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Kafieh R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Kafieh R.,Sabanci University | Rabbani H.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Rabbani H.,University of Iowa | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2015

This study was conducted to determine the thickness map of eleven retinal layers in normal subjects by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and evaluate their association with sex and age. Mean regional retinal thickness of 11 retinal layers was obtained by automatic three-dimensional diffusion map based method in 112 normal eyes of 76 Iranian subjects. We applied our previously reported 3D intraretinal fast layer segmentation which does not require edge-based image information but rather relies on regional image texture. The thickness maps are compared among 9 macular sectors within 3 concentric circles as defined by ETDRS. The thickness map of central foveal area in layers 1, 3, and 4 displayed the minimum thickness. Maximum thickness was observed in nasal to the fovea of layer 1 and in a circular pattern in the parafoveal retinal area of layers 2, 3, and 4 and in central foveal area of layer 6. Temporal and inferior quadrants of the total retinal thickness and most of other quadrants of layer 1 were significantly greater in the men than in the women. Surrounding eight sectors of total retinal thickness and a limited number of sectors in layers 1 and 4 significantly correlated with age. © 2015 Raheleh Kafieh et al.


Razavi H.,Labbafinejad Hospital | Kuper H.,Labbafinejad Hospital | Rezvan F.,Noor Ophthalmology Research Center | Amelie K.,Noor Ophthalmology Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Ophthalmic Epidemiology | Year: 2010

Purpose: To estimate the prevalence and causes of severe visual impairment and blindness among children in Lorestan province of Iran, and to assess the feasibility of the Key Informant Method in this setting. Methods: Potential cases were identified using the Key Informant Method, in 3 counties of Lorestan province during June through August 2008, and referred for examination. Causes of severe visual impairment/blindness were determined and categorized using standard World Health Organization methods. Results: Of 123 children referred for examination, 27 children were confirmed to have severe visual impairment/blindness or blindness. The median age was11 years (interquartile range 6-13), and 59% were girls. After adjusting for non-attenders, the estimated prevalence of severe visual impairment/blindness was 0.04% (0.03-0.05). The main site of abnormality was retina (44%), followed by disorders of the whole eye (33%). The majority of causes had a hereditary etiology (70%), which was associated with a family history of blindness (P = 0.002). Potentially avoidable causes of severe visual impairment/blindness were found in 14 children (52%). Almost all children with severe visual impairment/blindness had a history of parental consanguinity (93%). Conclusions: Our findings suggest a moderate prevalence of childhood blindness in the Lorestan province of Iran, a high proportion of which may be avoidable, given improved access to ophthalmic and genetic counselling services in rural areas. The Key Informant Method is feasible in Iran; future research is discussed. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.


Jafarzadehpur E.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Jafarzadehpur E.,Noor Ophthalmology Research Center | Mirzajani A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Hatami M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

To compare the chromatic contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for the blue-yellow opponent channel (BYOC) between female badminton players and non-athlete controls. Methods: We recruited 40 young females (18-25 years old) who played badminton for at least 5 consecutive years as the test group, and 30 age-matched female controls who had no history of regular physical activity. The Pattern Generator™ system was used to test the CSF for the BYOC which was performed at three spatial frequencies (SFs) of 2 cycles per degree (cpd), 5 cpd, and 25 cpd. Results: Comparison of BYOC thresholds showed significantly better results in the test group for all three SFs (P<0.001). Band pass shift (better CSF in the middle SF) was seen in the test group. The control group had low pass (better CSF in the low SF). Ocular motility (heterophoria, fusional convergence and divergence at far and near distances, and near point of convergence) was better in the test group, but the inter-group difference was not significant. Conclusions: The BYOC threshold results for badminton players indicated a better visual performance which may be a result of enhanced performance of the parallel processing of the parvocellular and magnocellular systems. This may be inherent and/or acquired in badminton players. In addition, badminton players appear to have developed sensory-motor programmed activities. Testing the CSF for BYOC may be useful for athlete selection in different levels and/or used as a criterion for screening players in the field of badminton.©2013 by Sports Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, All rights reserved.


Hassan-Karimi H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Jafarzadehpur E.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Blouri B.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Hashemi H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: To compare electroretinogram (ERG) characteristics in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and normal subjects using frequency domain analysis. Methods: Five basic ERG recordings were performed in normal subjects and patients with a clinical diagnosis of RP according to the ISCEV (International Society of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision) protocol. Frequency domain analysis was performed by MATLAB software. Different frequency domain parameters were compared between the study groups. Results: Peak frequency (Fmod) of flicker and oscillatory responses in RP patients showed significant (P<0.0001) high pass response as compared to normal controls. Peak frequency (Fmod) of the other responses was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: In addition to conventional ERG using time domain methods, frequency domain analysis may be useful for diagnosis of RP. Oscillatory and flicker responses may be analyzed in frequency domain. Fast Fourier transform may reveal two distinct high pass responses (shift to higher frequencies) in Fmod. Time and frequency domain analyses may be performed simultaneously with many modern ERG machines and may therefore be recommended in RP patients.


Danesh H.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Kafieh R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Rabbani H.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Hajizadeh F.,Noor Ophthalmology Research Center
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine | Year: 2014

The introduction of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) has provided the advantage of in vivo cross-sectional imaging of the choroid, similar to the retina, with standard commercially available spectral domain (SD) OCT machines. A texture-based algorithm is introduced in this paper for fully automatic segmentation of choroidal images obtained from an EDI system of Heidelberg 3D OCT Spectralis. Dynamic programming is utilized to determine the location of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Bruch's membrane (BM) (the blood-retina barrier which separates the RPE cells of the retina from the choroid) can be segmented by searching for the pixels with the biggest gradient value below the RPE. Furthermore, a novel method is proposed to segment the choroid-sclera interface (CSI), which employs the wavelet based features to construct a Gaussian mixture model (GMM). The model is then used in a graph cut for segmentation of the choroidal boundary. The proposed algorithm is tested on 100 EDI OCTs and is compared with manual segmentation. The results showed an unsigned error of 2.48 ± 0.32 pixels for BM extraction and 9.79 ± 3.29 pixels for choroid detection. It implies significant improvement of the proposed method over other approaches like k -means and graph cut methods. © 2014 Hajar Danesh et al.

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