Nnamdi Azikiwe University

Awka, Nigeria

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka is a Federal university in Nigeria. Its main campus is located in the southeastern part of Nigeria in Anambra State's capital, Awka, and a second campus is at Nnewi. It is one of twenty-five federal universities which are overseen and accredited by the National Universities Commission. According to the Universities Matriculation Examination Board, 'Unizik' is the second most sorted after university in Nigeria . History Nnamdi Azikiwe University came into being as an offshoot of the defunct Anambra State University of Technology . ASUTECH which was established through Law No. 7 of 30 July 1980 by the Government of the old Anambra operated as a multi-campus university, with campuses in Abakiliki, Enugu, Awka and Nnewi.In 1991, following the split of the old Anambra State into Anambra and Enugu States, the Awka and Nnewi campuses of the former ASUTECH were constituent into Nnamdi Azikiwe University by the Anambra State Edict No.5 of November 26, 1991. Nnamdi Azikiwe University was taken over by the Federal Government by Decree No. 34 of July 15, 1992In 1991, after the former Anambra State was split into Anambra and Enugu States, the Awka and Nnewi campuses of the former Anambra State University of Technology were combined into Nnamdi Azikiwe University, which was later taken over by Federal government. The university is named after Nnamdi Azikiwe, the first president of Nigeria. The Awka Campus became Nnamdi Azikiwe University. In 1992,the Federal Government of Nigeria took over the University from Anambra State. Nnamdi Azikiwe University, thus, became a Federal University. Location Of The UniversityThe main campus of the University is located at Awka sited thirty-five kilometers to the South -West of Awka, the second campus is at Nnewi and the third campus is at Agulu Student's PopulationThe University has a population of twenty-four thousand seven hundred and six for the full-time and twelve thousand, four hundred and seventy-six students for the part-time programmes during the 2004/2005 academic year.The university offers a diverse range of courses of study, including Arts, Natural science, Engineering, Management science, Medical and Health science, Social science, Law, African Languages, European Languages, and Education. In the 2004–2005 academic year there were 24,706 full-time students and 12,476 part-time students enrolled. The current Vice Chancellor is Prof. Boniface Egboka who took over from Prof.Ilochi Okafor . On 26th of May, 2014, Prof. Joe Ahaneku was announced as the Vice Chancellor elect. Wikipedia.

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Attama A.A.,University of Nigeria | Attama A.A.,Nnamdi Azikiwe University | Umeyor C.E.,Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Therapeutic Delivery | Year: 2015

Novel solid lipid drug delivery systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have attracted wide and increasing attention in recent years. It has been sought as an interesting alternative drug delivery carrier system for bioactives for a variety of delivery routes. They show major advantages such as sustained release, improved bioavailability, improved drug incorporation and very wide application. This paper presents a discussion on the production protocols of SLN, lyophilization of SLN and delivery of SLN across the blood-brain barrier. Special attention was also paid to entrapment and release of drugs from SLN and strategies to enhance drug entrapment in SLN for sustained release. Analytical methods for the characterization of SLN were also discussed. Various routes of administration of SLN were presented as well as a consideration of the ethical issues and future prospects in the production and use of SLN for sustained release of bioactives. © 2015 Future Science Ltd.

Ogbo F.C.,Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

Two fungi characterized as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger, isolated from decaying cassava peels were used to convert cassava wastes by the semi-solid fermentation technique to phosphate biofertilizer. The isolates solubilized Ca 3(PO 4) 2, AlPO 4 and FePO 4 in liquid Pikovskaya medium, a process that was accompanied by acid production. Medium for the SSF fermentation was composed of 1% raw cassava starch and 3% poultry droppings as nutrients and 96% ground (0.5-1.5 mm) dried cassava peels as carrier material. During the 14 days fermentation, both test organisms increased in biomass in this medium as indicated by increases in phosphatase activity and drop in pH. Ground cassava peels satisfied many properties required of carrier material particularly in respect of the organisms under study. Biofertilizer produced using A. niger significantly (p < .05) improved the growth of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] in pot experiments but product made with A. fumigatus did not. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Udigwe G.O.,Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Nigerian journal of medicine : journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria | Year: 2013

Sub-Saharan Africa has continued to bear the greatest burden of HIV/AIDS epidemic in the world. Partner disclosure of status may create opportunities for support or rejection. This study evaluated the pattern of partner disclosure of HIV positive women, their partners' reaction and factors that affect disclosure of HIV status to partners. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among pregnant women in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain relevant information from the subjects. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20 software. One hundred and twenty six women participated in this study. The mean age of the women was 30.4 years +/- 5 while the mean parity was 2.6 +/- 1. All the patients had at least primary education with 63.5% having secondary education as the highest educational attainment. One hundred and sixteen (92.1%) were in monogamous marriage. One hundred and fourteen 90.5%) had disclosed their HIV status to their partners. Eighty-three (66.7%) of the women did this by self. Partners initial reaction was supportive in 84 (66.7%) of the women. Partner's subsequent reaction showed that 103 (81.2%) were supportive, 7 (5.6%) were indifferent while 4 (3.2%) were abusive and violent. The partner's HIV status showed that 54 (42.9) tested positive to HIV antibodies while 52 (41.3%) tested negative to HIV antibodies and 20 (15.9%) do not know partner's HIV status. There was strong correlation between disclosure of HIV status with monogamous marriage and duration of illness. The partners' reaction to HIV status of their female partners was largely supportive. Disclosure of HIV status should be encouraged in view of the needed support of the partner in management of these women.

