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Swiatkowska B.,Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine | Szeszenia-Dabrowska N.,Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine
Lung Cancer | Year: 2017

Background Because asbestos dust is considered one of the most dangerous types of dust for people's health, issues related to the effects of asbestos exposure still remain questions about the role of cessation of exposure. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the importance of temporal patterns, especially the time since the end of exposure in the risk of pleural mesothelioma. Methods A total of 131 patients with pleural mesothelioma and 655 frequency matched by gender and year of birth controls enrolled in the health surveillance programme for asbestos-related diseases over the years 2000–2014, were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results The results show that the risk of pleural mesothelioma continued to increase even after 40 years since the last exposure. The estimated odds ratio for the subjects who had their last exposure 40 years ago, compared with the odds ratio of those who had their last exposure 5 years ago, was 2.68 (95%CI: 1.16–.621). We also observed that crocidolite exposure was associated with a very high significant mesothelioma risk, 5-fold higher for those working with mixed exposure compared to the subjects who worked only with chrysotile. Conclusions Dose-response relationships in populations occupationally exposed are critical to the study related to environment asbestos contamination. Our findings confirm the strong evidence that mesothelioma risk increases along with the increasing time since exposure termination. © 2017

Basner M.,University of Pennsylvania | Brink M.,Federal Office for the Environment | Bristow A.,Loughborough University | De Kluizenaar Y.,Applied Scientific Research | And 11 more authors.
Noise and Health | Year: 2015

The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health.

PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, Hainaut Vigilance Sanitaire HVS and Hygiene Publique in Hainaut HPH, Jozef Stefan Institute, Health Service Executive and 20 more.
Type: | Journal: Environmental research | Year: 2015

In 2004 the European Commission and Member States initiated activities towards a harmonized approach for Human Biomonitoring surveys throughout Europe. The main objective was to sustain environmental health policy by building a coherent and sustainable framework and by increasing the comparability of data across countries. A pilot study to test common guidelines for setting up surveys was considered a key step in this process. Through a bottom-up approach that included all stakeholders, a joint study protocol was elaborated. From September 2011 till February 2012, 17 European countries collected data from 1844 mother-child pairs in the frame of DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES).(1) Mercury in hair and urinary cadmium and cotinine were selected as biomarkers of exposure covered by sufficient analytical experience. Phthalate metabolites and Bisphenol A in urine were added to take into account increasing public and political awareness for emerging types of contaminants and to test less advanced markers/markers covered by less analytical experience. Extensive efforts towards chemo-analytical comparability were included. The pilot study showed that common approaches can be found in a context of considerable differences with respect to experience and expertize, socio-cultural background, economic situation and national priorities. It also evidenced that comparable Human Biomonitoring results can be obtained in such context. A European network was built, exchanging information, expertize and experiences, and providing training on all aspects of a survey. A key challenge was finding the right balance between a rigid structure allowing maximal comparability and a flexible approach increasing feasibility and capacity building. Next steps in European harmonization in Human Biomonitoring surveys include the establishment of a joint process for prioritization of substances to cover and biomarkers to develop, linking biomonitoring surveys with health examination surveys and with research, and coping with the diverse implementations of EU regulations and international guidelines with respect to ethics and privacy.

Faupel-Badger J.M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Sherman M.E.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Garcia-Closas M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Gaudet M.M.,Yeshiva University | And 9 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Background:Previous prospective studies have found an association between prolactin (PRL) levels and increased risk of breast cancer. Using data from a population-based breast cancer case-control study conducted in two cities in Poland (2000-2003), we examined the association of PRL levels with breast cancer risk factors among controls and with tumour characteristics among the cases.Methods:We analysed PRL serum levels among 773 controls without breast cancer matched on age and residence to 776 invasive breast cancer cases with available pretreatment serum. Tumours were centrally reviewed and prepared as tissue microarrays for immunohistochemical analysis. Breast cancer risk factors, assessed by interview, were related to serum PRL levels among controls using analysis of variance. Mean serum PRL levels by tumour characteristics are reported. These associations also were evaluated using polytomous logistic regression.Results:Prolactin levels were associated with nulliparity in premenopausal (P = 0.05) but not in postmenopausal women. Associations in postmenopausal women included an inverse association with increasing body mass index (P = 0.0008) and direct association with use of recent/current hormone therapy (P = 0.0006). In case-only analyses, higher PRL levels were more strongly associated with lobular compared with ductal carcinoma among postmenopausal women (P = 0.02). Levels were not different by tumour size, grade, node involvement or oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status.Conclusions:Our analysis demonstrates that PRL levels are higher among premenopausal nulliparous as compared with parous women. Among postmenopausal women, levels were higher among hormone users and lower among obese women. These results may have value in understanding the mechanisms underlying several breast cancer risk factor associations. © 2010 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved.

