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News Article | February 27, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

Dublin, Feb. 27, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Global Markets for Gasifiers" report to their offering. The global market for new gasifiers is expected to reach 1088 units by 2021 from 887 units in 2016, rising at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.0% from 2015 through 2021. This report identifies, characterizes, describes and forecasts the markets for gasifiers on a global and regional basis. Attention is given to national/state incentives, international agreements, regulatory regimes and political policies that foster, hinder or avoid the implementation of gasifiers. Forecasts are provided to estimate the robustness of the gasifier markets in their different size ranges, feedstocks and applications over time, covering the period of 2015 through 2021. This report provides market data under geographic segmentation as well as technology segmentation. Estimated values provided where available are based on manufacturers' total revenues. This report provides: - An exploration of the global markets for gasifiers - Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2015, estimates for 2016, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2021 - A breakdown of the types of gasifier technologies, including fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, entrained-flow, and plasma - Examinations of feedstocks, such as fossil fuel (coal, petcoke, and residuals), wood, forestry products, waste and waste wood, seed hulls, nut shells, organic refuse, and others (oil palm plantation waste, corn cobs and stover, coconut husks) - Examination of government support mechanisms, climate change policy impacts, and market expansion constraints, such as emissions, component costs, natural gas and shale gas prices, and land requirements for feedstocks - Profiles of major players in the industry Each region is unique in terms of feedstock availability and growth in gross domestic product (GDP). The gasifier market for each segment is analyzed in individual chapters. Under technology segmentation, the report divides the global market into eight technology applications: - Coal to energy (CTE). - Coal to liquids (CTL). - Biomass to energy (BTE). - Biomass to liquids (BTL). - Direct reduced iron (DRI) melting. - Pet coke (includes refinery residuals). - Waste to energy (WTE). - Plasma gasifiers. The status of technology development for each application is reviewed. The efficiencies possible under gasification and other competing technologies available in the specific markets determine the end cost to users. Gasifiers have become a mainstream product in a broad range of applications, which include central power stations, waste treatment, industrial chemicals production, on-site small industrial operations, district cogeneration, residences in rural economically poor areas and more. They are becoming an essential part of the energy conversion landscape and are already a multibillion-dollar-a-year diversified industry on a strong growth path globally. Key Topics Covered: 1: Introduction - Gasification - Gasifiers - Gasifier Manufacturers - Market Drivers - Study Goals And Objectives - Reasons For Doing The Study 2: Summary 3: Overview: Gasifier Technologies - Gasifier Market Structure - Types Of Gasifiers - Functional Distinguishing Design Features - Gasifier System Components - Physical Characteristics Of Gasifiers - Gasification + Direct Reduced Iron - Company-Specific Gasification Technologies - Suppliers That Offer Specific Technologies For The Gasifier Markets 4: Gasifier Applications And Market Trends - Gasification Applications - Gasifier Cost Analysis - Gasifier Market Trends Worldwide 5: Patent Analysis Of Gasifier Technologies - Patent Analysis By Year - Core Patents On Gasifier Technologies - Patent Analysis By Company/Institution - Patent Analysis By Region - Patent Analysis By Technology 6: World Gasifier Market Forecasts - Gasifier Application Market - Gasifier Markets By Region - Export And Import Data 7: North American Gasifier Markets - Forecast For North American Gasifier Markets 8: Western European Gasifier Market Forecast - Laws And Regulations Impacting The Gasifier Markets In Western Europe - Financial Incentives For Gasifiers In Western Europe - Gasifier Markets In Western Europe 9: Pacific Rim Gasifier Markets - Chinese Gasifier Markets - Japanese Gasifier Market - Philippines, South Korea And Taiwan Gasifier Markets - Pacific Rim Countries Gasifier Market Forecasts 10: Southeast Asian Gasifier Markets - Energy Markets In Southeast Asia - Coal Market In Indonesia - Natural Gas In Southeast Asia - Biomass In Southeast Asia - Southeast Asian Gasifier Market Forecasts 11: Gasifier Market In Southwest Asia - India - Bangladesh - Myanmar - Pakistan - Sri Lanka - Southwest Asia - Gasifier Market Forecast 12: Eastern European, Russian And Middle Eastern Gasifier