Yokohama-shi, Japan
Yokohama-shi, Japan

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Kido N.,Nogeyama Zoological Gardens | Makimura K.,Teikyo University | Kamegaya C.,Nogeyama Zoological Gardens | Shindo I.,Nogeyama Zoological Gardens | And 3 more authors.
Medical Mycology | Year: 2012

Cryptococcosis is an important systemic mycosis caused by members of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex. This disease is potentially fatal in various animals, including koalas. We describe the long-term surveillance and treatment of subclinical cryptococcosis and nasal colonization of koalas by Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii. Of the 15 animals investigated through the use of samples obtained by nasal swabs, antigen titer measurements, and pathologic examination, C. neoformans was found associated with nine koalas and C. gattii with one animal. Nine koalas showed subclinical disease and one clinical infections and antigenemia. Treatment with fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B upon detection of C. neoformans or C. gattii was not effective. The results of the present study showed that C. neoformans was the predominant species isolated from the nasal swab samples and the fungus might have naturally become associated with the koalas' nasal cavities at Kanazawa Zoological Gardens. The unclear treatment effectiveness might have been caused by a shorter treatment period that is routinely used and unstable itraconazole absorption. This investigation also underscores the need for identifying effective treatment regimens for subclinical cryptococcosis and efficient measures for eradicating C. neoformans and C. gattii in koalas. © 2012 ISHAM.


PubMed | Nogeyama Zoological Gardens
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary parasitology | Year: 2012

Free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, Kanazawa Zoological Gardens, and Yokohama Zoological Gardens frequently rescued dogs having Sarcoptes scabiei infestation. However, the epidemiology of S. scabiei infestation has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the epidemiology of S. scabiei infestation in raccoon dogs and its influence on the population of masked palm civets in Yokohama, Japan. We examined records of raccoon dog rescue between 1981 and 2010 and classified the dogs into the following 4 categories on the basis of the reason for rescue: dogs with S. scabiei infestation, scabies-infested dogs involved in car accidents, uninfested dogs involved in car accidents, and other reasons for rescue. We found that the number of dogs rescued due to car accidents and other reasons increased from 1989 onwards, and an S. scabiei outbreak was recorded since 1993. The infestation spread from the southern to the northern regions of Yokohama. The total number of raccoon dogs rescued annually peaked in 1995 and declined thereafter. The number of masked palm civets (Paguma larvata) rescued gradually increased with a decline in the number of raccoon dogs rescued. In the present study, we revealed the epidemiology of S. scabiei infestation in the raccoon dog. The outbreak might be induced by the increased population density, and the infestation spread immediately from the southern to the northern regions of Yokohama since 1993. Further, the population of masked palm civets may have increased due to the decrease in the population of the raccoon dog.


Cryptococcosis is an important systemic mycosis caused by members of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex. This disease is potentially fatal in various animals, including koalas. We describe the long-term surveillance and treatment of subclinical cryptococcosis and nasal colonization of koalas by Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii. Of the 15 animals investigated through the use of samples obtained by nasal swabs, antigen titer measurements, and pathologic examination, C. neoformans was found associated with nine koalas and C. gattii with one animal. Nine koalas showed subclinical disease and one clinical infections and antigenemia. Treatment with fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B upon detection of C. neoformans or C. gattii was not effective. The results of the present study showed that C. neoformans was the predominant species isolated from the nasal swab samples and the fungus might have naturally become associated with the koalas nasal cavities at Kanazawa Zoological Gardens. The unclear treatment effectiveness might have been caused by a shorter treatment period that is routinely used and unstable itraconazole absorption. This investigation also underscores the need for identifying effective treatment regimens for subclinical cryptococcosis and efficient measures for eradicating C. neoformans and C. gattii in koalas.


PubMed | Nogeyama Zoological Gardens
Type: Case Reports | Journal: The Journal of veterinary medical science | Year: 2014

Seven reticulated giraffes were hand-reared at Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, because the dam had agalactia. Six of the 7 calves exhibited polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in the lower legs. However, the cause of the disorder was unclear. The present study reviewed the clinical records of the 7 giraffes, including the type and amount of colostrum ingested during the first 72 hr. The disorder involved the fetlocks and carpal and tarsal joints in 6 of the 7 calves within an average of 8 days of birth. The average amount of fed bovine or powdered colostrum was 0-2.4 l in the first 24 hr and 2.0-6.2 l during the first 72 hr. Insufficient colostrum quantity might be a factor in polyarthritis and/or phlegmon.

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