Kaminska J.,Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine | Ligocka D.,Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine | Zielinski M.,Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine | Czerska M.,Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine | Jakubowski M.,Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | Year: 2014

Purpose: The aim of this study was to design the optimized laboratory protocol as a tool for human biomonitoring of selected Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Poland. In this study, we present the method developed for the determination of 29 congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), as well as individual results of the measurements in 40 human breast milk samples collected in central Poland in 2008-2010. Methods: The protocol of sample preparation and quantitative analysis of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs was optimized for the isotopic dilution method with high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry HRGC/HRMS. Fat content in the extracts was determined gravimetrically. The results were corrected by fat content in the samples. Results: The average sum of PCDD/F and dl-PCBs in the human milk samples from the urban area was 7.429 WHO-TEQ. pg/g fat (with the range 0.431-14.27), and in the rural area it was 6.448. pg WHO-TEQ/g fat (0.539-12.61). Conclusions: The results obtained in this study indicate that the mothers were exposed uniformly to PCDD/Fs and PCBs regardless of location. The significant difference of p<. 0.1 between the milk samples from the urban and rural mothers in 2,3,7,8-TCDD; 1,2,37,8,9-HxCDD and 2,3,4,6,7-HxCDF were observed. For the other 14 PCDD/F and 12 dl-PCB congeners, the observed differences were not significant. The total WHO-TEQ values are lower in comparison with the average results in Europe from the fourth round of a WHO-coordinated study. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.

Bak M.,Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine | Dudarewicz A.,Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine | Zmyslony M.,Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine | Zmyslony M.,Health Science University | Sliwinska-Kowalska M.,Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health | Year: 2010

Objectives: The primary aim of this work was to assess the effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) from the GSM mobile phone system on human brain function. The assessment was based on the assay of event related potentials (ERPs). Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 15 volunteers, including 7 men and 8 women. The test protocol comprised determination of P300 wave in each volunteer during exposure to the EMF. To eliminate possible effects of the applied test procedure on the final result, the test was repeated without EMF exposure. P300 latency, amplitude, and latency of the N1, N2, P2 waves were analysed. Results: The statistical analysis revealed an effect of EMF on P300 amplitude. In the experiment with EMF exposure, lower P300 amplitudes were observed only at the time in which the volunteers were exposed to EMF; when the exposure was discontinued, the values of the amplitude were the same as those observed before EMF application. No such change was observed when the experiment was repeated with sham exposure, which may be considered as an indirect proof that lower P300 amplitude values were due to EMF exposure. No statistically significant changes were noted in the latencies of the N1, N2, P2 waves that precede the P300 wave, nor in the latency of the P300 itself. Conclusions: The results suggest that exposure to GSM EMF exerts some effects on CNS, including effects on long latency ERPs.

PubMed | Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Medycyna pracy | Year: 2014

The aim of this work was to assess the load on the musculoskeletal system and its effects in the collectors of solid refuse. The rationale behind this study was to formulate proposals how to reduce excessive musculoskeletal load in this group of workers.The study group comprised 15 refuse collectors aged 25 to 50 years. Data about the workplace characteristics and subjective complaints of workers were collected by the free interview and questionnaire. During the survey the photorecording of the workpostures, the distance and velocity by GPS recorders, measurements of forces necessary to move containers, energy expenditure (lung ventilation method), workload estimation using the Firstbeat system and REBA method and stadiometry were done.The distance walked daily by the collectors operating in terms of 2 to 3 in urban areas was about 15 km, and in rural areas about 18 km. The most frequent musculoskeletal complaints concerned the feet (60% subjects), knees, wrists and shoulders (over 40% subjects). After work-shift all examined workers had vertebral column shorter by 10 to 14 mm (11.4 mm mean).The results of our study show that the refuse collectors are subjected to a very high physical load because of the work organization and the way it is performed. To avoid adverse health effects and overload it is necessary to undertake ergonomic interventions, involving training of workers to improve the way of their job performance, active and passive leisure, technical control of the equipment and refuse containers, as well as the renegotiation of contracts with clients, especially those concerning non-standard containers.

