Salih A.M.,University Putra Malaysia |
Ahmad M.B.,University Putra Malaysia |
Ibrahim N.A.,University Putra Malaysia |
HjMohd Dahlan K.Z.,Polycomposite SDN Bhd |
And 3 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2015
Over the past few decades, there has been an increasing demand for bio-based polymers and resins in industrial applications, due to their potential lower cost and environmental impact compared with petroleum-based counterparts. The present research concerns the synthesis of epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) from an epoxidized palm oil product (EPOP) as environmentally friendly material. EPOP was acrylated by acrylic acid via a ring opening reaction. The kinetics of the acrylation reaction were monitored throughout the reaction course and the acid value of the reaction mixture reached 10 mg KOH/g after 16 h, indicating the consumption of the acrylic acid. The obtained epoxy acrylate was investigated intensively by means of FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and the results revealed that the ring opening reaction was completed successfully with an acrylation yield about 82%. The UV free radical polymerization of EPOLA was carried out using two types of photoinitiators. The radiation curing behavior was determined by following the conversion of the acrylate groups. The cross-linking density and the hardness of the cured EPOLA films were measured to evaluate the effect of the photoinitiator on the solid film characteristics, besides, the thermal and mechanical properties were also evaluated.
Zhang C.H.,No. 107 |
Xi X.L.,Yantai University |
Liu S.T.,No. 107 |
Shao L.J.,No. 107 |
Hu X.H.,No. 107
Science China Earth Sciences | Year: 2014
Mesoscale eddies exist almost everywhere in the ocean and play important roles in the ocean circulation of the world. These eddies may cause sound spread singular regions and bring great influences to the upwater ship and underwater aircraft. Due to the lack of hydrographic survey datasets, study of mesoscale eddies has been greatly restricted. Fortunately, satellite altimeter provided an effective way to study mesoscale eddies. An automatic detection algorithm is introduced to detect mesoscale eddies of specific intensity and spatial/temporal scale based on satellite sea surface height (SSH) data and the algorithm is applied in a strong eddy activity region: the South China Sea and the Northwest Pacific. The algorithm includes four steps. The first step is preprocessing of the SSH image, which includes elimination of error SSH data and interpolation. The second step is to detect suspected mesoscale eddies from preprocessed SSH images by dynamic threshold adjustment and morphological method, and the suspected mesoscale eddy detection includes two procedures: suspected mesoscale eddy core region detection and suspected mesoscale eddy brim extraction. The third step is to pick out mesoscale eddies satisfied with specified criteria from suspected mesoscale eddies. The criteria include three items, that is, intensity criterion, spatial scale, criterion and temporal scale criterion. The last step is algorithm performance analysis and verification. The algorithm has the capability of adaptive parameter adjustment, and can extract mesoscale eddies of interested intensity and spatial/temporal scale. The paper can provide a basis for analyzing space-time characteristics of mesoscale eddy in the South China Sea and the Northwest Pacific. © 2014 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.