Markets - Energy Markets In Eastern Europe - Forecasts For Gasifier Markets In Eastern Europe, Russia And The Middle East 13: Gasifier Markets In The Southern Hemisphere - Australia - New Zealand - Africa - Latin America And The Caribbean - Forecast Of The Gasifier Markets In The Southern Hemisphere 14: Directory Of Companies Active In The Global Gasifier Market - Aboriginal Cogeneration Corp. - Access Energy Technologies Ltd. - Adaptivearc Inc. - Advanced Plasma Power Ltd. - AESI Llc - Agilyx - AGRO Power Gasification Plant PVT. Ltd. - Air Liquide (Lurgi) - Air Products And Chemicals Inc. - Alentec - All Power Labs Llc - Alqimi (Formerly Absi) - Alstom - Alter Nrg Corp. - AMEC Foster Wheeler - AMEC Foster Wheeler - Global Power Group - Andritz AG - Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. - Appro Technology - Arrya Hi-Tech Energy - Associated Engineering Works - Babcock & Wilcox Vølund A/S - Balboa Pacific Corp. - Bellwether Gasification Technologies Ltd. - Benreg Europe GMBH - Bioresidue Energy Technology Pvt. Ltd. - Btg Bioliquids - Careco (PVT.) Ltd. - Chanderpur Works Pvt. Ltd. - Changzheng Engineering Co. Ltd. - Chemrec AB - Chinook Sciences Llc - Cho-Power - Chongqing Fengyu Electric Equipment Co. Ltd. - Choren Industrietechnik Gmbh - Clariant International - Community Power Corp. - Concord Blue Engineering Gmbh - Conocophillips - Core Biofuel - Corex (U.K.) Ltd. - Cortus Energy - Cosmo Powertech PVT. Ltd. - Creapor S.A. - Creative Energy Systems - Cynar Plc - Diversified Contractors Inc. - DKRW Advanced Fuels - DNV Gl Noble Denton - DPS Global - Dutemp Corp. - Dynamis Energy - E. B. Mechanism PVT. Ltd. - Ebara Corp. - Eco-Energys - Ecofogao - Ecoremedy Energy Technologies - Ener-G Holdings Plc - Energiron Danieli - Energy Works Group - Enerkem - Enersol Technologies Inc. - Enova Energy Group - Ensyn Corp. - Entrade Energy Corp - Envergent Technologies - Epic - ETA Heiztechnik Gmbh - Ethos Energy - Europlasma Group - Excelsior Energy Inc. - Frontline Bioenergy Llc - Fulcrum Bioenergy Inc. - Gasek OY - GB Energy Holding S.R.O. - GE Oil & Gas - Global Energy Collaborations - GP Green Energy Systems - Greatpoint Energy - GTS Syngas S.Rl./Gmbh - Haldor Topsoe A/S - Heat Transfer International (Hti) - Herz Energietechnik - Hitachi Zosen Corp. - Host Bioenergy - Husk Power Systems PVT. Ltd. - ICM Inc. - Ils-Partners Inc. - Inentec Inc. - Ineos Bio - Innerpoint Energy Corp. - Inertam - Infinite Energy Pvt. Ltd. - International Environmental Technologies Inc. (Iet) - Interstate Waste Technologies - Iqr Solutions AB - Japan Blue Energy Co. Ltd. - Jaroslav Cankar A Syn Atmos - Kawasaki Heavy Industries - KBR - Kinc Mineral Technologies Pvt. Ltd. - Kinsei Sangyo Co. Ltd. - Klean Industries Inc. - Kobelco Eco-Solutions Co. Ltd. - Krann Engineering - Linc Energy Ltd. - Linde AG - Magnegas Corp. - Manglam Biomass Gasifiers - Maverick Synfuels - Metso Paper Inc. - Meva Energy AB - Midrex - Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Environmental And Chemical Engineering - Mothermik GMBH - Netpro Renewable Energy (India) Pvt. Ltd. - Nexterra Systems Corp. - Novo Energy Llc - Organic Energy Inc. - Outotec Energy Products - OVN Bio Energy PVT. Ltd. - Peat International - Peat International USA - PHG Energy - Phoenix Bioenergy Llc - Phoenix Energy - Phoenix Products - Phoenix Solutions Co. - Philcarbon - Plantec S.R.L. - Plasco Energy Group - Plasma Power Llc - Plasma2Energy - Powerhouse Energy Group Plc - Primus Green Energy - PRM Energy Systems Inc. - Pyrogenesis - Radhe Renewable Energy Development PVT. Ltd. - Recovered Energy Inc. - Renewables Plus SDN BHD - Rentech Inc. - Repotec Umwelttechnik GMBH - Rishipooja Energy And Engineering Co. - Saint-Gobain Industriekeramik Dusseldorf Gmbh - Sasol - Shell - Siemens Fuel Gasification Technology Gmbh - Sinerga S.A. - Sm Bioleum Resources PVT. Ltd. - Solena Group - Stak Properties Llc - Sundrop Fuels Inc. - Superior Gasification - Synata Bio (Formerly Coskata, Inc.) - Synergy Electric Pvt. Ltd. - Synterra Energy - Synthesis Energy Systems Inc. - Taim Weser S.A. - Takuma Co. Ltd. - Tangshan Keyuan Environmental Protection Technology & Equipment Co. Ltd. - Tarm Biomass - Taylor Biomass Energy Llc - Tenova Hyl (Part Of The Techint Group) - Terragon Environmental Technologies Inc. - Tetronics Ltd. - Thermal Power Research Institute (Tpri) - Thermochem Recovery International Inc. - Thompson Spaven - Thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions AG - Topline Energy System Llc - Trans Gas Development Systems - Trillion International PTE. Ltd. - Tutsel - Upgrade Energy - Urbaser S.A. - Vista International Technologies Inc. - Voestalpine AG - Waste To Energy Canada - W2E Ventures Inc. - WPP Energy Hk Ltd. - Wuxi Teneng Power Machinery Co. Ltd. - Xinbao Biomass Energy Co. Ltd. - Xuzhou Orient Industry Co. Ltd. - Zeachem Inc. - ZEEP - Zero Point Cleantech - Zhongde Waste Technology AG For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/rjgxwh/global_markets


Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Global Markets for Gasifiers" report to their offering. The global market for new gasifiers is expected to reach 1088 units by 2021 from 887 units in 2016, rising at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.0% from 2015 through 2021. This report identifies, characterizes, describes and forecasts the markets for gasifiers on a global and regional basis. Attention is given to national/state incentives, international agreements, regulatory regimes and political policies that foster, hinder or avoid the implementation of gasifiers. Forecasts are provided to estimate the robustness of the gasifier markets in their different size ranges, feedstocks and applications over time, covering the period of 2015 through 2021. This report provides market data under geographic segmentation as well as technology segmentation. Estimated values provided where available are based on manufacturers' total revenues. - An exploration of the global markets for gasifiers - Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2015, estimates for 2016, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2021 - A breakdown of the types of gasifier technologies, including fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, entrained-flow, and plasma - Examinations of feedstocks, such as fossil fuel (coal, petcoke, and residuals), wood, forestry products, waste and waste wood, seed hulls, nut shells, organic refuse, and others (oil palm plantation waste, corn cobs and stover, coconut husks) - Examination of government support mechanisms, climate change policy impacts, and market expansion constraints, such as emissions, component costs, natural gas and shale gas prices, and land requirements for feedstocks - Profiles of major players in the industry Each region is unique in terms of feedstock availability and growth in gross domestic product (GDP). The gasifier market for each segment is analyzed in individual chapters. Under technology segmentation, the report divides the global market into eight technology applications: - Coal to energy (CTE). - Coal to liquids (CTL). - Biomass to energy (BTE). - Biomass to liquids (BTL). - Direct reduced iron (DRI) melting. - Pet coke (includes refinery residuals). - Waste to energy (WTE). - Plasma gasifiers. The status of technology development for each application is reviewed. The efficiencies possible under gasification and other competing technologies available in the specific markets determine the end cost to users. Gasifiers have become a mainstream product in a broad range of applications, which include central power stations, waste treatment, industrial chemicals production, on-site small industrial operations, district cogeneration, residences in rural economically poor areas and more. They are becoming an essential part of the energy conversion landscape and are already a multibillion-dollar-a-year diversified industry on a strong growth path globally. - Gasification - Gasifiers - Gasifier Manufacturers - Market Drivers - Study Goals And Objectives - Reasons For Doing The Study - Gasifier Market Structure - Types Of Gasifiers - Functional Distinguishing Design Features - Gasifier System Components - Physical Characteristics Of Gasifiers - Gasification + Direct Reduced Iron - Company-Specific Gasification Technologies - Suppliers That Offer Specific Technologies For The Gasifier Markets - Patent Analysis By Year - Core Patents On Gasifier Technologies - Patent Analysis By Company/Institution - Patent Analysis By Region - Patent Analysis By Technology - Laws And Regulations Impacting The Gasifier Markets In Western Europe - Financial Incentives For Gasifiers In Western Europe - Gasifier Markets In Western Europe - Energy Markets In Southeast Asia - Coal Market In Indonesia - Natural Gas In Southeast Asia - Biomass In Southeast Asia - Southeast Asian Gasifier Market Forecasts - Energy Markets In Eastern Europe - Forecasts For Gasifier Markets In Eastern Europe, Russia And The Middle East - Australia - New Zealand - Africa - Latin America And The Caribbean - Forecast Of The Gasifier Markets In The Southern Hemisphere 14: Directory Of Companies Active In The Global Gasifier Market - Aboriginal Cogeneration Corp. - Access Energy Technologies Ltd. - Adaptivearc Inc. - Advanced Plasma Power Ltd. - AESI Llc - Agilyx - AGRO Power Gasification Plant PVT. Ltd. - Air Liquide (Lurgi) - Air