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Zadraznik T.,Agricultural Institute of Slovenia | Hollung K.,Nofima Materials AS | Egge-Jacobsen W.,University of Oslo | Meglic V.,Agricultural Institute of Slovenia | Sustar-Vozlic J.,Agricultural Institute of Slovenia
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2013

The majority of common bean plants are cultivated under drought conditions. Maintaining crop yields under drought stress is thus one of the biggest challenges facing bean production. In order to improve our understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in the response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to drought stress, a proteomic approach was used to identify drought-responsive proteins in leaves of two cultivars differing in their response to drought, Tiber and more sensitive Starozagorski čern. 2D-DIGE was used to compare differences in protein abundance between control and stressed plants. Fifty-eight proteins whose abundance changed significantly were identified by LC-MS/MS in Tiber and 64 in Starozagorski čern. The majority of identified proteins were classified into functional categories that include energy metabolism, photosynthesis, ATP interconversion, protein synthesis and proteolysis, stress and defence related proteins. Details of the function of the identified proteins and their abundance profiles in Tiber and Starozagorski are discussed. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, enabling a more complete insight into biological pathways and molecular functions affected by drought stress. The results form the basis for a further understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of drought response in common bean. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: KBBE.2010.2.6-01 | Award Amount: 1.17M | Year: 2011

The proposed Coordination and support actions (Coordinating, CSA) has the overall objective to disseminate state-of-the-art research results in food safety and quality topics through a series of symposia, expert working group meetings, an online platform with best practise examples and coordination of cooperation and a plan for the preparation of future activities. In addition to the aim of disseminating research results of finalised and current EC funded projects from FP6 and FP7 and other projects focusing on food safety, the consortium will develop strategies and recommendations for European policies (e.g.: food, consumers, research, health, agriculture). The secure handling of food has main impact onto the safety of food products and the European consumers. Furthermore, detailed plans and actions to foster food safety research in Europe are part of the workplan and objectives. The CSA action will pave the way for highly innovative research projects in the field of food safety. FOODSEG will connect research and policy actors in the enlarged European Union and the Candidate countries, in order to fill transitional gaps and achieve a broader network and deeper collaboration between them. The following map gives an overview of the FOODSEG consortium and the very broad network which covers nearly all regions of the enlarged European Union, Candidate countries and also third countries.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.44M | Year: 2008

Under the current issues surrounding climate change, conserving water resources is becoming an increasing priority. As areas become stressed due to water exploitation or environmental pressures, the amount of water resources available for use have been decreasing (World Meteorological Organisation, 1999) and Europe has not been able to avoid these pressures. It is crucial to protect and improve water consumption to provide a sustainable practice for economic development and to maintain human settlements. LOWTEV will bring considerable water savings to the food industry which is comprised of over 230,000 SME organisations. With an excellent consortium with experts in the fields of food science and sanitisation we will develop a low water pressure ultrasound device integrated with an automated rapid hygiene monitoring system. By providing an alternative system for cleaning in place technology on bulk handling equipment for food processors, a factory site would benefit from at least a 10% savings in overall water use. This equates to an estimated 30,000 worth of savings on water and energy bills per factory, providing a return on investment in under 1 year of installation. The food industry sector within Europe lag behind in terms of innovation and R &D investment; this project will address the environmental issues to improve water resources and will also improve the competitiveness of the SME food processing and bulk handling communities. Through reducing the clean cycle times on conveyor equipment, this will realise more productivity within the food processing cycle by reducing the labour costs and times for cleaning.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.46M | Year: 2008

