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Kawasaki, Japan

Watanabe Y.,Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Sato S.,Japan Food Research Laboratories | Asada M.,Showa Sangyo Co | Arishima T.,Fuji Oil Co. | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Oleo Science | Year: 2015

The positional distributions of fatty acids (FAs) in fats and oils are principally analyzed by selectively transesterifying the target triacylglycerols (TAGs) at the 1(3) position using Pseudozyma (Candida) antarctica lipase, followed by recovering the resulting 2-monoacylglycerols (MAGs) by chromatography. FA compositions were measured by gas chromatography (GC) after methylating target TAGs and 2-MAGs. The method was collaboratively evaluated by 12 laboratories by analyzing the positional FA distributions in soybean, palm, and sardine oils. The maximum reproducibility relative standard deviations for the major FAs and those at the sn-2 positions of soybean, palm, and sardine oils were 4.41% and 3.92% (18:3n-3), 4.48% and 3.82% (18:0), and 8.93 and 8.24% (14:0), respectively. The values at the sn-2 position were always low. Therefore, these results indicated that the variations were mainly caused by the FA analysis procedure, i.e., the methylation and GC analyses, rather than the enzymatic transesterification and chromatography utilized to prepare 2-MAGs from the target oil. © 2015 by Japan Oil Chemists’ Society. Source


Yoshinaga K.,Tsukishima Foods Industry Co. | Sato S.,Japan Food Research Laboratories | Sasaki R.,Miyoshi Oil and Fat Co. | Asada M.,Showa Sangyo Co | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Oleo Science | Year: 2016

The positional distributions of fatty acids (FAs) in milk fat containing short- and medium-chain FAs were analyzed by sn-1(3)-selective transesterification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) with ethanol using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB), in a collaborative study conducted by 10 laboratories. The mean C4:0, C6:0, and C8:0 FA contents, when analyzed as propyl esters (PEs) using gas chromatography (GC) with a DB-23 capillary column, were found to be 3.0, 2.0, and, 1.3 area%, respectively. Their reproducibility standard deviations were 0.33, 0.18, and 0.19, respectively. The mean C4:0, C6:0, and C8:0 contents at the sn-2 position were 0.3, 0.4, and 1.0 area%, respectively. Their reproducibility standard deviations were 0.17, 0.11, and 0.19, respectively. The reproducibility standard deviations of C4:0, C6:0, and C8:0 FAs at the sn-2 position were either the same as or smaller than those for milk fat, although the FA contents at the sn-2 position were smaller than those in the milk fat. Therefore, it was concluded that the CALB method for estimating the regiospecific distribution is applicable to TAGs containing short- and medium-chain FAs. When estimating the short-chain (SC) FA contents in fats and oils by GC, it is better to analyze SCFAs as PEs or butyl esters, and not as methyl esters, in order to prevent loss of SCFAs during the experimental procedure because of their volatility and water solubility. This study also revealed that the stationary phase of the GC capillary column affected the flame ionization detector (FID) response of SCFAs. The theoretical FID correction factor (MWFA/active carbon number/atomic weight of carbon) fitted well with the actual FID responses of C4:0-C12:0 FAs when they were analyzed as PEs using a DB-23 column; however, this was not the case when the GC analysis was performed using wax-type columns. © 2016 by Japan Oil Chemists’ Society. Source


Sakai H.,Tokyo University of Science | Aikawa S.,Tokyo University of Science | Matsuda W.,Tokyo University of Science | Ohmori T.,Shiseido Co. | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2012

We have developed a novel cinnamic acid-type photo-cleavable surfactant. This surfactant experiences photo-cleavage through UV-induced cyclization in aqueous solutions. The photo-cleavage not only reduces its capabilities as a surfactant but also yields two functional materials including a coumarin derivative and an aminated polyoxyethylene compound. This means that the photo-cleavable surfactant synthesized in this study is a photo-responsive function-exchangeable material. In our current study, we have characterized the photo-cleavable behavior that occurs in aqueous solutions and a resulting change in interfacial properties. The photo-cleavage induces an increased interfacial tension of a squalane/water interface and a decreased solubilization capability of the surfactant micelles. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Aikawa S.,Tokyo University of Science | Shrestha R.G.,Tokyo University of Science | Ohmori T.,Shiseido Co. | Fukukita Y.,Shiseido Co. | And 8 more authors.
Langmuir | Year: 2013

Recently, we have reported a new cinnamic acid-type photocleavable surfactant, C4-C-N-PEG9 that experiences a photocleavage through UV-induced cyclization in aqueous solution, yielding a coumarin derivative (7-butoxy-2H-chromen-2-one) and an aminated polyoxyethylene compound. Here, we have studied the effects of C4-C-N-PEG9 on the photorheological behavior of viscoelastic wormlike micelles formed by aqueous mixture of nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene phytosterol ether (PhyEO20) and tetraoxyethylene dodecyl ether (C12EO4). The 4.9 wt % PhyEO20/H2O + 2.4 wt % C12EO4 solution forms wormlike micelles, and its viscosity is ∼10 Pa·s. We have found that the addition of C4-C-N-PEG9 into this viscous, non-Newtonian fluid system decreases the viscosity. Viscosity decreased in parallel to the C4-C-N-PEG9 concentration reaching ∼0.003 Pa·s at 2.5 wt % of C4-C-N-PEG9. However, viscosity of the C4-C-N-PEG9 incorporated system increased significantly (∼200 times at 1.5 wt % of C4-C-N-PEG9 system) upon UV irradiation. Small-Angle X-ray scattering studies have shown that addition of C4-C-N-PEG9 favors wormlike-to-sphere type transition in the micellar structure. However, UV irradiation in the C4-C-N-PEG9 incorporated system causes one-dimensional micellar growth. Since C4-C-N-PEG9 has relatively bigger headgroup size compared to the C12EO4, addition of C4-C-N-PEG9 into wormlike micelles reduces the critical packing parameter resulting in the formation of spherical aggregates. UV irradiation induced one-dimensional micellar growth is caused due to photocleavage of the C4-C-N-PEG9 into a less surface-active coumarin derivative and an aminated polyoxyethylene compound, as confirmed by UV-vis spectrometry and HPLC measurements. The hydrophobic coumarin derivative formed after cleavage of C4-C-N-PEG9 goes to the micellar core and is responsible for decreasing the viscosity. However, the hydrophilic aminated polyoxyethylene prefers to reside at the vicinity of headgroup of PhyEO20 reducing the interhead repulsion, increasing the critical packing parameter and the viscosity as well. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

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