Nordic Bioscience Beijing

Beijing, China

Nordic Bioscience Beijing

Beijing, China

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Nedergaard A.,Nordic Bioscience Biomarkers and Research | Nedergaard A.,Bispebjerg Hospital building 8 Bispebjerg bakke 23 | Sun S.,Nordic Bioscience Biomarkers and Research | Karsdal M.A.,Nordic Bioscience Biomarkers and Research | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle | Year: 2013

Background: Immobilization-induced loss of muscle mass is a complex phenomenon with several parallels to sarcopenic and cachectic muscle loss. Muscle is a large organ with a protein turnover that is orders of magnitude larger than most other tissues. Thus, we hypothesize that muscle loss and regain is reflected by peptide biomarkers derived from type VI collagen processing released in the circulation. Methods: In order to test this hypothesis, we set out to develop an ELISA assay against an type VI collagen N-terminal globular domain epitope (IC6) and measured the levels of IC6 and an MMP-generated degradation fragment of collagen 6, (C6M) in a human immobilization-remobilization study setup with young (n = 11) and old (n = 9) men. They were subjected to 2 weeks of unilateral lower limb immobilization followed by 4 weeks of remobilization including thrice weekly resistance training, using the contralateral leg as internal controls. Subjects were sampled for strength, quadriceps muscle volume and blood at baseline (PRE), post-immobilization (2W), and post-remobilization (4W). Blood were subsequently analyzed for levels of the C6M and IC6 biomarkers. We subsequently tested if there was any correlation between C6M, IC6, or the C6M/IC6 ratio and muscle mass or strength at baseline. We also tested whether there was any relation between these biomarkers and changes in muscle mass or strength with immobilization or remobilization. Results: The model produced significant loss of muscle mass and strength in the immobilized leg. This loss was bigger in young subjects than in elderly, but whereas the young recovered almost fully, the elderly had limited regrowth of muscle. We found a significant correlation between IC6 and muscle mass at baseline in young subjects (R 2 = 0.6563, p = 0.0045), but none in the elderly. We also found a significant correlation between C6M measured at the 4W time point and the change in muscle mass during remobilization, again only manifesting in the young men(R 2 = 0.6523, p = 0.0085). This discrepancy between the young and the elderly may be caused in part by much smaller changes in muscle mass in the elderly and partly by the relative small sample size. Conclusion: While we cannot rule out the possibility that these biomarkers in part stem from other tissues, our results strongly indicate that these markers represent novel biomarkers of muscle mass or change in muscle mass in young men. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Sand J.M.,Fibrosis Biology and Biomarkers | Larsen L.,Fibrosis Biology and Biomarkers | Hogaboam C.,University of Michigan | Martinez F.,University of Michigan | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objectives: Fibrosis is characterized by excessive tissue remodeling resulting from altered expression of various growth factors, cytokines and proteases. We hypothesized that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) mediated degradation of type IV collagen, a main component of the basement membrane, will release peptide fragments (neoepitopes) into the circulation. Here we present the development of two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for assessing the levels of specific fragments of type IV collagen α1 (C4M12a1) and α3 (C4M12a3) chains in serum as indicators of fibrosis. Methods: Fragments of type IV collagen cleaved in vitro by MMP-12 were identified by mass spectrometry, and two were chosen for ELISA development due to their unique sequences. The assays were evaluated using samples from a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) rat model of liver fibrosis and from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Results: Two technically robust ELISAs were produced using neo-epitope specific monoclonal antibodies. Mean serum C4M12a1 levels were significantly elevated in CCl4-treated rats compared with controls in weeks 12, 16, and 20, with a maximum increase of 102% at week 16 (p < 0.0001). Further, C4M12a1 levels correlated with the total collagen content of the liver in CCl4-treated rats (r = 0.43, p = 0.003). Mean serum C4M12a3 levels were significantly elevated in patients with mild, moderate, and severe IPF, and COPD relative to healthy controls, with a maximum increase of 321% in COPD (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Two assays measuring C4M12a1 and C4M12a3 enabled quantification of MMP mediated degradation of type IV collagen in serum. C4M12a1 was elevated in a pre-clinical model of liver fibrosis, and C4M12a3 was elevated in IPF and COPD patients. This suggests the use of these assays to investigate pathological remodeling of the basement membrane in different organs. However, validations in larger clinical settings are needed. © 2013 Sand et al.