Products And Chemicals Inc. - Alentec - All Power Labs Llc - Alqimi (Formerly Absi) - Alstom - Alter Nrg Corp. - AMEC Foster Wheeler - AMEC Foster Wheeler - Global Power Group - Andritz AG - Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. - Appro Technology - Arrya Hi-Tech Energy - Associated Engineering Works - Babcock & Wilcox Vølund A/S - Balboa Pacific Corp. - Bellwether Gasification Technologies Ltd. - Benreg Europe GMBH - Bioresidue Energy Technology Pvt. Ltd. - Btg Bioliquids - Careco (PVT.) Ltd. - Chanderpur Works Pvt. Ltd. - Changzheng Engineering Co. Ltd. - Chemrec AB - Chinook Sciences Llc - Cho-Power - Chongqing Fengyu Electric Equipment Co. Ltd. - Choren Industrietechnik Gmbh - Clariant International - Community Power Corp. - Concord Blue Engineering Gmbh - Conocophillips - Core Biofuel - Corex (U.K.) Ltd. - Cortus Energy - Cosmo Powertech PVT. Ltd. - Creapor S.A. - Creative Energy Systems - Cynar Plc - Diversified Contractors Inc. - DKRW Advanced Fuels - DNV Gl Noble Denton - DPS Global - Dutemp Corp. - Dynamis Energy - E. B. Mechanism PVT. Ltd. - Ebara Corp. - Eco-Energys - Ecofogao - Ecoremedy Energy Technologies - Ener-G Holdings Plc - Energiron Danieli - Energy Works Group - Enerkem - Enersol Technologies Inc. - Enova Energy Group - Ensyn Corp. - Entrade Energy Corp - Envergent Technologies - Epic - ETA Heiztechnik Gmbh - Ethos Energy - Europlasma Group - Excelsior Energy Inc. - Frontline Bioenergy Llc - Fulcrum Bioenergy Inc. - Gasek OY - GB Energy Holding S.R.O. - GE Oil & Gas - Global Energy Collaborations - GP Green Energy Systems - Greatpoint Energy - GTS Syngas S.Rl./Gmbh - Haldor Topsoe A/S - Heat Transfer International (Hti) - Herz Energietechnik - Hitachi Zosen Corp. - Host Bioenergy - Husk Power Systems PVT. Ltd. - ICM Inc. - Ils-Partners Inc. - Inentec Inc. - Ineos Bio - Innerpoint Energy Corp. - Inertam - Infinite Energy Pvt. Ltd. - International Environmental Technologies Inc. (Iet) - Interstate Waste Technologies - Iqr Solutions AB - Japan Blue Energy Co. Ltd. - Jaroslav Cankar A Syn Atmos - Kawasaki Heavy Industries - KBR - Kinc Mineral Technologies Pvt. Ltd. - Kinsei Sangyo Co. Ltd. - Klean Industries Inc. - Kobelco Eco-Solutions Co. Ltd. - Krann Engineering - Linc Energy Ltd. - Linde AG - Magnegas Corp. - Manglam Biomass Gasifiers - Maverick Synfuels - Metso Paper Inc. - Meva Energy AB - Midrex - Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Environmental And Chemical Engineering - Mothermik GMBH - Netpro Renewable Energy (India) Pvt. Ltd. - Nexterra Systems Corp. - Novo Energy Llc - Organic Energy Inc. - Outotec Energy Products - OVN Bio Energy PVT. Ltd. - Peat International - Peat International USA - PHG Energy - Phoenix Bioenergy Llc - Phoenix Energy - Phoenix Products - Phoenix Solutions Co. - Philcarbon - Plantec S.R.L. - Plasco Energy Group - Plasma Power Llc - Plasma2Energy - Powerhouse Energy Group Plc - Primus Green Energy - PRM Energy Systems Inc. - Pyrogenesis - Radhe Renewable Energy Development PVT. Ltd. - Recovered Energy Inc. - Renewables Plus SDN BHD - Rentech Inc. - Repotec Umwelttechnik GMBH - Rishipooja Energy And Engineering Co. - Saint-Gobain Industriekeramik Dusseldorf Gmbh - Sasol - Shell - Siemens Fuel Gasification Technology Gmbh - Sinerga S.A. - Sm Bioleum Resources PVT. Ltd. - Solena Group - Stak Properties Llc - Sundrop Fuels Inc. - Superior Gasification - Synata Bio (Formerly Coskata, Inc.) - Synergy Electric Pvt. Ltd. - Synterra Energy - Synthesis Energy Systems Inc. - Taim Weser S.A. - Takuma Co. Ltd. - Tangshan Keyuan Environmental Protection Technology & Equipment Co. Ltd. - Tarm Biomass - Taylor Biomass Energy Llc - Tenova Hyl (Part Of The Techint Group) - Terragon Environmental Technologies Inc. - Tetronics Ltd. - Thermal Power Research Institute (Tpri) - Thermochem Recovery International Inc. - Thompson Spaven - Thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions AG - Topline Energy System Llc - Trans Gas Development Systems - Trillion International PTE. Ltd. - Tutsel - Upgrade Energy - Urbaser S.A. - Vista International Technologies Inc. - Voestalpine AG - Waste To Energy Canada - W2E Ventures Inc. - WPP Energy Hk Ltd. - Wuxi Teneng Power Machinery Co. Ltd. - Xinbao Biomass Energy Co. Ltd. - Xuzhou Orient Industry Co. Ltd. - Zeachem Inc. - ZEEP - Zero Point Cleantech - Zhongde Waste Technology AG For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/fxprjx/global_markets


