Nijman V.,Nocturnal Primate Research GroupOxford Brookes UniversityOxfordUnited Kingdom |
Spaan D.,Institute of NeuroethologyUniversity of VeracruzXalapaMexico |
Rode-Margono E.J.,Nocturnal Primate Research GroupOxford Brookes UniversityOxfordUnited Kingdom |
Wirdateti,Zoological DivisionIndonesian Institute of SciencesCibinongIndonesia |
Nekaris K.A.I.,Nocturnal Primate Research GroupOxford Brookes UniversityOxfordUnited Kingdom
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2015
Indonesia has amongst the highest primate species richness, and many species are included on the country's protected species list, partially to prevent over-exploitation. Nevertheless traders continue to sell primates in open wildlife markets especially on the islands of Java and Bali. We surveyed 13 wildlife markets in 2012-2014 and combined our results with previous surveys from 1990-2009 into a 122-survey dataset with 2,424 records of 17 species. These data showed that the diversity of species in trade decreased over time, shifting from rare rainforest-dwelling primates traded alongside more widespread species that are not confined to forest to the latter type only. In the 1990s and early 2000s orangutans, gibbons and langurs were commonly traded alongside macaques and slow lorises but in the last decade macaques and slow lorises comprised the bulk of the trade. In 2012-2014 we monitored six wildlife markets in Jakarta, Bandung and Garut (all on Java), and Denpasar (Bali). During 51 surveys we recorded 1,272 primates of eight species. Traders offered long-tailed macaque (total 1,007 individuals) and three species of slow loris (228 individuals) in five of the six markets, whereas they traded ebony langurs (18 individuals), and pig-tailed macaques (14 individuals) mostly in Jakarta. Pramuka and Jatinegara markets, both in Jakarta, stood out as important hubs for the primate trade, with a clear shift in importance over time from the former to the latter. Slow lorises, orangutans, gibbons and some langurs are protected under Indonesian law, which prohibits all trade in them; of these protected species, only the slow lorises remained common in trade throughout the 25-year period. Trade in non-protected macaques and langurs is subject to strict regulations-which market traders did not follow-making all the market trade in primates that we observed illegal. Trade poses a substantial threat to Indonesian primates, and without enforcement, the sheer volume of trade may mean that species of Least Concern or Near Threatened may rapidly decline. Am. J. Primatol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bersacola E.,Nocturnal Primate Research GroupOxford Brookes UniversityOxfordUnited Kingdom |
Svensson M.S.,Nocturnal Primate Research GroupOxford Brookes UniversityOxfordUnited Kingdom |
Bearder S.K.,Nocturnal Primate Research GroupOxford Brookes UniversityOxfordUnited Kingdom
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2015
The African nocturnal primates (galagos, pottos, and angwantibos: suborder Strepsirrhini) are the result of the first major primate radiation event in Africa, and are found in different primate communities spread across the entire sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, they represent an interesting group of taxa to investigate community strategies to avoid interspecific competition. Here, we present the result of the first study on nocturnal primate communities in western Angola. We aimed to identify habitat factors influencing strepsirrhine abundance, collect evidence of spatial niche segregation, and discuss possible indications of competitive exclusion in this region. We conducted nocturnal surveys at four study sites: Kumbira, Bimbe, Northern Scarp, and Calandula. At each encounter we recorded species, group size, height of animals above ground, and GPS location. We sampled vegetation using the point-centered quarter method and collected data on canopy cover, disturbance, and undergrowth density. We observed a total of five strepsirrhine species with varying community structures. We did not encounter Galagoides thomasi but we recorded a new species Galagoides sp. nov. 4. Levels of disturbance, canopy cover and undergrowth density were the habitat factors that most influenced variation in abundance of Galagoides demidovii and Perodicticus edwardsi, the latter also preferring the habitat with higher tree density. Vertical separation between sympatric strepsirrhines was strongest in Northern Scarp, where overall relative abundance was also highest. Competitive exclusion between G. thomasi and G. sp. nov. 4 may explain why the former was not present within the Angolan Escarpment sites. We observed coexistence between mainly allopatric Otolemur crassicaudatus and P. edwardsi in Kumbira, and of Galago moholi and G. demidovii in Calandula. Both unusual combinations showed some levels of spatial segregation. Habitat characteristics of the Escarpment region are likely to allow for unique nocturnal primate species assemblages. We urge immediate conservation interventions in the Angolan Escarpment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.