Skjot-Arkil H.,Nordic Bioscience A S | Skjot-Arkil H.,University of Southern Denmark | Clausen R.E.,Nordic Bioscience A S | Nguyen Q.H.T.,Nordic Bioscience A S | And 10 more authors.
BMC Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Elastin is an essential component of selected connective tissues that provides a unique physiological elasticity. Elastin may be considered a signature protein of lungs where matrix metalloprotease (MMP) -9-and -12, may be considered the signature proteases of the macrophages, which in part are responsible for tissue damage during disease progression. Thus, we hypothesized that a MMP-9/-12 generated fragment of elastin may be a relevant biochemical maker for lung diseases.Methods: Elastin fragments were identified by mass-spectrometry and one sequence, generated by MMP-9 and -12 (ELN-441), was selected for monoclonal antibody generation and used in the development of an ELISA. Soluble and insoluble elastin from lung was cleaved in vitro and the time-dependent release of fragments was assessed in the ELN-441 assay. The release of ELN-441 in human serum from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 10) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 29) were compared to healthy matched controls (n = 11).Results: The sequence ELN-441 was exclusively generated by MMP-9 and -12 and was time-dependently released from soluble lung elastin. ELN-441 levels were 287% higher in patients diagnosed with COPD (p < 0.001) and 124% higher in IPF patients (p < 0.0001) compared with controls. ELN-441 had better diagnostic value in COPD patients (AUC 97%, p = 0.001) than in IPF patients (AUC 90%, p = 0.0001). The odds ratios for differentiating controls from COPD or IPF were 24 [2.06-280] for COPD and 50 [2.64-934] for IPF.Conclusions: MMP-9 and -12 time-dependently released the ELN-441 epitope from elastin. This fragment was elevated in serum from patients with the lung diseases IPF and COPD, however these data needs to be validated in larger clinical settings. © 2012 Skjøt-Arkil et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Nielsen M.J.,Nordic Bioscience | Nedergaard A.F.,Nordic Bioscience | Nedergaard A.F.,Bispebjerg Hospital | Sun S.,Nordic Bioscience | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Translational Research | Year: 2013

Aim: The present study describes the assessment of true formation of type III collagen in different pathologies using a neo-epitope specific competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) towards the N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen (PRO-C3). Methods: The monoclonal antibody was raised against the N-protease mediated cleavage site of the N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen and a competitive ELISA was developed using the selected antibody. The assay was evaluated in relation to neo-epitope specificity, technical performance, and as a marker for liver fibrosis and muscle mass using the rat carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) model and a study of immobilization induced muscle loss in humans, respectively. Results: The ELISA was neo-epitope specific, technically stable and can be assessed in serum and plasma samples. In the CCl4 liver fibrosis model it was observed that serum PRO-C3 were significantly elevated in rats with liver fibrosis as seen by histology (56% elevated in the highest quartile of total hepatic collagen compared to control rats, p<0.001) and correlated significantly to total hepatic collagen in the diseased rats (r=0.46, p<0.01) and not in control rats, suggesting the pathological origin of the epitope. Human plasma PRO-C3 correlated significantly to muscle mass at baseline (R2=0.44, p=0.036). Conclusion: The developed neo-epitope specific serum ELISA for type III procollagen (PRO-C3) reflects true formation as it is specific for the propeptide cleaved off the intact collagen molecule. In a clinical and in a rodent study we showed that this marker was highly related to liver fibrosis and muscle mass.