Johnson D.M.,Noble Denton
Global Congress on Process Safety 2012 - Topical Conference at the 2012 AIChE Spring Meeting and 8th Global Congress on Process Safety | Year: 2012

At approximately 6:10pm on 29th October 2009, a leak of gasoline occurred on the Indian Oil Corporation's (IOC) Petroleum Oil Lubricants Terminal at Jaipur, India. This leak continued for some 75 minutes, when a severe vapor cloud explosion (VCE) occurred, followed by major fires. The sequence of events and cause of the spillage were investigated by an independent Indian committee, however a separate investigation of the evidence specifically related to the VCE has been conducted. This evidence is discussed and compared with that observed following a VCE at the Buncefield oil terminal in the UK in December, 2005 with particular reference to deflagration to detonation transition as this provides the most likely explanation of the Buncefield VCE. The combination of the evidence from the two incidents, supported by information from a small number of other incidents, provides both an indication of the VCE potential for dense vapor clouds and the nature of key forensic evidence that is likely to be observed following such events.


Lowesmith B.J.,Loughborough University | Hankinson G.,Loughborough University | Johnson D.M.,Noble Denton
Process Safety and Environmental Protection | Year: 2011

A series of large scale vapour cloud explosions in a long congested region were conducted using methane/hydrogen mixtures. The congested region measured 3 m × 3 m × 18 m long and was preceded by a confined region which allowed an explosion flame with some initial flame speed and turbulence to be generated which then entered the congested region. During the experiments the flame speed and explosion overpressure were measured through the congested region. The hydrogen content in the methane/hydrogen mixture was varied from 0 to 50% by volume. A key objective was to determine factors that could lead to continued flame acceleration through the congested region, such as the hydrogen concentration, the initial flame speed entering the congestion and the level of congestion. The results are reported together with some detailed observations of the complex nature of pressure traces produced by explosion events of this type. © 2011 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Johnson D.M.,Noble Denton
Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series | Year: 2012

At approximately 6:10pm on 29th October 2009, a leak of gasoline occurred on the Indian Oil Corporation's (IOC) Petroleum Oil Lubricants Terminal at Jaipur, India. This leak continued for some 75 minutes, when the vapour cloud ignited, resulting in a severe vapour cloud explosion (VCE), eleven fatalities and many tank fires. The sequence of events and cause of the spillage were investigated by an independent Indian committee. However, the VCE in the Jaipur incident shared a number of characteristics with the VCE at the Buncefield terminal in the UK in December 2005. Given these similarities, evidence related to the Jaipur VCE was collected by the author over a three day period at the site during February 2010, at which time much of the evidence on the site was relatively undisturbed. The combination of the evidence from the two incidents, supported by information from a small number of previous incidents, provides both an indication of the VCE potential for dense vapour clouds and the nature of key forensic evidence that is likely to be observed following such events. This evidence is summarised and comment provided on the implications for the assessment of explosion hazards on onshore sites. © 2012 IChemE.


