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Kathmandu, Nepal

Gurung T.R.,KLE University | Gurung V.N.,Nobel College
Journal of the Nepal Medical Association | Year: 2014

Introduction: The World Health Organization defines obesity as a ‘global epidemic’. An overweight adolescent has a 70% chance of becoming obese. Overweight and obese adolescents are at higher risk for developing long-term chronic diseases. So the present study objective is to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescent school students.Methods: A sample size of 300 adolescent students was taken to conduct a cross-sectional study. Body weight and height were recorded and body mass index was categorized based on age-and sex-specific cut-off values as per International Obesity Task Force reference growth charts. Proportions of obese, overweight and underweight children were calculated and subjected to chi-square and logistic regression tests at the P<0.05 significance level.Results: The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in the present study were 12% and 3.3% respectively. The highest prevalence was among those aged 15 years i.e. 36.7%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher among the subject who did not practice physical activity and whose family income was more than Rs. 10,000 per month.Conclusions: Prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents student in Belgaum city was high which is statistically associated with less physical activity and monthly income of parent. © 2014, Nepal Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source


Gupta S.,Lamjung District Hospital | Singh A.,Lamjung District Hospital | Gupta N.,National Open College | Shrestha V.L.,Nobel College
Journal of the Nepal Medical Association | Year: 2012

Introduction: Family planning services have the potential to improve the quality of the lives of people. The study was done to assess the family planning practice and methods among the married women of reproductive age attending female clinic of district hospital of Nepal. Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive study carried out from October 2011 till December 2011 at Lamjung district hospital. One hundred randomly selected married women of 15-49 years, who had at least one child were the subjects of the study. A structured questionnaire on knowledge, practice and methods of use of contraception was composed and fi lled up. Results: The results were encouraging with 94 (94%) of participants having knowledge about contraception. The study showed that 32 (32%) of the married women belonged to 20-24 years of age group. Among them 64 (68%) were using modern contraception methods. Injectables hormonal contraceptives were most commonly practiced by 34 (54%) women. Among not using any contraceptives, 18 (60%) of them said their husband being abroad. Conclusions: Family planning knowledge and practice among the rural women utilizing the service was appreciable. Temporary method of contraception was most commonly practiced. Source


Shrestha R.,University of Connecticut Health Center | Shrestha R.,University of Connecticut | Karki P.,Nobel College | Karki P.,University of Connecticut | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: Sex trafficking has been a long-standing concern in Nepal. Very little has been achieved, however, in terms of actual reduction in the number of victims despite numerous anti-sex trafficking programs. This situation may be attributable to a lack of empirical evidence upon which to formulate anti-sexual trafficking interventions. This study aimed to assess sex trafficking- related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns among adolescent female students in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between August-September 2013 among 292 adolescent female students (>10 years old) using systematic random sampling from three high schools in Sindhupalchowk district, Nepal. As an initial step, descriptive analyses were employed to characterize the data and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and related attitudes. Results: Seventy-six percent of sampled students reported that they were aware of sex trafficking and 94.6% indicated media (i.e., radio or television) as the primary sources of their knowledge. Fifty-one percent mentioned relatives/friends as mediators of sex trafficking, 60.4% reported promise for better jobs as the primary attraction behind sex trafficking, and 48.6% mentioned adolescent females as the most vulnerable group for sex trafficking. Over half (56.8%) of the respondents had positive attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns. Age (OR = 3.38, 95% CI:2.51-4.55), parents' occupation (OR = 3.89, 95% CI:1.58-9.58), and having a radio/TV at home (OR = 6.67, 95% CI:3.99-9.54) were significantly associated with awareness, whereas being younger (OR = 0.67, 95% CI:0.55-0.79) and having joint-family (OR = 2.67, 95% CI:1.49-4.80) were significantly associated with having a positive attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/ or anti-sex trafficking campaigns. Conclusion: Findings presented have important implications for anti-trafficking programs, in particular those designed to educate the adolescent females who are at most-risk of sex trafficking. Educational programs need to include specific interventions to improve knowledge and attitudes towards sex trafficking among adolescent females in Nepal. © 2015 Shrestha et al. Source


Shrestha N.,MaxPro | Lohani S.P.,Nobel College | Angdembe M.R.,Central Institute of Science and Technology | Bhattarai K.,Kantipur Dental College | Bhattarai J.,Metro Clinic
Journal of the Nepal Medical Association | Year: 2013

Introduction: In developing countries diabetes mellitus affects economically productive age group; more often affecting the productive member of the family. The objective of the study was to estimate the direct and indirect cost of illness of patients with DM attending the selected outpatient clinics in Kathmandu Valley. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in four outpatient clinics in Kathmandu Valley among 227 diabetic patients selected purposively. It was conducted from July to September, 2010. An adapted and pretested semi structured questionnaire was administered to diabetic patients aged 20 to 60 years with a minimum of a year of illness. Results: The mean total cost per visit by a diabetic patient to an outpatient clinic was US $13.3 (95% CI: 11.70-14.92). Likewise the total cost incurred in the treatment and care of DM per month was US $ 40.41 (95% CI: 36.38-44.45) and per annum was US $ 445 (95% CI: 396.11- 495.61). In addition, the study results also showed that with increase in total direct cost per annum the duration of illness also increases. Conclusions: There is a high cost burden on the patient with DM visiting the selected private sector outpatient clinics. Source


Bhatta B.,Nobel College | Thapa R.,Nobel College | Shahi S.,Nobel College | Bhatta Y.,Mahakali Zonal Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2016

Background: Breast cancer is the second most common malignancy among Nepalese women, accounting for 60% of the total cancer cases in females. Women diagnosed with germline mutations in BRCA1 like 185delAG, 1294del40 develop breast and/or ovarian cancer with a lifelong likelihood of up to 85% whereas presence of a mutation increases the risk for mutations to occur in other genes. The major objective of this study was to find the prevalence of these mutations in Nepalese cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out at two cancer hospitals in the Kathmandu valley over a period of 11 months. Irrespective of age group and stage of canceran appropriate amount of blood was withdrawn from 50 breast cancer patients and 20 controls. DNA was extracted manually and subjected to PCR using primers for 185delAG and 1294del40 mutations. PCR products were then digested with restriction enzyme (DdeII) followed by electrophoresis. Results: Prevalence of 185delAG in reference breast cancer patients was found to be 4/50 (8%) but no 1294del40 was apparent. Conclusions: Several mutations occurring in different exons of BRCA1 as well as mutations in other genes like BRCA2, for example, should also be taken in account. Source

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