Within the last decade there has been significant growth in the use of egg products for both home and commercial use. The largest egg producing countries are China, the USSR, the US and Japan. The leading EU producers are The Netherlands, Spain, France and Italy. The Netherlands is the largest producer and exporter to EU countries. Despite this market share, various factors threaten EU producers, most prominent of which are zoonotic pathogens, namely Salmonella egg contamination. To date, a number of sterilisation methods exist for disinfecting eggs, including chemical, thermal and radiation methods. However, such treatments are not sustainable given that chemical products can be absorbed by egg shells, contaminate egg content and chemical washing of eggshells is not permitted in the EU for eggs destined for human consumption, thermal processes affect egg content or lead to shell cracking, slow pasteurisation is far too time-consuming for widespread use in the modern egg producing installation and irradiation of eggs is not permitted in the EU. Furthermore, SMEs lack the resources for developing a more advanced egg sterilisation technology. To this end, consortium SMEs have identified a clear need for a cost efficient and effective system for the secure sterilisation of eggs. The proposed EGGSTERILISATION will provide a highly effective system to sterilise eggs using a plasma source, a simple and safe microbial sterilisation technique, and contribute to reducing the high number of infections caused by this bacterium. The commercial objective of this EGGSTERILISATION proposal is to increase the competitiveness of SME egg producers and packers by providing them with a low cost, rapid and effective system that will be suitable for simple insertion into modern production or packing lines, facilitating installation and maintenance, thus saving time and associated costs.


Schirmer B.C.,Nofima Materials AS | Schirmer B.C.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Langsrud S.,Nofima Materials AS
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of natural antimicrobials on the growth of typical spoilage bacteria from marinated pork. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of thymol, cinnamaldehyde, allyl isothiocyanate, citric acid, ascorbic acid, a rosemary extract, and a grapefruit seed extract against Lactobacillus algidus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Leuconostoc carnosum, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Carnobacterium divergens, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and Serratia proteamaculans were determined in a microplate assay. Combinations of antimicrobials were tested and several combinations showed synergistic effects in inhibiting bacterial growth. Single and combined antimicrobials were added to vacuum-packed pork meat to evaluate preserving effects. Antimicrobial concentrations of up to 10 times the MIC values showed no effect on total bacterial growth in vacuum packed pork meaning that although most antimicrobials inhibited the growth of spoilage bacteria in vitro, results from the microplate assay could not be transferred to the meat system. Most natural antimicrobials possess strong odor and flavor that limit their use as a food preservative. In conclusion, this study showed that the use of natural antimicrobials in meat products is limited and that bacterial quality and shelf life was not enhanced under the chosen conditions. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®.


Mustorp S.L.,Eurofins | Dromtorp S.M.,Nofima Materials AS | Holck A.L.,Nofima Materials AS
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Legislation requires labeling of foods containing allergenic ingredients. Here, we present a robust 10-plex quantitative and sensitive ligation-dependent probe amplification method, the allergen-multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) method, for specific detection of eight allergens: sesame, soy, hazelnut, peanut, lupine, gluten, mustard, and celery. Ligated probes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and amplicons were detected using capillary electrophoresis. Quantitative results were obtained by comparing signals with an internal positive control. The limit of detection varied from approximately 5 to 400 gene copies, depending on the allergen. The method was tested using different foods spiked with mustard, celery, soy, or lupine flour in the 1-0.001% range. Depending on the allergen, sensitivities were similar or better than those obtained with qPCR. The allergen-MLPA method is modular and can be adapted by adding probe pairs for other allergens. The DNA-based allergen-MLPA method will constitute a complementary method to the traditional protein-based methods. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Pedreschi F.,University of Santiago de Chile | Segtnan V.H.,Nofima Materials AS | Knutsen S.H.,Nofima Materials AS
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The contents of dry matter, oil and acrylamide are some of the most relevant parameters in the quality control of potato chips. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) is a common technique for routine analysis of bulk chemistry in different raw materials and products because it allows a fast and non-destructive analysis of samples. The objective of this research was to investigate the possibilities of using on-line NIR monitoring of acrylamide, moisture and oil content in potato chips. Sixty samples of potato chips from individual frying runs were measured on-line using a VIS/NIR interactance line scanner. The same samples were analysed in the laboratory to determine their corresponding moisture, acrylamide and oil contents. The mean VIS and NIR spectra for the 60 samples were modelled against the reference values for acrylamide, fat and dry matter using partial least squares regression (PLSR), and the regression models were validated using full cross-validation. On-line NIR interactance was found to predict fat and dry matter of potato chips with high accuracy, i.e. prediction errors of 0.99 and 0.86% (w/w), respectively. The corresponding correlations between predicted values and reference values were 0.99 and 0.97 for fat and dry matter. For acrylamide an average prediction error of 266 μg/kg was achieved using NIR and VIS signals in combination. The correlation between predicted values and reference values was 0.83 for this model. The system may be used to separate samples with very high acrylamide contents from samples with average to low contents. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Bengtsson G.B.,Nofima Materials AS
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