Brown M.G.,Noble Denton
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Offshore Europe Conference and Exhibition, OE 2013 | Year: 2013

This paper summarises 10 years of experience gained during the repair/renewal/life extension of several North Sea FPSO mooring systems. This includes reference to Phases 1 and 2 of GL Noble Denton's Mooring Integrity Joint Industry Project (JIP) plus recent North Sea mooring system repair and replacement operations. Issues encountered and typical mooring degradation mechanisms are reviewed making reference to the age of the components. The paper discusses how issues have been addressed in practice taking into account the risk of failure, offshore conditions and equipment availability. Brief descriptions are included of the various mooring intervention campaigns including actual offshore schedules, selected vessels, required additional equipment and ROV spreads. Positive and negative lessons learnt during the intervention campaigns are included. The importance of allowing sufficient time for planning and preparation of the intervention campaigns is stressed. Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Ryan D.,Noble Denton
Offshore Engineer | Year: 2015

Mike Roberts and David Ryan from DNV GL stated that the safe installation of the first tension-leg wellhead platform in Papa Terra, offshore Brazil could pave the way for future similar developments. First production from Papa Terra in March 2015 signaled the successful completion of a landmark development, involving the first tension leg wellhead platform (TLWP), P-61, for South America and inaugural application of dry tree technology off Brazil. DNV GL's global teams played an important role in identifying, mitigating and eliminating risk during a particularly high-profile and complex project.


Byrne D.,Noble Denton
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Civil Engineering | Year: 2010

This paper looks at trends in ship dimensions for all major ship categories, using the underlying economic determinants to describe why the changes have occurred in the past and what might be expected in the future. The implications of the changes in the design and operation of ships on port infrastructure are discussed.


Johnson D.M.,Noble Denton
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries | Year: 2010

At around 06.00 on Sunday 11th December 2005, a vapour cloud explosion occurred at Buncefield Oil Storage Depot, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, UK, generating significant blast pressures. However, as a storage site, the Buncefield terminal had very little pipework congestion and at first sight would not have been considered as having much potential for a vapour cloud explosion. As a consequence, one of the actions of the Buncefield Major Incident Investigation Board (BMIIB) was to initiate a review of the possible causes of the severe explosion on the site. This review was then extended to a Joint Industry Project, Phase 1 of which has offered an explanation of the cause of the explosion. The conclusions are summarized along with reference to relevant experimental studies, illustrating how the elements of the explanation were already known. The implications of the incident for the assessment of vapour cloud explosion hazards will be discussed, both in terms of understanding worst case consequences and the use of risk based approaches. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Hansen O.R.,Noble Denton
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2013

Chemical and petrochemical facilities will have substances that may need to be released to atmosphere, either all the time or on special occasions like system maintenance situations or as a part of safety procedures during unwanted process safety incidents. As the substances are often toxic and denser than air, the typical solution has been to vent the substances from stacks at a significant elevation. While this solution may work well when there is significant wind, the gas plume may fall to the ground during low wind scenarios (< 1-2 m/s) exposing workers or neighbours of the facility to problematic gas concentrations. To ensure safe design of stack venting systems it is common to use integral models for dispersion predicting downwind distribution of gas. While standard integral consequence models may predict gas concentrations for wind dominated scenarios well, generally they cannot predict plume behaviour and hazards for the more critical low wind scenarios. For these scenarios gas plume density, slumping to the ground, effects of buildings, process plant geometry and topology are important. In this work CFD modelling has been utilized to better understand stack dispersion during low winds to be able to predict the hazards and identify the safe operational window. Among several interesting findings of the study was that worst-case concentrations at ground level may significantly increase with reduced stack flow rate, as the vertical upwards velocity and mixing with air are reduced. Several mitigation possibilities to reduce ground level gas concentrations during low wind scenarios exist. This study concluded that a frequently used approach of extending the stack had a very limited beneficial effect, while strong vertical fans next to the stack during low wind conditions could have a very beneficial effect reducing ground level concentrations.

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