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Minagawa T.,Non Clinical Evaluation Expert Committee | Nakano K.,Chiyoda Corporation | Furuta S.,Non Clinical Evaluation Expert Committee | Iwasa T.,Non Clinical Evaluation Expert Committee | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2012

The prompt and appropriate safety assessment of drug metabolite(s) was mentioned in regulatory guidances such as an International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) guidance, entitled "Guidance on Non-clinical Safety Studies for the Conduct of Human Clinical Trials and Marketing Authorization for Pharmaceuticals" (ICH M3(R2)) implemented in January 1 of 2011 in Japan, and has become a significant issue in the drug development. Upon release of ICH M3(R2) Step 4, a survey was conducted between March and April 2010 on the safety assessment of drug metabolites in 63 member companies of the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association (JPMA). The Pharmacokinetics Team in the Non-Clinical Evaluation Expert Committee in JPMA conducted a questionnaire survey and compiled the results to comprehend how safety of drug metabolites are currently assessed at research-based pharmaceutical companies in Japan. The assessment of "Metabolites in Safety Testing" (MIST) can be divided into three stages based on the research purpose as follows: MIST 1 is a stage of estimating human drug metabolites and predicting their potential risks, MIST 2 is a stage of deciding the necessity for non-clinical safety studies, and MIST 3 is a stage of conducting non-clinical safety studies. In this paper, we propose typical approaches on safety assessment of metabolites that meet the purpose of each stage, considering the current level of scientific technology. Our proposals are based on the results from our survey and a symposium about the safety assessment of drug metabolites at the 37th annual meeting of the Japanese Society of Toxicology held in June 2010.


PubMed | Non Clinical Evaluation Expert Committee
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology | Year: 2016

In this survey, the correlation between adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in human and animal toxicities was investigated for 393 medicines which were approved in Japan from September 1999 to March 2013. ADRs were collected from each Japanese package insert. Comparable animal toxicities with ADRs were collected by thorough investigation of common technical documents. The results of this survey show that hypertension and/or hypotension were mainly observed in medicines affecting the central nervous system. Hypertension was also observed in antipyretics, analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, vasoconstrictors and agents using antibody. Concordance between human ADRs and animal toxicities was analysed. True-positive rate for hypertension and hypotension is 0.29 and 0.52, respectively. Positive likelihood ratio and inverse negative likelihood ratio are 1.98 and 1.21, respectively, in hypertension and 1.67 and 1.44, respectively, in hypotension. Concordance between human ADRs and animal toxicities is not so high in hypertension and hypotension. Identified mechanisms as on-target for hypertension and hypotension are 29.8% and 30.5%, respectively. More than half of the causative factors of hypertension and hypotension were unable to be elucidated. Our results show that the intake of medicines is often linked to blood pressure variations that are not predicted in animal toxicity studies. Improvement of drug development processes may be necessary to provide safer medicines because current animal toxicity studies are insufficient to predict all ADRs in human beings.


PubMed | Non Clinical Evaluation Expert Committee
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of toxicological sciences | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to elucidate the range of abilities of nonclinical safety assessment for predicting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in humans. The dataset included 1256 ADRs with an incidence rate of 5% or more collected from 142 drugs approved in Japan from 2001 to 2010 (excluding anticancer agents and vaccines). Gastrointestinal, neurological and hepatobiliary ADRs were relatively common, followed by hematological, cutaneous, systemic and cardiovascular ADRs in the dataset. The analysis revealed that 48% of ADRs were predictable based on a comprehensive nonclinical safety assessment considering animal toxicity. Hematological and ocular ADRs, infection, and application site reactions showed a correlation of more than 70%, while musculoskeletal, respiratory and neurological ADRs showed a correlation of less than 30%. In addition to subjective patient perceptions, several laboratory parameters routinely monitored both in animals and humans showed a lower correlation, e.g., abnormalities in hepatobiliary and metabolic parameters, and blood pressure increase. Large molecule drugs showed lower correlation than small molecule drugs; ADRs were observed in various organs and consideration of pharmacological action did not significantly contribute to the prediction. It was also confirmed that the current standard of toxicology testing regarding dosing duration and dose level is adequate to detect concordant animal toxicity. This study collectively demonstrated a significant value of nonclinical safety assessment in predicting ADRs in humans. It also identified the subset of ADRs with poor predictability, highlighting the need for advanced testing that enables successful translation of animal toxicity to clinical settings with better accuracy and sensitivity.

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