Esebelahie N.O.,Nnamdi Azikiwe University
The Libyan journal of medicine | Year: 2013

Candidiasis is the commonest opportunistic fungal infection in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). CD4+ lymphocyte counts have been found to be a marker of HIV disease progression. This study focused on determining the spectrum of Candida isolates in urine, stool, and oral specimens among HIV patients in a tertiary hospital. A total of 300 subjects comprising of 200 HIV patients and 100 non-HIV subjects were used for this study. Three samples (urine, stool, and oral swab) were collected from each subject. Each specimen was processed using standard microbiological techniques and emergent Candida isolates were identified with CHROMagar™ Candida and sugar fermentation tests. The overall prevalence of Candida colonisation among HIV patients was 52.5%. HAART-naive patients had a significantly higher prevalence (OR = 3.65; 95% CI = 2.03-6.56; p<0.0001) than their counterpart on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.13-3.50; p=0.0232). Female gender was a significant risk factor for acquiring Candida infection (OR = 3.40; 95% CI = 1.14-10.13; p=0.0289). The effect of age on prevalence of candidiasis was observed among HIV patients on HAART (p=0.0161). A CD4+ count <200 cells/μl was a significant risk factor for acquiring candidal infection only among HAART-naive patients (OR = 4.37; 95% CI = 1.60-11.95; p=0.0042). The five species of Candida recovered from this study were C. albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata. There is a significant relationship between antiretroviral therapy, CD4+ counts, and the prevalence of candidiasis.

Nwosu B.O.,Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Nigerian journal of medicine : journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria | Year: 2012

In order to scale up Antenatal services, there is need to determine the factors that deter women from accessing antenatal care. To determine the proximate factors that affect utilization of antenatal care among market women in Nnewi, southeastern Nigeria. MATERIALS/METHOD: A cross sectional survey of 400 market women using semi structured questionnaires and focus group discussions. Out of the 398 studied women, 97.2% attended antenatal care in their last pregnancy. Most (64.5%) of them booked after the third trimester and majority of the women received antenatal care from the private specialist hospitals (37.4%), followed by the private general practice hospitals (34.7%) and government hospitals (17.8%). The main reasons for choosing antenatal care facilities were the perceived friendliness of the staff (33.9%), availability of staff always (27.4%) and proximity of the facility (17.4%). Financial considerations accounted for 4.5% of the reasons for the choice of facility. There was no significant influence of age, parity and religion on the utilization of antenatal care. However, the likelihood of ANC attendance was significantly lower among the house wives (x2 = 14.2; p = 0.0). There was no association between choice of facility for ANC and age, parity, occupation or religion. The main reasons identified by the FGD discussants for preferring the private hospitals were more friendly and available staff. Also late booking was mainly attributed to wrong advice from friends and husbands refusal to provide money. Antenatal care attendance rate was high among the studied women and most of the women utilize private hospitals for care. Staff friendliness and availability at all times were the main reasons for choice of ANC facilities. There is the need to address the negative attitudes of the staff in government hospitals.

Mbachu I.,Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Nigerian journal of medicine : journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria | Year: 2013

Hypertension is a common medical complication of pregnancy. It is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Early detection, close surveillance and timely delivery are necessary to reduce complications associated with the condition. To determine the pattern, risk factors, maternal and fetal outcomes in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. This was a descriptive retrospective study of the pattern and obstetrics outcome of hypertensive disorders in Nnewi. The Obstetric variables from 148 women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, from the 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2008 were analyzed. Stastical analysis was done using Epi Info version 3.3.2. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. of the 4021 deliveries in the hospital during the period under review, 148 (3.7%) were managed for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Only 138 folders were used for analysis. The mean age of the women was 31.3 +/- 5.7 years. Majority of the women were unbooked (57.2%). Pre-eclampsia was the commonest type of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (46.4%) with the majority presenting with severe disease. The level of proteinuria was significant in 74.6% of cases of preeclampsia. The mean gestational age at delivery was 35.3 +/- 1.5 weeks. The mean birth weight was 1.6 +/- 0.3 kg. Twenty-four intra uterine deaths were recorded giving a stillbirth rate of 17.4%. The perinatal mortality rate was 20.9%. Diagnosis was made in the ante-partum period in 92.0% of the cases while 55.2% of the women delivered through Caesarean section. Eight maternal deaths were recorded, giving a case fatality rate of 5.8%. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in Nnewi, Nigeria. Antenatal care will help in early diagnosis and timely intervention of the cases. There is need for strengthening of communication and referral systems in the healthcare.