There is convincing evidence that a large intake of vegetables and fruits reduces the risk of several chronic diseases. The health-promoting effects could be due to bioactive phytochemicals in addition to nutrients. Experiments with cell cultures, animal models and humans have revealed several bioactivities. A direct antioxidant effect in the body may be insignificant for phytochemicals that are anti-oxidants in vitro. Instead, health-promoting phytochemicals can act by other mechanisms, e.g., change activity of enzymes in drug metabolism, modulate signalling pathways, inhibit tumour growth or initiate apoptosis in cancer cells. The beneficial intake levels of various phytochemicals are not yet known. For intake calculations and dietary recommendations, it is important to know the effect of pre- and post-harvest conditions and treatments on the final levels before ingestion. In general vegetables and fruits lose their content of vitamin C postharvest, and more so during suboptimum conditions. Glucosinolates and dietary fibre are relatively stable, whereas phenolic constituents and carotenoids vary in behaviour depending upon species, ripening stage and the specific compound. Atmospheres with lowered O2 and elevated CO 2 concentration reduce the loss rate of vitamin C and can change the storage behaviour of several constituents such as flavonols and anthocyanins. The effect of incident light postharvest is little investigated, but increases in phenolics are possible. Non-bruising mechanical stress could also be of significance, but very few results are available. Furthermore, the level of constituents at harvest can affect the storage behaviour. It is usually not possible to assess health-related quality of vegetables and fruits by our senses. Therefore, rapid and non-destructive methods to assess health-related properties are needed. Only a few methods have been developed so far.


Olsen N.V.,Nofima Materials As
British Food Journal | Year: 2012

Purpose: The overall aim of this research is to increase understanding of consumers' barriers in relation to convenience food. While the motivation for consuming convenience food has been investigated frequently, few studies have investigated the barriers. Design/methodology/approach: Three focus group studies, exploring consumers' ready-to-heat (RTH) meal dilemmas, were conducted in Norway. Findings: The frequency of barriers and four narratives are presented, and the results indicate that consumers face bottom-up dilemmas related to barriers like sensory perception, health, economy, and managing relationships; and/or top-down value dilemmas related to traditions, quality of life and environmental barriers when considering convenience food consumption. Research limitations/implications: This research contributes to the current body of literature, which mainly focuses on drivers of convenience demand, by elaborating on barriers and dilemmas for convenience choice. Practical implications: The findings imply how marketers should communicate with the convenience market. Marketing managers need to understand which barriers to break or what dilemmas to discuss when communicating with the RTH market. Originality/value: By structuring focus group interviews according to the individual respondents ("who said what") and by presenting the data as narratives, the paper shows a new way to analyze focus group interviews. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Moretro T.,Nofima Materials AS | Langsrud S.,Nofima Materials AS
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2011

Surfaces with microorganisms may transfer unwanted microorganisms to food through cross-contamination during processing and preparation. A high hygienic status of surfaces that come in contact with food is important in order to reduce the risk of cross-contamination. During the last decade, products containing antimicrobial compounds, such as cutting boards, knives, countertops, kitchen utensils, refrigerators, and conveyor belts, have been introduced to the market, claiming hygienic effects. Such products are often referred to as "treated articles." Here we review various aspects related to treated articles intended for use during preparation and processing of food. Regulatory issues and methods to assess antibacterial effects are covered. Different concepts for treated articles as well as their antibacterial activity are reviewed. The effects of products with antimicrobials on food hygiene and safety are discussed. © International Association for Food Protection.

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