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Vivekanand M.,No. 24
Astrophysical Journal

Hard X-ray data from the RXTE observatory (HEXTE energy range 15-240 keV) have been analyzed to obtain a phase-coherent timing solution for the Crab pulsar glitch of 2000 July 15. The results are: (1) the step change in the rotation frequency v0 of the Crab pulsar at the epoch of the glitch is Δv0; = (30 ± 3) × 10-9 × v0;(2) the step change in its time derivative is Δνv0 = (4.8 ± 0.6) × 10-3 × ν0; and (3) the timescale of decay of the step change is τd = 4.7 × 0.5 days. The first two results are consistent with those obtained at radio frequencies by the Jodrell Bank observatory. The last result has not been quoted in the literature, but could be an underestimate due to a lack of observations very close to the glitch epoch. Through comparison with the monthly timing ephemeris published by the Jodrell group for the Crab pulsar, the time delay between the main peaks of the hard X-ray and radio pulse profiles is estimated to be +411 ± 167 μs. Although this number is not very significant, it is consistent with the number derived for the 2-16 keV energy range, using the Proportional Counter Array instrument of RXTE. The separation between the two peaks of the integrated pulse profile of the Crab pulsar and the ratio of their intensities are both statistically similar before and after the glitch. The dead time corrected integrated photon flux within the integrated pulse profile appears to decrease after the glitch, although this is not a statistically strong result. This work achieves what can be considered to be an almost absolute timing analysis of the Crab pulsar hard X-ray data. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Vivekanand M.,No. 24
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Context. In October 1997, radio pulses from the Crab Pulsar underwent abnormal delay. This was reported by two radio observatories, both of which explained this frequency dependent and time varying delay as being due to refractive effects of ionized shells in the Crab Nebula. Both groups also noted that, curiously and confusingly coincident with the frequency dependent delay, the Crab Pulsar also underwent an unusual slowing down, which they believed to be unrelated to the Crab Nebula and instead intrinsic to the Crab Pulsar, resulting in an additional delay that was frequency independent. However, it now appears that one of the groups attributes the frequency independent delay also to refractive effects. Aims. This work aims to verify whether at least a part of the frequency independent delay is indeed due to intrinsic slowing down of the Crab Pulsar. Methods. Timing analysis of the Crab Pulsar's October 1997 event has been done in X-rays, which are not delayed by the refractive and diffractive effects that affect radio waves; at X-rays only the intrinsic slowing down should contribute to any observed delay. Data mainly from the PCA instrument aboard the RXTE satellite have been used, along with a small amount of data from the PDS instrument aboard the BeppoSAX satellite. Results. Analysis of the X-ray data, using the very accurate reference timing model derived at radio frequencies, strongly supports the intrinsic slowing down hypothesis. Analysis using the reference timing model derived self-consistently from the limited X-ray data, which is less accurate, is not completely unambiguous regarding the above two hypotheses, but provides reasonable support for the intrinsic slowing down hypothesis. Conclusions. A significant fraction of the frequency independent delay during the October 1997 event is indeed due to intrinsic slowing down of the Crab Pulsar. © ESO, 2016. Source

Razavi Hajiagha S.H.,Khatam Institute of Higher Education | Akrami H.,No. 24 | Hashemi S.S.,Islamic Azad University at Kashan | Amoozad Mahdiraji H.,Islamic Azad University at Kashan
Engineering Economics

Project management (PM) is one of the prominent fields in business and industry. Every task of an organization can be imagined as a project, being a coordinated set of activities toward a common goal. One important aspect of PM is analysing the information related to the optimum balance among the project’s objectives. Each project is a combination of different activities, being connected to each other and having several success criteria, among which the time, cost and quality of the project completion are more significant, due to their significant effect on obtained results. Accordingly, the time might lead to delay and penalty which means more cost; and cost may be underestimated than real required funds. They both will lead to failure in project management. On the other hand, quality is the final key which confirms the success. The aim of a time-cost-quality trade-off problem (TCQTP) is to select a set of activities and an appropriate execution mode for each activity; the cost and time of the project is minimized while the project quality is maximized. The purpose of this paper is to present a model for TCQTP in which these parameters are approximated by grey numbers. Since there are various modes to accomplish each activity, the trade-off problem is formulated based upon a multi-objective integer grey programming model. Afterwards, a goal programming- based approach is designed to solve this model. The model's results provide a framework for the project manager to manage his/ her project successfully, in acceptable time, with the lowest cost and the highest quality. The main originality of the proposed model is the approximation of time, cost and quality parameters of activities mode with grey numbers and the development of a two phase goal programming- based approach to solve this problem. Ultimately, the proposed model is applied in two different cases and results are illustrated to clarify the outstanding capabilities of the model. © 2014, Kauno Technologijos Universitetas. All rights reserved. Source

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