Leeming D.J.,Nordic Bioscience | Nielsen M.J.,Nordic Bioscience | Dai Y.,Nordic Bioscience Beijing | Veidal S.S.,Nordic Bioscience | And 6 more authors.
Hepatology Research | Year: 2012

Aim: The present study describes the ability of a newly developed N-terminal pro-peptides of type IV collagen 7S domain (P4NP 7S) competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for describing liver fibrosis. The assay applies a monoclonal antibody specific for a PIVNP 7S epitope 100% homologous in the human, rat, and mouse species. Methods: Monoclonal antibodies were raised against selected P4NP 7S specific sequences. Antibodies were screened and a competitive ELISA assay was developed using a selected antibody. The assay was evaluated in relation to technical performance, and in two preclinical liver fibrosis models; the bile duct ligation model (BDL) and the carbon tetrachloride model (CCL4) both performed in rats. Results: A technically robust P4NP 7S ELISA assay using a monoclonal antibody was produced. In the BDL and CCL4 liver fibrosis models it was observed that the P4NP 7S levels were significantly elevated in rat with liver fibrosis as seen by histology (CCL4: 283% elevated in the highest quartile of total hepatic collagen compared with controls, P = 0.001; BDL: 183% elevated at week 4 compared with sham, P < 0.001) and correlated to the amount of hepatic type IV collagen expression in BDL rats (r = 0.49, P < 0.05) in contrast to sham (r = -0.12). P4NP 7S also correlated to total collagen in CCL4 treated livers (P < 0.001, r = 0.67), however, not in controls (r = 0.04). Conclusions: This newly developed serum assay specific for P4NP 7S was highly related to liver fibrosis and correlated to extent of hepatic fibrosis. This assay may improve fibrosis quantification. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.


Veidal S.S.,Nordic Bioscience A S | Veidal S.S.,University of Southern Denmark | Karsdal M.A.,Nordic Bioscience A S | Karsdal M.A.,University of Southern Denmark | And 9 more authors.
Fibrogenesis and Tissue Repair | Year: 2011

Background: Collagen deposition and an altered matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression profile are hallmarks of fibrosis. Type IV collagen is the most abundant structural basement membrane component of tissue, which increases 14-fold during fibrogenesis in the liver. Proteolytic degradation of collagens by proteases produces small fragments, so-called neoepitopes, which are released systemically. Technologies investigating MMP-generated fragments of collagens may provide more useful information than traditional serological assays that crudely measure total protein. In the present study, we developed an ELISA for the quantification of a neoepitope generated by MMP degradation of type IV collagen and evaluated the association of this neoepitope with liver fibrosis in two animal models.Methods: Type IV collagen was degraded in vitro by a variety of proteases. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed more than 200 different degradation fragments. A specific peptide sequence, 1438'GTPSVDHGFL'1447 (CO4-MMP), in the α1 chain of type IV collagen generated by MMP-9 was selected for ELISA development. ELISA was used to determine serum levels of the CO4-MMP neoepitope in two rat models of liver fibrosis: inhalation of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and bile duct ligation (BDL). The levels were correlated to histological findings using Sirius red staining.Results: A technically robust assay was produced that is specific to the type IV degradation fragment, GTPSVDHGFL. CO4-MMP serum levels increased significantly in all BDL groups compared to baseline, with a maximum increase of 248% seen two weeks after BDL. There were no changes in CO4-MMP levels in sham-operated rats. In the CCl4model, levels of CO4-MMP were significantly elevated at weeks 12, 16 and 20 compared to baseline levels, with a maximum increase of 88% after 20 weeks. CO4-MMP levels correlated to Sirius red staining results.Conclusion: This ELISA is the first assay developed for assessment of proteolytic degraded type IV collagen, which, by enabling quantification of basement membrane degradation, could be relevant in investigating various fibrogenic pathologies. The CO4-MMP degradation fragment was highly associated with liver fibrosis in the two animal models studied. © 2011 Veidal et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Veidal S.S.,Nordic Bioscience A S | Veidal S.S.,University of Southern Denmark | Larsen D.V.,Nordic Bioscience A S | Chen X.,Nordic Bioscience Beijing | And 9 more authors.
Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Objectives: Type V collagen has been demonstrated to control fibril formation. The aim of this study was to develop an ELISA capable of detecting a fragment of type V collagen generated by MMP-2/9 and to evaluate the assay as biomarker for ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Design and methods: A fragment unique to type V collagen and generated by both MMP-2/9 cleaved at the amino acid position 1317 (C5M) was selected for ELISA development. 40 AS patients and 40 age-matched controls were evaluated. Results: An ELISA detecting C5M with inter- and intra-assay variations of 9.1% and 4.4% was developed. C5M levels were significantly higher in AS patients compared to controls, 229% (p < 0.0001). The diagnostic AUC was 83%. Conclusions: This ELISA is the first for detecting type V collagen degradation. AS patients had highly elevated levels of MMP mediated type V collagen degradation. The prognostic and diagnostic values need to be further investigated in additional clinical settings. © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists.


