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Lonardo A.,NOCSAE | Nascimbeni F.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Targher G.,University of Verona | Bernardi M.,University of Bologna | And 13 more authors.
Digestive and Liver Disease | Year: 2017

This review summarizes our current understanding of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a multi-factorial systemic disease resulting from a complex interaction between a specific genetic background and multiple environmental/metabolic "hits".The role of gut microbiota, lipotoxicity, inflammation and their molecular pathways is reviewed in-depth. We also discuss the epidemiology and natural history of NAFLD by pinpointing the remarkably high prevalence of NAFLD worldwide and its inherent systemic complications: hepatic (steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis), cardio-metabolic (cardiovascular disease, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias and type 2 diabetes) and neoplastic (primary liver cancers and extra-hepatic cancers).Moreover, we critically report on the diagnostic role of non-invasive biomarkers, imaging techniques and liver biopsy, which remains the reference standard for diagnosing the disease, but cannot be proposed to all patients with suspected NAFLD.Finally, the management of NAFLD is also reviewed, by highlighting the lifestyle changes and the pharmacological options, with a focus on the innovative drugs.We conclude that the results of ongoing studies are eagerly expected to lead to introduce into the clinical arena new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, prevention and surveillance strategies as well as to new drugs for a tailored approach to the management of NAFLD in the individual patient. © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l.

Carlinfante G.,Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova IRCCS | Baccarini P.,University of Bologna | Cassetti T.,Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova IRCCS | Cavina M.,Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova IRCCS | And 13 more authors.
Virchows Archiv | Year: 2014

The Ki-67 labeling index has been found to bear prognostic significance in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), and it was recently incorporated in NET histological grading. Nevertheless, a reliable preoperative determination of NET grading could be useful in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to compare the results of Ki-67 labeling index, as measured on cytological samples and on surgical specimens of patients with pancreatic NETs (P-NETs). We also investigated whether concordance might be improved, using a 5 % (instead of 2 %) cutoff value for defining G2 tumors. We retrospectively identified 48 consecutive patients with 53 P-NETs, from our five institutions, and we measured Ki-67 labeling index on their cytological samples and surgical specimens. The traditional 2 % and the alternative 5 % cutoff values were used to classify G2 tumors. The concordance rate between cytological and histological grading was 46/53 (86.8 %; weighted κ statistic 0.77; 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.60-0.94). No cases of cytological G1-G2 NETs were upgraded to G3 neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) at histological grading. Cytology was found to be highly specific in the diagnosis of both G2 (94.1 %; 95 % CI 80.3-99.3) and G3 tumors (100.0 %; 95 % CI 92.8-100), but the sensitivity was poor for G2 NETs (66.7 %; 95 % CI 38.4-88.2) and high for the prediction of G3 NECs (100 %; 95 % CI 39.8-100.0). When the 5 % cutoff value was adopted, concordance rate was 49/53 (92.4 %; weighted κ 0.82; 95 % CI 0.64-1.00). In conclusion, Ki-67 cytological expression can distinguish well-differentiated (both G1 and G2) from poorly differentiated P-NETs, and it may be useful for their preoperative classification. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

Micaela P.,NOCSAE | Ferdinando A.,Presidio | Vincenzo T.,NOCSAE | Casimiro N.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 15 more authors.
International Journal of Colorectal Disease | Year: 2014

Background and aim: The literature continues to emphasize the advantages of treating patients in "high volume" units by "expert" surgeons, but there is no agreed definition of what is meant by either term. In September 2012, a Consensus Conference on Clinical Competence was organized in Rome as part of the meeting of the National Congress of Italian Surgery (I Congresso Nazionale della Chirurgia Italiana: Unità e valore della chirurgia italiana). The aims were to provide a definition of "expert surgeon" and "high-volume facility" in rectal cancer surgery and to assess their influence on patient outcome. Method: An Organizing Committee (OC), a Scientific Committee (SC), a Group of Experts (E) and a Panel/Jury (P) were set up for the conduct of the Consensus Conference. Review of the literature focused on three main questions including training, "measuring" of quality and to what extent hospital and surgeon volume affects sphincter-preserving procedures, local recurrence, 30-day morbidity and mortality, survival, function, choice of laparoscopic approach and the choice of transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). Results and conclusion: The difficulties encountered in defining competence in rectal surgery arise from the great heterogeneity of the parameters described in the literature to quantify it. Acquisition of data is difficult as many articles were published many years ago. Even with a focus on surgeon and hospital volume, it is difficult to define their role owing to the variability and the quality of the relevant studies. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

Villa E.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Vukotic R.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Camma C.,University of Palermo | Petta S.,University of Palermo | And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Introduction: Chronic hepatitis C is the main cause of death in patients with end-stage liver disease. Prognosis depends on the increase of fibrosis, whose progression is twice as rapid in men as in women. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of reproductive stage on fibrosis severity in women and to compare these findings with age-matched men. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 710 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven chronic hepatitis C was conducted, using data from a clinical database of two tertiary Italian care centers. Four age-matched groups of men served as controls. Data about demographics, biochemistry, liver biopsy and ultrasonography were analyzed. Contributing factors were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Liver fibrosis was more advanced in the early menopausal than in the fully reproductive (P<0.0001) or premenopausal (P = 0.042) group. Late menopausal women had higher liver fibrosis compared with the other groups (fully reproductive, P<0.0001; premenopausal, P = <0.0001; early menopausal, P = 0.052). Multivariate analyses showed that male sex was independently associated with more severe fibrosis in the groups corresponding to premenopausal (P = 0.048) and early menopausal (P = 0.004) but not late menopausal pairs. In women, estradiol/testosterone ratio decreased markedly in early (vs. reproductive age: P = 0.002 and vs. premenopausal: P<0.0001) and late menopause (vs. reproductive age: P = 0.001; vs. premenopausal: P<0.0001). In men age-matched with menopausal women, estradiol/testosterone ratio instead increased (reproductive age group vs. early: P = 0.002 and vs. late M: P = 0.001). Conclusions: The severity of fibrosis in women worsens in parallel with increasing estrogen deprivation and estradiol/testosterone ratio decrease. Our data provide evidence why fibrosis progression is discontinuous in women and more linear and severe in men, in whom aging-associated estradiol/testosterone ratio increase occurs too late to noticeably influence the inflammatory process leading to fibrosis. © 2012 Villa et al.

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