Nokia Oyj is a Finnish multinational communications and information technology company. Headquartered in Espoo, Uusimaa, in the greater Helsinki metropolitan area, As of 2014, Nokia employed 61,656 people across 120 countries, conducts sales in more than 150 countries and reported annual revenues of around €12.73 billion. Nokia is a public limited-liability company listed on the Helsinki Stock Exchange and New York Stock Exchange. It is the world's 274th-largest company measured by 2013 revenues according to the Fortune Global 500.The company currently focuses on large-scale telecommunications infrastructures, technology development and licensing, and online mapping services. Nokia was also a significant contributor to the mobile telephony industry, having assisted in development of the GSM standards, and was, for a period, the largest vendor of mobile phones in the world. Nokia's dominance also extended into the smartphone industry through its Symbian platform, but it was soon overshadowed by the growing dominance of Apple's iPhone line and Android devices. Nokia eventually entered into a pact with Microsoft in 2011 to exclusively use its Windows Phone platform on future smartphones.In September 2013, Microsoft announced that it would acquire Nokia's mobile phone business as part of an overall deal totaling €5.44 billion . Stephen Elop, Nokia's former CEO, and several other executives joined the new Microsoft Mobile subsidiary of Microsoft as part of the deal, which was completed on 25 April 2014.In November 2014, following the Microsoft sale, Nokia announced plans to license product designs and technologies to third-party manufacturers, primarily to enable a continued presence for the Nokia brand in the consumer market. Wikipedia.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-14-2014 | Award Amount: 7.99M | Year: 2015
5G will have to cope with a high degree of heterogeneity in terms of: (a) services (mobile broadband, massive machine and mission critical communications, broad-/multicast services and vehicular communications); (b) device classes (low-end sensors to high-end tablets); (c) deployment types (macro and small cells); (d) environments (low-density to ultra-dense urban); (e) mobility levels (static to high-speed transport). Consequently, diverse and often contradicting Key Performance Indicators need to be supported, such as high capacity/user-rates, low latency, high reliability, ubiquitous coverage, high mobility, massive number of devices, low cost/energy consumption. 4G is not designed to meet such a high degree of heterogeneity efficiently. Moreover, having multiple radio access technologies for multi-service support below 6GHz will be too costly. FANTASTIC-5G will develop a new multi-service Air Interface (AI) for below 6 GHz through a modular design. To allow the system to adapt to the anticipated heterogeneity, the pursued properties are: flexibility, scalability, versatility, efficiency, future-proofness. To this end, we will develop the technical AI components (e.g. flexible waveform and frame design, scalable multiple access procedures, adaptive retransmission schemes, enhanced multi-antenna schemes with/without cooperation, advanced multi-user detection, interference coordination, support for ultra-dense cell layouts, multi-cell radio resource management, device-to-device) and integrate them into an overall AI framework where adaptation to the above described sources of heterogeneity will be accomplished. Our work will also comprise intense validation and system level simulations. FANTASTIC-5G includes partners being active in forerunning projects like METIS, 5GNOW and EMPATHIC ensuring the exploitation of the respective outcomes. The consortium possesses the main stakeholders for innovation and impacting standardization, maintaining Europe at the forefront.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-14-2014 | Award Amount: 7.92M | Year: 2015
The key objective of 5G NORMA is to develop a conceptually novel, adaptive and future-proof 5G mobile network architecture. The architecture is enabling unprecedented levels of network customisability, ensuring stringent performance, security, cost and energy requirements to be met; as well as providing an API-driven architectural openness, fuelling economic growth through over-the-top innovation. With 5G NORMA, leading players in the mobile ecosystem aim to underpin Europes leadership position in 5G. Relevant to strands Radio network architecture and technologies and Convergence beyond last mile, the 5G NORMA architecture will provide the necessary adaptability able to efficiently handle the diverse requirements and traffic demand fluctuations resulting from heterogeneous and changing service portfolios. Not following the one system fits all services paradigm of current architectures, 5G NORMA will allow for adapting the mechanisms executed for a given service to the specific service requirements, resulting in a novel service- and context-dependent adaptation of network functions paradigm. The technical approach is based on the innovative concept of adaptive (de)composition and allocation of mobile network functions, which flexibly decomposes the mobile network functions and places the resulting functions in the most appropriate location. By doing so, access and core functions no longer (necessarily) reside in different locations, which is exploited to jointly optimize their operation when possible. The adaptability of the architecture is further strengthened by the innovative software-defined mobile network control and mobile multi-tenancy concepts, and underpinned by corroborating demonstrations. 5G NORMA will ensure economic sustainability of network operation and open opportunities for new players, while leveraging the efficiency of the architecture to do so in a cost- and energy- effective way.
Chen H.,Nokia Inc.
Nature Photonics | Year: 2016
Space-division multiplexing (SDM), whereby multiple spatial channels in multimode and multicore optical fibres are used to increase the total transmission capacity per fibre, is being investigated to avert a data capacity crunch and reduce the cost per transmitted bit. With the number of channels employed in SDM transmission experiments continuing to rise, there is a requirement for integrated SDM components that are scalable. Here, we demonstrate a cladding-pumped SDM erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) that consists of six uncoupled multimode erbium-doped cores. Each core supports three spatial modes, which enables the EDFA to amplify a total of 18 spatial channels (six cores × three modes) simultaneously with a single pump diode and a complexity similar to a single-mode EDFA. The amplifier delivers >20 dBm total output power per core and <7 dB noise figure over the C-band. This cladding-pumped EDFA enables combined space-division and wavelength-division multiplexed transmission over multiple multimode fibre spans. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group
Spinnler B.,Nokia Inc.
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics | Year: 2010
Digital signal processing has completely changed the way optical communication systems work during recent years. In combination with coherent demodulation, it enables compensation of optical distortions that seemed impossible only a few years ago. However, at high bit rates, this comes at the price of complex processing circuits and high power consumption. In order to translate theoretic concepts into economically viable products, careful design of the digital signal processing algorithms is needed. In this paper, we give an overview of digital equalization algorithms for coherent receivers and derive expressions for their complexity. We compare single-carrier and multicarrier approaches, and investigate blind equalizer adaptation as well as training-symbol-based algorithms. We examine tradeoffs between parameters like sampling rate and tracking speed that are important for algorithm design and practical implementation. © 2010 IEEE.
Schupke D.A.,Nokia Inc.
Proceedings of the IEEE | Year: 2012
This paper details approaches to resilience in optical multilayer and multidomain networks. Principal challenges and solutions have been described using exemplary settings and models. In addition, we have also shared an outlook to future research topics within this paper. © 2012 IEEE.