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Lundqvist U.,Nordic Genetic Resource Center NordGen
Hereditas | Year: 2014

In 1928, the Swedish geneticists Hermann Nilsson-Ehle and Åke Gustafsson started on their suggestion experiments with induced mutations using the barley crop. In 1953, at the instigation of the Swedish Government, the 'Group for Theoretical and Applied Mutation Research' was established. Its aim was to study basic research problems in order to influence and improve methods for breeding cultivated plants. The research was non-commercial, even if some mutants were of practical importance. The peaks of activities occurred during the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. Applying X-rays and UV-irradiation very soon the first chlorophyll mutations were obtained followed by the first viable mutations 'Erectoides'. Soon the X-ray experiments expanded with other types of irradiation such as neutrons etc. and finally with chemical mutagens, starting with mustard gas and concluding with the sodium azide. The research brought a wealth of observations of general biological importance, high increased mutation frequencies, difference in the mutation spectrum and to direct mutagenesis for specific genes. A rather large collection of morphological and physiological mutations, about 12 000 different mutant alleles, with a very broad variation were collected and incorporated into the Nordic Genetic Resource Center (NordGen) Sweden. Barley, the main experimental crop has become one of the few higher plants in which biochemical genetics and molecular biological studies are now feasible. The collection is an outstanding material for mapping genes and investigating the barley genome. Several characters have been studied and analyzed in more detail and are presented in this historical review. © 2014 The Author.

Zakhrabekova S.,Lund University | Dockter C.,Carlsberg Laboratory | Ahmann K.,Carlsberg Laboratory | Braumann I.,Carlsberg Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2015

The erectoides-m anthocyanin-less 1 (ert-m ant1) double mutants are among the very few examples of induced double mutants in barley. From phenotypic observations of mutant plants it is known that the Ert-m gene product regulates plant architecture whereas the Ant1 gene product is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. We used a near-isogenic line of the cultivar Bowman, BW316 (ert-m.34), to create four F2-mapping populations by crosses to the barley cultivars Barke, Morex, Bowman and Quench. We phenotyped and genotyped 460 plants, allowing the ert-m mutation to be mapped to an interval of 4.7 cM on the short arm of barley chromosome 7H. Bioinformatic searches identified 21 candidate gene models in the mapped region. One gene was orthologous to a regulator of Arabidopsis thaliana plant architecture, ERECTA, encoding a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase. Sequencing of HvERECTA in barley ert-m mutant accessions identified severe DNA changes in 15 mutants, including full gene deletions in ert-m.40 and ert-m.64. Both deletions, additionally causing anthocyanin deficiency, were found to stretch over a large region including two putative candidate genes for the anthocyanin biosynthesis locus Ant1. Analyses of ert-m and ant1 single- and double-deletion mutants suggest Ant1 as a closely linked gene encoding a R2R3 myeloblastosis transcription factor. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Westengen O.T.,Nordic Genetic Resource Center NordGen | Westengen O.T.,University of Oslo | Jeppson S.,Nordic Genetic Resource Center NordGen | Guarino L.,Global Crop Diversity Trust
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity. © 2013 Westengen et al.

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