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Balti E.V.,Free University of Brussels | Echouffo-Tcheugui J.B.,Emory University | Yako Y.Y.,Non Communicable Diseases Research Unit | Yako Y.Y.,Cape Peninsula University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2014

Aim: Whether exposure to relatively high levels of air pollution is associated with diabetes occurrence remains unclear. We sought to assess and quantify the association between exposure to major air pollutants and risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods: PubMed and EMBASE databases (through September 2013) were searched using a combination of terms related to exposure to gaseous (NO2 and NOx) or particulate matter pollutants (PM2.5, PM10 and PM10-2.5) and type 2 diabetes. Descriptive and quantitative information were extracted from selected studies. We used random-effects models meta-analysis to derive overall risk estimates per type of pollutant. Results: We included ten studies (five cross-sectional and five prospective), assessing the effects of air pollutants on the occurrence of diabetes. In prospective investigations, the overall effect on diabetes occurrence was significant for both NO2 (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 1.01-1.22; p<0.001; I2=36.4%, pheterogeneity=0.208) and PM2.5 (HR, 1.11; 95%CI, 1.03-1.20; p<0.001; I2=0.0%, pheterogeneity=0.827). Odds ratios were reported by two cross-sectional studies which revealed similar associations between both NO2 and PM2.5 with type 2 diabetes. Across studies, risk estimates were generally adjusted for age, gender, body mass index and cigarette smoking. Conclusions: Available evidence supports a prospective association of main air pollutants with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes. This finding may have implications for population-based strategies to reduce diabetes risk. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Lekoubou A.,Medical University of South Carolina | Echouffo-Tcheugui J.B.,Emory University | Kengne A.P.,University of Cape Town | Kengne A.P.,George Institute for Global Health | And 2 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2014

Background: Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are experiencing rapid transitions with increased life expectancy. As a result the burden of age-related conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases might be increasing. We conducted a systematic review of published studies on common neurodegenerative diseases, and HIV-related neurocognitive impairment in SSA, in order to identify research gaps and inform prevention and control solutions. Methods. We searched MEDLINE via PubMed, 'Banque de Données de Santé Publique' and the database of the 'Institut d'Epidemiologie Neurologique et de Neurologie Tropicale' from inception to February 2013 for published original studies from SSA on neurodegenerative diseases and HIV-related neurocognitive impairment. Screening and data extraction were conducted by two investigators. Bibliographies and citations of eligible studies were investigated. Results: In all 144 publications reporting on dementia (n = 49 publications, mainly Alzheimer disease), Parkinsonism (PD, n = 20), HIV-related neurocognitive impairment (n = 47), Huntington disease (HD, n = 19), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, n = 15), cerebellar degeneration (n = 4) and Lewy body dementia (n = 1). Of these studies, largely based on prevalent cases from retrospective data on urban populations, half originated from Nigeria and South Africa. The prevalence of dementia (Alzheimer disease) varied between <1% and 10.1% (0.7% and 5.6%) in population-based studies and from <1% to 47.8% in hospital-based studies. Incidence of dementia (Alzheimer disease) ranged from 8.7 to 21.8/1000/year (9.5 to 11.1), and major risk factors were advanced age and female sex. HIV-related neurocognitive impairment's prevalence (all from hospital-based studies) ranged from <1% to 80%. Population-based prevalence of PD and ALS varied from 10 to 235/100,000, and from 5 to 15/100,000 respectively while that for Huntington disease was 3.5/100,000. Equivalent figures for hospital based studies were the following: PD (0.41 to 7.2%), ALS (0.2 to 8.0/1000), and HD (0.2/100,000 to 46.0/100,000). Conclusions: The body of literature on neurodegenerative disorders in SSA is large with regard to dementia and HIV-related neurocognitive disorders but limited for other neurodegenerative disorders. Shortcomings include few population-based studies, heterogeneous diagnostic criteria and uneven representation of countries on the continent. There are important knowledge gaps that need urgent action, in order to prepare the sub-continent for the anticipated local surge in neurodegenerative diseases. © 2014 Lekoubou et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Peer N.,Non Communicable Diseases Research Unit | Peer N.,University of Cape Town | Ganie Y.N.,Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital | Ganie Y.N.,University of KwaZulu - Natal
South African Medical Journal | Year: 2016