PubMed | Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of occupational health | Year: 2016

Occupational asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with the airway inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to compare the sputum and serum markers of inflammation in patients with occupational asthma and COPD.The study group included 20 patients with stable COPD, 24 patients with asthma, and 22 healthy subjects. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 levels in serum and induced sputum as well as fibrinogen and CRP in serum were determined in all the subjects.Higher concentrations of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-, and MMP-9 in induced sputum and an increased concentration of acute-phase proteins in serum were observed in COPD patients compared with healthy subjects. Higher concentrations of IL-1 and MMP-9 in induced sputum and a higher concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) were detected in COPD patients than in asthmatic subjects. Never smokers with COPD had significantly higher levels of IL-1 and MMP-9 in induced sputum than never smoker controls. There was no significant difference between the serum and sputum levels of cytokines and MMP-9 of never smokers and smokers with COPD.Higher concentrations of IL-1 and MMP-9 in induced sputum and a higher concentration of CRP in serum allow distinguishing between biomarker profiles of COPD patients and asthmatic patients. Occupational exposure induces a systemic proinflammatory state with increased levels of acute-phase proteins in stable COPD patients. MMP-9 and IL-1 concentrations are increased in induced sputum of never smokers with COPD, which is associated with occupational exposure.

PubMed | Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of health psychology | Year: 2016

This article describes the development of the Eating Maturity Questionnaire, a self-reported measurement of eating maturity that initiates and gives direction to human eating behaviors. The Eating Maturity Questionnaire was designed to study individuals biological and psychosocial motives for eating. The Eating Maturity Questionnaire is a 21-item tool with satisfactory psychometric values (Cronbachs coefficients between 0.83 and 0.88) consisting of two subscales: Rational Eating and Psychosocial Maturity Eating Maturity Questionnaire results may be used to design programs that target eating behaviors and body mass modification.

PubMed | Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of occupational health | Year: 2015

Occupational exposure to lead may produce kidney damage, but existing data on the dose range associated with nephrotoxicity are inconclusive. We here assessed renal function under conditions of low to moderate lead exposure using renal scintigraphy.Fifty-three male foundrymen (exposed group) and fourty male office workers (control group) from a steel plant were included in the study. Glomerular and tubular renal function were assessed by means of (99m)Tc-DTPA and (99m)Tc-EC clearance, respectively. Urinary markers of glomerular dysfunction (albumin) and tubular damage (1-microglobulin (1M), 2-microglobulin (2M), retinol-binding protein (RBP), N-acetyl--glucosaminidase (NAG) activity) were determined using latex beads tests or colorimetry. The lead concentration in blood was measured with atomic absorption spectrometry.The blood lead concentrations were 145.8 (121.3-175.3) and 39.3 (35.1-44.1) g/l (geometric mean, 95(th) CI, p<0.001) in the exposed and control groups, respectively. Subjects exposed to lead presented with increased (99m)Tc-DTPA clearance (158.3 (148.4-168.8) vs. 135.9 (127.9-144.4) ml/min; p<0.01) and urinary albumin excretion (7.61 (6.28-9.22) vs. 4.78 (4.05-5.65) mg/g creatinine; p<0.001). (99m)Tc-EC clearance and excretion of 1M, 2M, RBP and NAG were not significantly different between the groups. Significant correlations between (99m)Tc-DTPA clearance and blood lead concentrations (r=0.45; p<0.01) and between urinary albumin excretion and blood lead concentrations (r=0.71; p<0.001) were noted.Use of renal scintigraphy in present study revealed measurable alterations of renal function under the conditions of low-level lead exposure and suggest that increased glomerular filtration may be an early indicator of kidney damage in subjects occupationally exposed to lead.

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