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Lahteenmaki L.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Lahteenmaki L.,University of Aarhus | Lampila P.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Grunert K.,University of Aarhus | And 4 more authors.
Food Policy | Year: 2010

New EU legislation (EU Regulation 1924/2006) will allow a number of nutrition and health claims in food products. The objective of this research was to study how health claims affect consumers' perception of other product attributes. A survey with a total of 4612 respondents from the Nordic countries explored consumers' perceptions of attractiveness, healthiness, naturalness, tastiness and ability to reduce risk of disease by comparing ratings of products with and without health claims. Used claims varied in their benefit, active ingredient, claim structure and framing. The results showed that health claims had a moderate but mostly negative impact on the. perception of other product attributes; the most significant impact was decrease in perceived naturalness. Consumers could also interpret the benefits in claims as intended. The wording of the claim had only small impact on the perception of the products, whereas earlier market presence of the ingredient had a large impact: differences among the Nordic countries reflected the previous exposure to health claims. The findings from this study suggest that consumers do not imply other health benefits from health claims and the health claim per se is not likely to cause any unrealistic positive inferences in perceived product quality. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Volden J.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Bjelanovic M.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Vogt G.,Nofima Materials | Slinde E.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Emulsions made using metmyoglobin as emulsifier and different synthetic and natural triacylglycerols (TAG), have been studied with respect to oxidation progress during 48 h at ambient temperature. The investigated model systems contained polyunsaturated TAGs of linolein (C18:2n-6, tri-LIN), arachidonin (C20:4n-6, tri-ARA), docosahexanoin (C22:6n-3, tri-DHA), salmon oil (SO) and cod liver oil (CLO). The synthetic TAGs were added in ratios of one part to nine parts trioctanoin (C8:0), yielding model composite oil systems. The total amount of volatiles, determined using dynamic headspace GC/MS, were relatively larger for tri-LIN and tri-ARA than for the marine systems during the first 6 h of observation. After 48 h of incubation, the marine oils had more total volatiles than had tri-LIN and tri-ARA. Hexanal and propanal were observed as the marker degradation compounds for n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, respectively. Myoglobin tended to aggregate in these model systems, and only for trioctanoin and tri-LIN could the protein monomer be recovered unmodified and subsequently observed using MALDI-TOF MS after 48 h of incubation. Myoglobin was only recovered after 4 h of incubation in the tri-DHA system, and it then appeared adducted with lipid fragments up to ∼1000 Da. Final oxidation (after 48 h) products from the marine lipids were trienes, most likely as alcohols or acids. The natural oils revealed a reaction pattern close to that of tri-DHA. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rubingh C.M.,TNO | Martens H.,NOFIMA Materials | Van der Voet H.,Wageningen University | Smilde A.K.,University of Amsterdam
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems | Year: 2013

Each data-driven action in data modelling consumes degrees of freedom, whether it concerns estimation of parameters, estimation of meta-parameters or selecting variables. By using a double cross validation approach for degrees of freedom calculation the costs for meta-parameter estimation and variable selection can be determined explicitly. The only assumptions are independent and identically distributed errors, which make the approach applicable to many predictive modelling techniques. © 2013.

Ottestad S.,Nofima Materials | Ottestad S.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Isaksson T.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Wold J.P.,Nofima Materials
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

The purpose of this work was to investigate how natural changes in optical properties in salmon muscle during storage affected the color of salmon and the prediction of astaxanthin based on spectroscopic measurements. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were stored for 6. days at 2-4°C and measured once per day by an interactance probe at 449-744. nm. RGB (Red, Green, Blue) images were taken and were used to calculate average L*a*b* values and redness index (a*/b*). The interactance data revealed a systematic time dependent variation in the absorption at 450 and 600. nm. The redness index increased and the L* value decreased during storage. Partial least squares regression was used to calibrate the interactance spectra from day one against values of astaxanthin determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The calibration model was then used to predict astaxanthin concentrations in the same samples based on spectroscopic measurements performed during the following days. The optical changes were large enough to affect the prediction errors of astaxanthin significantly. A storage time of six days before measurement more than doubled the prediction errors compared to applying the models on data collected after two days. These results demonstrate the importance of keeping full control of the storage time and conditions, when making and applying spectroscopy based models for astaxanthin quantification. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Ottestad S.,Nofima Materials | Ottestad S.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Sorheim O.,Nofima Materials | Heia K.,Nofima Marin | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