Overweight and obesity are common in South African boys (18.8%) and girls (26.3%). Considering the potential serious consequences of these conditions, clinicians need to identify overweight and obese adolescents to enable early diagnosis and treatment. The key contributor in adolescents is increased intake of unhealthy foods and lower levels of physical activity. The consequences of overweight and obesity in adolescence are multisystemic and include cardiometabolic (type 2 diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia), respiratory (obstructive sleep apnoea), gastrointestinal (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), musculoskeletal, psychological (depression) and social (stigmatisation) effects. Body mass index (BMI) is calculated to determine overweight and obesity in adolescents. Numerous expert committees, despite using different methods, classify overweight and obesity in children by age- and gender-specific cut points for BMI. After a diagnosis of overweight and obesity, secondary causes must be excluded, and a history of dietary intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviour obtained. This will identify modifiable behaviours that promote energy imbalance. All obese adolescents should undergo cardiometabolic assessments comprising fasting glucose, lipid and blood pressure measurements every 2 years. Interventions should focus on creating healthier home environments that provide easy access to healthy foods, encourage physical activity and discourage sedentary behaviour. Medication for weight loss or bariatric surgery may be considered for severely obese adolescents who do not respond to other strategies. © 2016, South African Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Faber M.,Non Communicable Diseases Research Unit | Laubscher R.,Biostatistics Unit | Berti C.,North West University South Africa
Maternal and Child Nutrition | Year: 2016

Infants and toddlers have high nutritional requirements relative to body size but consume small amounts of food and therefore need nutrient-dense complementary foods. A cross-sectional study included children aged 6–24 months, stratified in three age categories (6–11 months, 12–17 months and 18–24 months) and randomly selected from an urban (n = 158) and a rural (n = 158) area, both of low socio-economic status, in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. Dietary diversity and nutrient density of the complementary diet (excluding breast milk and formula milk) based on a repeated 24-h dietary recall was assessed. For breastfeeding children, nutrient density of the complementary diet was adequate for protein, vitamin A and vitamin C; and inadequate for 100% of children for zinc, for >80% of children for calcium, iron and niacin; and between 60% and 80% of children for vitamin B6 and riboflavin. Urban/rural differences in density for animal and plant protein, cholesterol and fibre occurred in 18–24-month-old children. Fewer than 25% of children consumed ≥4 food groups, with no urban/rural differences. Higher dietary diversity was associated with higher nutrient density for protein and several of the micronutrients including calcium, iron and zinc. The poor nutrient density for key micronutrients can probably be ascribed to lack of dietary variety, and little impact of mandatory fortification of maize meal/wheat flour on infants/toddlers' diet. Targeted strategies are needed to enable mothers to feed their children a more varied diet. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd


Katte J.-C.,Regional Hospital of Bafoussam | Dzudie A.,University of Buea | Dzudie A.,University of Cape Town | Sobngwi E.,University of Yaounde I | And 5 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2014

Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are increasingly common in population within Africa. We determined the rate of coincident diabetes and hypertension and assessed the levels of co-awareness, treatment and control in a semi-urban population in Cameroon. Methods. A total of 1702 adults (967 women) self-selected from the community were consecutively recruited in Bafoussam (West region of Cameroon) during November 2012. Existing diabetes and hypertension and treatments were investigated and blood pressure and fasting blood glucose measured. Multinomial logistic regressions models were used to investigate the determinants of prevalent diabetes and hypertension. Results: Age-standardized prevalence rates (95% confidence intervals) men vs. women were 40.4% (34.7 to 46.1) and 23.8% (20.4 to 27.2) for hypertension alone; 3.3% (1.5 to 5.1) and 5.6% (3.5 to 7.7) for diabetes alone; and 3.9% (2.6 to 5.2) and 5.0% (3.5 to 6.5) for hypertension and diabetes. The age-standardized awareness, treatment and control rates for hypertension alone were 6.5%, 86.4% and 37.2% for men, and 24.3%, 52.1% and 51.6% in women. Equivalent figures for diabetes alone were 35.4%, 65.6% and 23.1% in men and 26.4%, 75.5% and 33.7% in women; and those for hypertension and diabetes were 86.6%, 3.3% and 0% in men, and 74.7%, 22.6% and 0% in women. Sex, age and adiposity were the main determinants of the three conditions. Conclusions: Coincident diabetes and hypertension is as high as diabetes alone in this population, driven by sex, age and adiposity. Awareness, treatment and control remain unacceptably low. © 2014 Katte et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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