Genovese F.,Nordic Bioscience A S | Barascuk N.,Nordic Bioscience A S | Barascuk N.,University of Southern Denmark | Larsen L.,Nordic Bioscience A S | And 8 more authors.
Fibrogenesis and Tissue Repair | Year: 2013

Background: The proteoglycan biglycan (BGN) is involved in collagen fibril assembly and its fragmentation is likely to be associated with collagen turnover during the pathogenesis of diseases which involve dysregulated extracellular matrix remodeling (ECMR), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and liver fibrosis. The scope of the present study was to develop a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of a MMP-9 and MMP-12-generated biglycan neo-epitope and to test its biological validity in a rat model of RA and in two rat models of liver fibrosis, chosen as models of ECMR.Results: Biglycan was cleaved in vitro by MMP-9 and -12 and the 344′YWEVQPATFR′353 peptide (BGM) was chosen as a potential neo-epitope. A technically sound competitive ELISA for the measurement of BGM was generated and the assay was validated in a bovine cartilage explant culture (BEX), in a collagen induced model of rheumatoid arthritis (CIA) and in two different rat models of liver fibrosis: the carbon tetrachloride (CCL4)-induced fibrosis model, and the bile duct ligation (BDL) model. Significant elevation in serum BGM was found in CIA rats compared to controls, in rats treated with CCL4 for 16 weeks and 20 weeks compared to the control groups as well as in all groups of rats subject to BDL compared with sham operated groups. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation of serum BGM levels with the extent of liver fibrosis determined by the Sirius red staining of liver sections in the CCL4 model.Conclusion: We demonstrated that the specific tissue remodeling product of MMPs-degraded biglycan, namely the neo-epitope BGM, is correlated with pathological ECMR. This assay represents both a novel marker of ECM turnover and a potential new tool to elucidate biglycan role during the pathological processes associated with ECMR. © 2013 Genovese et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Veidal S.S.,Nordic Bioscience A S | Veidal S.S.,University of Southern Denmark | Karsdal M.A.,Nordic Bioscience A S | Vassiliadis E.,Nordic Bioscience A S | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background and Aims: During fibrogenesis, in which excessive remodeling of the extracellular matrix occurs, both the quantity of type VI collagen and levels of matrix metalloproteinases, including MMP-2 and MMP-9, increase significantly. Proteolytic degradation of type VI collagen into small fragments, so-called neo-epitopes, may be specific biochemical marker of liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to develop an ELISA detecting a fragment of type VI collagen generated by MMP-2 and MMP-9, and evaluate this assay in two preclinical models of liver fibrosis. Methods: Mass spectrometric analysis of cleaved type VI collagen revealed a large number of protease-generated neo-epitopes. A fragment unique to type VI collagen generated by MMP-2 and MMP-9 was selected for ELISA development. The CO6-MMP assay was evaluated in two rat models of liver fibrosis: bile duct ligation (BDL) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated rats. Results: Intra- and inter-assay variation was 4.1% and 10.1% respectively. CO6-MMP levels were significantly elevated in CCl 4-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated rats at weeks 12 (mean 30.9 ng/mL vs. 12.8 ng/mL, p = 0.002); week 16 (mean 34.0 ng/mL vs. 13.7 ng/mL, p = 0.0018); and week 20 (mean 35.3 ng/mL vs. 13.3 ng/mL, p = 0.0033) with a tight correlation between hepatic collagen content and serum levels of CO6-MMP (R 2 = 0.58, p&0.0001) in CCl 4- treated rats. In BDL rats, serum levels of CO6-MMP were significantly elevated compared to the levels in sham-operated animals both at 2 weeks (mean 29.5 ng/mL vs. 14.2 ng/mL, p = 0.0001) and 4 weeks (mean 33.0 ng/mLvs. 11.8 ng/mL, p = 0.0003). Conclusions: This novel ELISA is the first assay enabling assessment of MMP degraded type VI collagen, allowing quantification of type VI collagen degradation, which would be relevant for different pathologies. The marker was highly associated with liver fibrosis in two liver fibrosis animal models, suggesting type VI turnover to be a central player in fibrogenesis. © 2011 Veidal et al.