Okonkwo U.C.,Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Nigerian journal of medicine : journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria | Year: 2011

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains the commonest malignancy of the liver. In spite of the recent advances in treatment, prognosis is still abysmal especially in developing countries. This article aims to review the clinical and pathological features of HCC in a tertiary hospital at Nnewi. This was a cross-sectional study. Patients with HCC seen at the Medical Out-patient Department or admitted into the Medical wards of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi were recruited. The study lasted from June 2007 to May, 2008. Subjects were clinically evaluated and blood samples collected for HBsAg, anti-HCV and HBeAg assays. The prevalence of HCC was 2.4%. Of the 60 patients studied, 38 were males and 22 were females with a male to female ratio of 2:1. Their ages ranged from 19-86 years with a mean age of 50.62 +/- 17.54. The mean duration of symptoms before presentation was 16 weeks and the mean duration from onset of symptoms to death is 20 weeks. Common presenting symptoms were painful right hypochondrial mass, abdominal swelling, weight loss, early satiety and fatigue while coagulopathy, ascites and hepatic encephalopathy were the most common complications. Multiple lesions affecting both lobes of the liver was seen in 48 patients on ultrasound, 36.6% were positive for HBsAg of which 41% were HBeAg positive. HCV antibodies were present in 8.3% of the patients. Well differentiated HCC of the pseudo-glandular variety was the most common histological type. HCC affects middle aged Nigerians. Though well differentiated, it presents late with clinical features of advanced disease leading to death within six months. It is more often associated with chronic HBV than HCV infection.

Oguejiofor G.C.,Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning and Policy | Year: 2010

Given the magnitude of the Nigerian coal reserves, the industrialization role coal played in the pre-petroleum era, and the resources conservation consideration dictating that some local resources be used so as to conserve and extend the depletion years of oil and gas, Enugu coal offers a promising alternative solution to Nigeria's power generation. Unfortunately, emissions from coal combination chiefly impose some environmental bottlenecks to coal utilization for power generation. This article reviews the roles of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide emissions as acid gas, as well as the activities of carbon dioxide as both acid gas and greenhouse gas. The article also examines the impact of environmental concern and legislation on the control of combustion emissions. To ensure compliance with legislation and environmental concerns, this paper proposed fluidized bed combustion as the remedy for combustion emissions control. In this regard, two categories of FBC, namely bubbling fluidized bed and circulating fluidized bed combustors, were reviewed in conjunction with their modes of operation in the forms of: atmospheric fluidized bed combustion and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. The review showed that the bubbling fluidized beds are more viable for retrofit applications, while the circulating fluidized bed units are more applicable in new plants. Owing to the non inclusion of carbon dioxide parameters in the operating credentials of bubbling fluidized bed and circulating fluidized bed units, some of the known technologies for carbon dioxide scrubbing/removal were suggested as this article will show. Copyright © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Ozoegwu C.G.,Nnamdi Azikiwe University
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture | Year: 2014

First and second order least squares methods are used in generating simple approximation polynomials for the state term of the model for regenerative chatter in the milling process. The least squares approximation of delayed state term and periodic term of the model does not go beyond first order. The resulting discrete maps are demonstrated to have same convergence rate as the discrete maps in other works that are based on the interpolation theory. The presented discrete maps are illustrated to be beneficial in terms of computational time (CT) savings that derive from reduction in the number of calculation needed for generation system monodromy matrix. This benefit is so much that computational time of second order least squares-based discrete map is noticeably shorter than that of first order interpolation-based discrete map. It is expected from analysis then verified numerically that savings in CT due to use of least squares theory relative to use of interpolation theory of same order rises with rise in order of approximation. The experimentally determined model parameters used for numerical calculations are extracted from literature. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Oluboyo A.O.,Nnamdi Azikiwe University
African journal of medicine and medical sciences | Year: 2012

In the recent years, male infertility and sub-fertility have increased, which is attributable to many factors. Some trace elements such as zinc and selenium have been shown to play a role in reproduction. The study was designed to determine the serum levels of zinc, selenium and testosterone in infertile males attending fertility clinic in Nnewi. We investigated fifty apparently infertile males (subjects) and twenty apparently healthy fertile males (controls) between the ages of twenty five and fifty five years. The serum levels of zinc and selenium were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer while the serum level of testosterone was determined using Enzyme Immunoassay techniques. The results showed that there were significant differences in the mean serum zinc, selenium and testosterone when compared between the two groups. The results also showed a strong positive correlation between serum levels of zinc and selenium, a negative correlation between serum levels of testosterone and zinc, and a strong positive correlation between serum testosterone and selenium in the infertile males. We therefore conclude that there is a relationship between the serum levels of zinc, selenium and testosterone in infertile males and that these parameters be considered when investigating cases of infertility in males.

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