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Faupel-Badger J.M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Sherman M.E.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Garcia-Closas M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Gaudet M.M.,Yeshiva University | And 9 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Background:Previous prospective studies have found an association between prolactin (PRL) levels and increased risk of breast cancer. Using data from a population-based breast cancer case-control study conducted in two cities in Poland (2000-2003), we examined the association of PRL levels with breast cancer risk factors among controls and with tumour characteristics among the cases.Methods:We analysed PRL serum levels among 773 controls without breast cancer matched on age and residence to 776 invasive breast cancer cases with available pretreatment serum. Tumours were centrally reviewed and prepared as tissue microarrays for immunohistochemical analysis. Breast cancer risk factors, assessed by interview, were related to serum PRL levels among controls using analysis of variance. Mean serum PRL levels by tumour characteristics are reported. These associations also were evaluated using polytomous logistic regression.Results:Prolactin levels were associated with nulliparity in premenopausal (P = 0.05) but not in postmenopausal women. Associations in postmenopausal women included an inverse association with increasing body mass index (P = 0.0008) and direct association with use of recent/current hormone therapy (P = 0.0006). In case-only analyses, higher PRL levels were more strongly associated with lobular compared with ductal carcinoma among postmenopausal women (P = 0.02). Levels were not different by tumour size, grade, node involvement or oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status.Conclusions:Our analysis demonstrates that PRL levels are higher among premenopausal nulliparous as compared with parous women. Among postmenopausal women, levels were higher among hormone users and lower among obese women. These results may have value in understanding the mechanisms underlying several breast cancer risk factor associations. © 2010 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved. Source


Kaleta D.,Medical University of Lodzs | Kaleta D.,World Health Organization | Polanska K.,Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine | Wojtysiak P.,Secretary of Piotrkowski District | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health | Year: 2010

Tobacco is the single greatest preventable cause of death in the world today, killing approximately half of the people who use it. Several strategies have been proved to reduce tobacco use. However, more than 50 years after the health effects of smoking were scientifically proven, and more than 20 years after evidence confirmed the hazards from exposure to second-hand smoke, few countries have implemented effective and recognized strategies to control the tobacco epidemic. This paper summarizes the World Health Organization recommendations for effective protection from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke along with the existing tobacco control programs and legislation in force in Poland. Source


Moscicka-Teske A.,University of the Humanities | Sadlowska-Wrzesinska J.,Poznan University of Technology | Butlewski M.,Poznan University of Technology | Misztal A.,Poznan University of Technology | Jacukowicz A.,Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics | Year: 2016

This article shows the results of research on psychosocial risks for a group of machine and plant operators (n = 1014) from the construction, chemical, energy, mining, metal and food industries in Poland. The Psychosocial Risk Scale designed in Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (NIOM) by Moscicka-Teske and Potocka was used to indicate the occurrence of general and specific occupational stressors and the level of their stressfulness. The results revealed that the studied machine and plant operators experience job context stress – related to working environment features concerning work organization – more frequently than job content stressors – related to the type of tasks they perform. Moreover, a correlation analysis between work features and the health and occupational functioning of the respondents revealed significant but weak relationships between the variables (from −0.08 to −0.23). Comparative analysis revealed the differences between the studied sectors. Such a comparison makes it possible to set goals for each sector and to attempt to improve the distinctive areas. © 2016 Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB) Source


Basner M.,University of Pennsylvania | Brink M.,Federal Office for the Environment | Bristow A.,Loughborough University | De Kluizenaar Y.,Applied Scientific Research | And 11 more authors.
Noise and Health | Year: 2015

The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health. Source


Bak M.,Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine | Dudarewicz A.,Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine | Zmyslony M.,Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine | Zmyslony M.,Health Science University | Sliwinska-Kowalska M.,Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health | Year: 2010

Objectives: The primary aim of this work was to assess the effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) from the GSM mobile phone system on human brain function. The assessment was based on the assay of event related potentials (ERPs). Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 15 volunteers, including 7 men and 8 women. The test protocol comprised determination of P300 wave in each volunteer during exposure to the EMF. To eliminate possible effects of the applied test procedure on the final result, the test was repeated without EMF exposure. P300 latency, amplitude, and latency of the N1, N2, P2 waves were analysed. Results: The statistical analysis revealed an effect of EMF on P300 amplitude. In the experiment with EMF exposure, lower P300 amplitudes were observed only at the time in which the volunteers were exposed to EMF; when the exposure was discontinued, the values of the amplitude were the same as those observed before EMF application. No such change was observed when the experiment was repeated with sham exposure, which may be considered as an indirect proof that lower P300 amplitude values were due to EMF exposure. No statistically significant changes were noted in the latencies of the N1, N2, P2 waves that precede the P300 wave, nor in the latency of the P300 itself. Conclusions: The results suggest that exposure to GSM EMF exerts some effects on CNS, including effects on long latency ERPs. Source

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