctic. Native communities are facing challenges to their traditional ways of life, while new opportunities open for shipping, fishing, and natural resource extraction. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding of Arctic sea ice and its role in climate, the ecosystem, and human activities. However, significant challenges remain in furthering the knowledge of the processes, impacts, and future evolution of the system. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

Dannevig H.,Western Research Institute | Hovelsrud G.K.,Nordland Research Institute
Climatic Change | Year: 2016

For society to effectively manage climate change impacts, the need to adapt must be recognized. At the same time there is a disconnect between knowledge and action on climate change. The salience of adaptation to climate change may be a precondition for action, but this issue has so far been neglected in the adaptation literature. This indicates a missing link between perception, values and world-views, on one side, and policy formation on the other. The article analyses how actors in three occupational groups in a natural resource dependent community in northern Norway perceive and respond to changes in weather and resource conditions, as well as projections for future climate. The results indicate that the need to adapt is perceived differently, if at all, amongst different actors. By drawing on concepts from governance literatures and cultural theory of risks (CTR), the paper seeks to explain this divergence in perceptions and responses amongst different actors, which can help policy-makers understand when and why autonomous actors are willing to adapt. We find that adaptation to climate change cannot readily be expected among actors who fit the individualist category of CTR, who do not directly utilize scientific knowledge when in their work. © 2015, The Author(s). Source

Roaldsen I.,Nordland Research Institute
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management | Year: 2014

This explorative paper emphasises the drivers of business model innovation. Business model renewal may contribute to improved adaptation to the environment, enhance competitive advantage and facilitate entrepreneurship. I elaborate on the antecedents of and especially the role that dynamic capabilities may play in facilitating business model innovation. The investigations build upon longitudinal, in-depth case studies of the value chain within the food industry. The findings imply that SMEs holding specific dynamic capabilities are more likely to succeed in changing their business models for entrepreneurial purposes. Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source

Gjernes T.,Nordland Research Institute
Health, Risk and Society | Year: 2010

This paper examines the possible responses for resistance to health information among women. The data are drawn from a broader qualitative study of how 60 women in Finnmark, a region of Norway, which examined how the participants responded to health information related to coffee, exercise, smoking and diet. This paper focuses on responses to health information about smoking. The study suggests that health information challenges the women's conception of their selves. This may make them take a distance to health information which then makes health information less effective. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source

Bay-Larsen I.,Nordland Research Institute
Local Environment | Year: 2010

This paper examines the Norwegian national authorities'responses to combined use and protection planning for huge protected areas and their buffer zone in northern NOR. The processes were chaired by county delegates and included a wide range of stakeholders. In-depth semi-structured interviews, participatory observation and document analyses have been conducted to investigate the potential of these processes and response from national environmental authorities. The paper suggests that national environmental authorities partly ignored the potential strengths associated with combined use and protection plans and over-emphasised the potential environmental threats stemming from local management. Moreover, these trade-offs seemed to be guided-on a rather vague scientific basis. In conclusion, the paper argues that central environmental administration needs to (i) engage actively in participatory processes, (ii) present clear rationales, if rejecting local initiatives, (iii) acknowledge the potential for man-nature relationships as beneficial for environmental assets, and (iv) relate interpretation of law to integrative policies. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source

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