Vassiliadis E.,Nordic Bioscience A S | Vassiliadis E.,University of Southern Denmark | Veidal S.S.,Nordic Bioscience A S | Veidal S.S.,University of Southern Denmark | And 8 more authors.
Biomarkers | Year: 2011

Aim: Liver fibrosis involves excessive remodeling and deposition of fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM) components, which leads to malfunction of the organ, causing significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess whether levels of a type V collagen fragment, the propeptide CO5-1230, indicate the amount of collagen deposited during liver fibrosis. Methods: A specific competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure CO5-1230 levels. The sequence TAALGDIMGH located at the start of the C-terminal propeptide between amino acid position 1230′ and 1239′ (CO5-1230) of the α2 chain was selected as the immunogen. Monoclonal antibodies were raised against this fragment. An assay developed using the biotinstreptavidin system was evaluated in two rat models of liver fibrosis: bile duct ligation (BDL) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated rats, for up to 20 weeks. Results: The ELISA was capable of measuring CO5-1230 in serum specifically, with an intra-assay variation of 3.46% and inter-assay variation of 5.09%. Mean CO5-1230 levels were significantly elevated in CCl4 rats compared with controls [8 weeks: 57.4 ng/mL, controls 45.5 ng/mL (P = 0.0020); 12 weeks: 81.3 ng/mL, controls 50.2 ng/mL (P = 0.0020); 16 weeks: 85.1 ng/mL, controls 51 ng/mL (P = 0055); 20 weeks: 92 ng/mL, controls 47.8 ng/mL (P = 0.0033)]. CO5-1230 levels correlated with the total amount of collagen in sections from the injured livers, quantified from Sirius red stains (Spearman, R 2 = 0.5580). In BDL rats, serum levels of CO5-1230 were also elevated compared with controls [2 weeks: 160.1 ng/mL, controls 78.9 ng/mL (P = 0.0007); 4 weeks: 111.3 ng/mL, controls 62.2 ng/mL, (P = 0.0068)] and showed a linear correlation to the total collagen content (Spearman, R 2 = 0.3305). Conclusions: Increased serum levels of CO5-1230 were associated with the extent of collagen deposition in two different models of fibrotic processes in the liver. The data indicate that formation of type V collagen may be of value as a disease-specific diagnostic biomarker that reflects the total burden of disease. The amino acid sequence selected is located in the first 10 amino acids of the C-terminal propeptide section, which is a formation-specific region. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

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