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Nishi-Tokyo-shi, Japan

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a high-throughput system for the assay of interactions in solution and can be used to measure the numbers of molecules and molecular size in micro-regions. FCS can be used to measure interactions in environments that are close to those in vivo. It is a useful technique for measuring bioactive substances, screening inhibitors, and detecting the binding of materials, as well as for determining K d and IC50 values. Glycosyl amino acids with natural oligosaccharides are useful for the interaction assay of oligosaccharides. Fluorescence probes can be introduced into the glycosyl amino acid while the whole structure of the oligosaccharide is maintained. Carbohydrate-lectin interaction in a solution assay system can be analyzed easily by FCS using fluorescence-labeled glycosylasparagine. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Donkor E.S.,University of Ghana | Newman M.J.,University of Ghana | Yeboah-Manu D.,Noguchi Institute
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2012

Objectives To provide insights into the epidemiology of antibiotic usage in animal husbandry in Ghana and its effect on resistance. Methods Three hundred and ninety-five randomly sampled commercial livestock keepers who practised intensive or extensive farming were interviewed about their antibiotic usage practices using a structured questionnaire. Escherichia coli isolated from stool specimens of farmers and their animals were tested against eight antibiotics using the Kirby Bauer method. Results Ninety-eight percent (387) of the farmers used antibiotics on animals and the main purpose was to prevent infections in animals; 41% applied antibiotics monthly. The overall prevalence of multiple drug resistance among the E. coli isolates was 91.6%; rates in human and animal isolates were 70.6% and 97.7%, respectively. The prevalence of resistance in animal isolates to the various drugs ranged from 60.8% (amikacin) to 95.7% (ampicillin); the prevalence of resistance in human isolates to the drugs ranged from 2% (cefuroxime) to 94.1% (gentamicin). Animal E. coli isolates showed higher resistance than that of human isolates for five of eight drugs tested. Conclusion It is concluded that antibiotic usage in animal husbandry in Ghana is more driven by the interest of livestock keepers to prevent and treat animal infections than growth enhancement. Both animal and human E. coli showed high levels of antibiotic resistance, although resistance of animal isolates appeared to be higher than that of humans. There is the need for the development of an antibiotic-resistance management programme in Ghana that will focus simultaneously on human and animal use of antibiotics. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Dantes H.G.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica | Farfan-Ale J.A.,Noguchi Institute | Sarti E.,Sanofi S.A.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2014

This systematic literature review describes the epidemiology of dengue disease in Mexico (2000–2011). The annual number of uncomplicated dengue cases reported increased from 1,714 in 2000 to 15,424 in 2011 (incidence rates of 1.72 and 14.12 per 100,000 population, respectively). Peaks were observed in 2002, 2007, and 2009. Coastal states were most affected by dengue disease. The age distribution pattern showed an increasing number of cases during childhood, a peak at 10–20 years, and a gradual decline during adulthood. All four dengue virus serotypes were detected. Although national surveillance is in place, there are knowledge gaps relating to asymptomatic cases, primary/secondary infections, and seroprevalence rates of infection in all age strata. Under-reporting of the clinical spectrum of the disease is also problematic. Dengue disease remains a serious public health problem in Mexico. © 2014 Dantés et al. Source

Kobata A.,Noguchi Institute
Proceedings of the Japan Academy Series B: Physical and Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

Comparative study of the oligosaccharide profiles of individual human milk revealed the presence of three different patterns. Four oligosaccharides containing the Fucα1-2Gal group were missing in the milk of non-secretor, and three oligosaccharides containing the Fucα1-4GlcNAc group were missing in the milk of Lewis negative individuals. Disappearance of some major oligosaccharides in these samples led to the finding of five novel minor oligosaccharides, which were hidden under the missing oligosaccharides. Following these studies, structures of many novel milk oligosaccharides were elucidated. At least 13 core oligosaccharides were found in these oligosaccharides. By adding α-fucosyl residues and sialic acid residues to these core oligosaccharides, more than one hundred oligosaccharides were formed. All these oligosaccharides contain lactose at their reducing termini. This evidence, together with the deletion phenomena found in the milk oligosaccharides of non-secretor and Lewis negative individuals, suggested that the oligosaccharides are formed from lactose by the concerted action of glycosyltransferases, which are responsible for elongation and branching of the Galβ1-4GlcNAc group in the sugar chains of glycoconjugates on the surface of epithelial cells. Therefore, oligosaccharides in human milk could include many structures, starting from the Galβ1-4GlcNAc group in the sugar chains of various glycoconjugates. Many lines of evidence recently indicated that virulent enteric bacteria and viruses start their infection by binding to particular sugar chains of glycoconjugates on the target cell surfaces. Therefore, milk oligosaccharides could be useful for developing drugs, which inhibit the infection of bacteria and viruses. © 2010 The Japan Academy. Source

Noguchi Institute and Immuno Biological Laboratories Co. | Date: 2015-04-17

The present invention is aimed to provide a method for preparing an acceptor that is N-glycan hydrolyzed antibody or a Fc fragment thereof used for producing antibody having a homogeneous N-glycan structure; a method for determining a combination of endoglycosidases for use in said preparation; and a method for measuring N-glycans linked to an antibody. The present invention is directed to a method for producing a N-glycan hydrolyzed antibody or Fc fragment thereof, comprising reacting the antibody or the Fc fragment thereof with several endoglycosidases; and a method for determining quantitative information of an objective N-glycan with a desired structure linked to an antibody or a Fc thereof, comprising a protease treatment step and a glycopeptide measurement step, etc.

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