It has previously been observed that the color of mackerel muscle is dependent on the status of heme as myoglobin and hemoglobin and hence the storage atmosphere. This study gives strong indications of this being the case also in salmon. Three different storage conditions were used to promote the oxidized, reduced, and carbon monoxide (CO) bound forms of heme in salmon and mackerel fillets. Color determination (instrumental color analysis, imaging, and sensory evaluation) and spectroscopic measurements were performed to study how spectral changes corresponded to color variations. Storage in CO significantly increased the redness in mackerel. This was also seen in salmon to such a degree that it was visible over normal levels of salmon carotenoids. Air storage increased the yellowness and reduced the redness in mackerel, but this effect was partly concealed in salmon by the astaxanthin absorption. The spectral differences due to storage condition could be ascribed to the spectral features characterizing heme of different oxidation states and bound to different ligands. The status of heme should therefore always be considered when experiments related to salmon color are performed. The findings could help in the understanding, control, and prediction of color loss in salmon during processing, storage, and transport. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Haseth T.T.,Animalia | Haseth T.T.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Sorheim O.,Nofima Materials | Hoy M.,Nofima Materials | Egelandsdal B.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Meat Science | Year: 2012

Varying salt content in hams of equal brand is a major challenge for Norwegian dry-cured ham producers. This study was thus undertaken to test existing computed tomography (CT) calibration models for salt on entire hams, regarding predictability of salt content at different processing times including final ham and to study salt distribution during processing of dry-cured ham. Twenty-six hams were scanned by computed tomography (CT) 11 times during dry-curing for this purpose. However, previously established calibration models had to be adjusted as they overestimated salt in dry samples. Prediction of ultimate salt content was more accurate approaching the end of the dry-curing process (RMSEP = 0.351-0.595% salt). Inclusion of remaining weight loss improved the prediction accuracy in un-dried samples by approximately 0.1% NaCl. The prediction errors were sufficiently low to be of practical interest. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Tondel K.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Gjuvsland A.B.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Mage I.,Nofima Materials | Martens H.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Journal of Chemometrics | Year: 2010

Computer simulations are faster and cheaper than physical experiments. Still, if the system has many factors to be manipulated, experimental designs may be needed in order to make computer experiments more cost-effective. Determining the relevant parameter ranges within which to set up a factorial experimental design is a critical and difficult step in the practical use of any formal statistical experimental planning, be it for screening or optimisation purposes. Here we show how a sparse initial range finding design based on a reduced multi-factor multi-level design method-the multi-level binary replacement (MBR) design-can reveal the region of relevant system behaviour. The MBR design is presently optimised by generating a number of different confounding patterns and choosing the one giving the highest score with respect to a space-spanning criterion. The usefulness of this optimised MBR (OMBR) design is demonstrated in an example from systems biology: A multivariate metamodel, emulating a deterministic, nonlinear dynamic model of the mammalian circadian clock, is developed based on data from a designed computer experiment. In order to allow the statistical metamodel to represent all aspects of the biologically relevant model behaviour, the relevant parameter ranges have to be spanned. The use of an initial OMBR design for finding the widest possible parameter ranges resulting in a stable limit cycle for the mammalian circadian clock model is demonstrated. The same OMBR design is subsequently applied within the selected, relevant sub-region of the parameter space to develop a functional metamodel based on PLS regression. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Gibalova A.,Bioforsk Ullensvang | Vangdal E.,Bioforsk Ullensvang | Leufven A.,Nofima Materials
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The flavor of apples after storage is important to the consumers. Most often factors like decay, firmness and the contents of soluble solids and acidity are regarded as the limiting factors for storability of apples. The amount of volatile aroma compounds is less studied. Using head space analyses the amounts of 8 compounds known to be important to aroma of apples were studied during storage. Some compounds increased while others decreased during storage. Apples of three cultivars and from trees treated with foliar fertilization with nitrogen and calcium were included. The early ripening cultivar 'Discovery' had more aroma compounds in November and less in February. In the late ripening cultivar 'Elstar' the content of aroma compounds was low in November. However, the amounts were more than doubled in February. The foliar fertilization with nitrogen tended to reduce the amount of aroma compounds while the highest content was found in apples from trees treated with calcium. However, these tendencies were not statistically significant. In 'Discovery' the content of aroma compounds may be a limiting factor to the storability of this cultivar.

