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Damsbo-Svendsen M.,Copenhagen University | Frost M.B.,Copenhagen University | Frost M.B.,Nordic Food Laboratory | Olsen A.,Copenhagen University
Appetite | Year: 2017

Background Food choices are influenced by an individual's attitude towards foods. Food neophobia may be associated with less variety of diets, inadequate nutrient intake and high product failure rate for new food products entering the market. To quantify the extent of these challenges, instruments to measure the food neophobia in different target groups are needed. Several such instruments with significantly different measurement outcomes and procedures have been developed. This review provides an overview and discusses strengths and weaknesses of these instruments. Objective We evaluate strengths and weaknesses of previously developed instruments to measure neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods. Design Literature was searched through the databases Web of Science and Google Scholar. We identified 255 studies concerning neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods. Of these, 13 studies encompassing 13 instruments to measure neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods were included in the review. Results are summarized and evaluated with a narrative approach. Results In the 13 instruments to assess neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods, 113 to 16.644 subjects aged 2–65 years were involved, scales with 3–7 response categories were used and behavioral validation tests were included in 6 studies. Conclusions Several instruments to measure neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods exist. We recommend selecting one or more among the 13 instruments reviewed in this paper to assess relevant aspects of neophobia. © 2017 The Authors


Damsbo-Svendsen M.,Copenhagen University | Frost M.B.,Copenhagen University | Frost M.B.,Nordic Food Laboratory | Olsen A.,Copenhagen University
Appetite | Year: 2017

Background The main tool currently used to measure food neophobia (the Food Neophobia Scale, FNS, developed by Pliner & Hobden, 1992) may not remain optimal forever. It was developed around 25 years ago, and the perception and availability of “novel” and “ethnic” foods may have changed in the meantime. Consequently, there is a need for developing updated tools for measuring food neophobia. Objective To develop novel tools to measure food neophobia in children. Design Based on a review of 13 designs to assess food neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods, a Food Neophobia Test Tool (FNTT) was developed. A questionnaire including the FNS, a 19-item FNTT, items about willingness to taste novel foods in different surroundings and a behavioral test was administered to 235 children aged 9–13 years. Reliability and validity of the FNS and FNTT were assessed through calculations of Cronbach's alpha, item-item and item-rest correlations. Comprehension issues related to tools were evaluated based on qualitative observations and finally, behavioral validity was assessed. Results A considerable number of children indicated difficulties understanding certain items in the original FNS. FNTT could be reduced to a 6- and 9-item tool with high validity (item-rest coefficients, r = 0.60–0.80). Internal consistency of the FNTT (Cronbach α ≥ 0.90) was higher relative to the FNS (Cronbach α ≥ 0.72). Scores from the FNTT correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with results from the behavioral test confirming construct validity of the FNTT as a measure of neophobic behavior. Conclusions Results from this study provide evidence for the FNTT as reliable and valid tool for measuring food neophobia in children aged 9–13 years. Moreover, when modified, the FNS continue to produce reliable and valid results. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Mouritsen O.G.,University of Southern Denmark | Mouritsen O.G.,Nordic Food Laboratory | Dawczynski C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Duelund L.,University of Southern Denmark | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2013

The red seaweed dulse (Palmaria palmata) is one of the more popular seaweed species for human consumption in the Western world. With a documented historical use up to present days in Ireland, Brittany (France), Iceland, Maine (USA), and Nova Scotia (Canada), it has remained a snack, a food supplement, and an ingredient in various dishes. The trend towards more healthy and basic foodstuffs, together with an increasing interest among chefs for the seaweed cuisine, has posed the need for more quantitative knowledge about the chemical composition of dulse of relevance for human consumption. Here, we report on data for amino acid composition, fatty acid profile, vitamin K, iodine, kainic acid, inorganic arsenic, as well as for various heavy metals in samples from Denmark, Iceland, and Maine. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Deroy O.,School of Advanced Study, University of London | Reade B.,Nordic Food Laboratory | Spence C.,University of Oxford
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

A number of health and agricultural organizations have been encouraging Westerners to integrate insects into their diet, without success. Appealing to consumer's reason and responsibility, as they do, is likely to reinforce a dilemma in the mind of consumers: many know that they can, in principle, eat insects, and perhaps that they should eat some, but very few are willing to eat them. Here we argue that current strategies are on the wrong track in identifying the key obstacle to overcome as a question of the negative representation of insects. Decades of laboratory research, as well as years of experience in gastronomy, suggest that people's food choices are relatively immune to rational changes of representation, and instead tend to be driven by taste preferences and exposure. Here we suggest an alternative sensorially-driven strategy, which stands a much greater chance of making people eat insects on a regular basis. The turn - or better said return - to entomophagy in this sense, needs to be driven by a psychologically realistic motivation and gastronomic interest. © 2015 .


Soukand R.,Estonian Literary Museum | Pieroni A.,University of Gastronomic Sciences | Biro M.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Denes A.,Janus Pannonius Museum | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Fermented food and beverages represent an important part of the worldwide foodscape, medicinal food domain and domestic strategies of health care, yet relevant traditional knowledge in Europe is poorly documented. Methods: Review of primary ethnographic literature, archival sources and a few ad-hoc ethnobotanical field studies in seven selected Eastern European countries (Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Kosovo, and Poland) were conducted. Results: Current or recently abandoned uses of 116 botanical taxa, belonging to 37 families in fermented food or medicinal food products were recorded. These findings demonstrate a rich bio-cultural diversity of use, and also a clear prevalence of the use of fruits of the tannin- and phenolic-rich Rosaceae species in alcoholic, lactic- and acetic acid fermented preparations. In the considered countries, fermentation still plays (or has played until recent years) a crucial role in folk cuisines and this heritage requires urgent and in-depth evaluation. Discussion: Future studies should be aimed at further documenting and also bio-evaluating the ingredients and processes involved in the preparation of homemade fermented products, as this can be used to support local, community-based development efforts to foster food security, food sovereignty, and small-scale local food-based economies. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Risbo J.,Copenhagen University | Mouritsen O.G.,University of Southern Denmark | Frost M.B.,Copenhagen University | Frost M.B.,Nordic Food Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Culinary Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Noting that Denmark is traditionally an agricultural country and that a large part of the gross national product derives from the export of meat and processed food products, this article points out the paradox that only during the last decade has some Danish food-related research been genuinely driven by gastronomy and gastronomic innovation, and only recently have research activities and academic educational programs that include aspects of molecular gastronomy and other culinary sciences been initiated. At the same time, Denmark has placed itself on the international map due to innovative chefs winning top international awards and celebrated positions on lists of the best restaurants worldwide. Moreover, the New Nordic Cuisine movement has released novel driving forces and instigated new types of collaborations between chefs and scientists. Danish scientists of different orientations are being stimulated by the empirical world of gastronomy and cooking and are maturing molecular gastronomy as a science, and others have become proliferate writers and communicators of gastronomically inspired science; for example, within gastrophysics. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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