Ottestad S.,Nofima Materials | Ottestad S.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Isaksson T.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Saeys W.,Catholic University of Leuven | Wold J.P.,Nofima Materials
Applied Spectroscopy | Year: 2010

In this paper we demonstrate how a limited amount of a priori knowledge about spectral variability can be used in extended multiplicative scattering correction (EMSC) to remove disturbing effects such as light scattering variation in visible and near-infrared spectra prior to data modeling. Two different datasets were studied. In the first dataset, pigment concentrations (astaxanthin) were estimated in a model system with different concentrations of the scattering agent intralipid. Different cases were created by including varying levels of intralipid in the calibration set and then applying the models on sample sets with scattering properties both within and outside the calibration range. Including the most accurate estimate of light scattering in the EMSC model gave root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) that were similar to a cross-validated global model including all samples, even for extreme extrapolation with regard to scattering properties. Less accurate estimates gave on average RMSEPs half of what could be achieved using EMSC without any a priori knowledge, suggesting that the method also has potential in cases where the accurate light scattering spectrum is difficult to obtain. In the second dataset carbohydrate concentrations (sucrose, fructose, and glucose) were estimated in orange-juice mixtures where unwanted spectral variation was caused by a change in distance between transmittance fiber-optic probes. This caused two different interfering phenomena due to path length variation and saturation in the detection system. The prediction results for a model based on spectra collected at one specific probe distance treated with EMSC with a correction spectrum were comparable to what could be achieved by a global model including spectra collected at three different distances. The corresponding RMSEPs for models using EMSC with no correction term were in the worst cases 4, 22, and 36 times higher for sucrose, fructose, and glucose, respectively. © 2010 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

Svanes E.,Ostfold Research | Void M.,Ostfold Research | Moller H.,Ostfold Research | Pettersen M.K.,Nofima Materials | And 2 more authors.
Packaging Technology and Science | Year: 2010

This study describes a holistic methodology for sustainable packaging design. This methodology studies the combined systems of packaging and the packaged products across the whole distribution chain from manufacturer to end consumer and the life cycle from raw material extraction to the waste phase. It contains a number of indicators that are grouped into the following main categories: environmental sustainability, distribution costs, product protection, market acceptance and user friendliness. The methodology integrates a number of different analytical methods. It is intended to be used in packaging design and optimisation, for idea generation, decision support and as documentation of properties of existing packaging systems. The study describes experiences with the methodology from one case study in the Norwegian Food Industry. The experiences show that the methodology is very comprehensive, and gives a good overview of the properties of a packaging solution. It enables quantitative comparisons between different packaging solutions throughout the design process. The methodology reduces the risk of implementing sub-optimal packaging solutions. An additional benefit of the methodology is gained by working in cross-functional teams. One potential drawback is that the methodology can be resource and data intensive. The methodology can be used as a tool box in packaging design, i.e. it is not necessary to use all methods and quantify all indicators to gain benefit. However, all indicators and requirements should be evaluated and considered. In all cases, it should be considered to include additional indicators if important sustainability issues have not been addressed. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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