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Knappskog S.,University of Bergen | Gansmo L.B.,University of Bergen | Dibirova K.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Metspalu A.,University of Tartu | And 35 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2014

The MDM2 promoter SNP285C is located on the SNP309G allele. While SNP309G enhances Sp1 transcription factor binding and MDM2 transcription, SNP285C antagonizes Sp1 binding and reduces the risk of breast-, ovary- and endometrial cancer. Assessing SNP285 and 309 genotypes across 25 different ethnic populations (>10.000 individuals), the incidence of SNP285C was 6-8% across European populations except for Finns (1.2%) and Saami (0.3%). The incidence decreased towards the Middle-East and Eastern Russia, and SNP285C was absent among Han Chinese, Mongolians and African Americans. Interhaplotype variation analyses estimated SNP285C to have originated about 14,700 years ago (95% CI: 8,300 - 33,300). Both this estimate and the geographical distribution suggest SNP285C to have arisen after the separation between Caucasians and modern day East Asians (17,000 - 40,000 years ago). We observed a strong inverse correlation (r = -0.805; p < 0.001) between the percentage of SNP309G alleles harboring SNP285C and the MAF for SNP309G itself across different populations suggesting selection and environmental adaptation with respect to MDM2 expression in recent human evolution. In conclusion, we found SNP285C to be a pan-Caucasian variant. Ethnic variation regarding distribution of SNP285C needs to be taken into account when assessing the impact of MDM2 SNPs on cancer risk.


PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, University of Newcastle, Dr. Horst Schmidt Kliniken Wiesbaden, Medical University of South Carolina and 104 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medical genetics | Year: 2016

The rarity of mutations in PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM make it difficult to estimate precisely associated cancer risks. Population-based family studies have provided evidence that at least some of these mutations are associated with breast cancer risk as high as those associated with rare BRCA2 mutations. We aimed to estimate the relative risks associated with specific rare variants in PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM via a multicentre case-control study.We genotyped 10 rare mutations using the custom iCOGS array: PALB2 c.1592delT, c.2816T>G and c.3113G>A, CHEK2 c.349A>G, c.538C>T, c.715G>A, c.1036C>T, c.1312G>T, and c.1343T>G and ATM c.7271T>G. We assessed associations with breast cancer risk (42671 cases and 42164 controls), as well as prostate (22301 cases and 22320 controls) and ovarian (14542 cases and 23491 controls) cancer risk, for each variant.For European women, strong evidence of association with breast cancer risk was observed for PALB2 c.1592delT OR 3.44 (95% CI 1.39 to 8.52, p=7.110This report adds to accumulating evidence that at least some variants in these genes are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that is clinically important.


PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, The Alfred Hospital and 63 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-0.96), rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99), rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99), rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) located in the 3 UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects.


PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, University of Cologne, Genome Institute of Singapore, Ministry of Public Health and 93 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Human molecular genetics | Year: 2014

Previous studies have suggested that polymorphisms in CASP8 on chromosome 2 are associated with breast cancer risk. To clarify the role of CASP8 in breast cancer susceptibility, we carried out dense genotyping of this region in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a 1 Mb region around CASP8 were genotyped in 46 450 breast cancer cases and 42 600 controls of European origin from 41 studies participating in the BCAC as part of a custom genotyping array experiment (iCOGS). Missing genotypes and SNPs were imputed and, after quality exclusions, 501 typed and 1232 imputed SNPs were included in logistic regression models adjusting for study and ancestry principal components. The SNPs retained in the final model were investigated further in data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising in total 10 052 case and 12 575 control subjects. The most significant association signal observed in European subjects was for the imputed intronic SNP rs1830298 in ALS2CR12 (telomeric to CASP8), with per allele odds ratio and 95% confidence interval [OR (95% confidence interval, CI)] for the minor allele of 1.05 (1.03-1.07), P = 1 10(-5). Three additional independent signals from intronic SNPs were identified, in CASP8 (rs36043647), ALS2CR11 (rs59278883) and CFLAR (rs7558475). The association with rs1830298 was replicated in the imputed results from the combined GWAS (P = 3 10(-6)), yielding a combined OR (95% CI) of 1.06 (1.04-1.08), P = 1 10(-9). Analyses of gene expression associations in peripheral blood and normal breast tissue indicate that CASP8 might be the target gene, suggesting a mechanism involving apoptosis.


PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, University of Cologne, Fondazione Irccs Instituto Of Ricovero E Cura A Carattere Scientifico Instituto Nazionale Tumori Int, Coordinating Center and 115 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Breast cancer research : BCR | Year: 2016

Multiple recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs10771399, at 12p11 that is associated with breast cancer risk.We performed a fine-scale mapping study of a 700kb region including 441 genotyped and more than 1300 imputed genetic variants in 48,155 cases and 43,612 controls of European descent, 6269 cases and 6624 controls of East Asian descent and 1116 cases and 932 controls of African descent in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC; http://bcac.ccge.medschl.cam.ac.uk/ ), and in 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Stepwise regression analyses were performed to identify independent association signals. Data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project (ENCODE) and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used for functional annotation.Analysis of data from European descendants found evidence for four independent association signals at 12p11, represented by rs7297051 (odds ratio (OR)=1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.06-1.12; P=310(-9)), rs805510 (OR=1.08, 95% CI=1.04-1.12, P=210(-5)), and rs1871152 (OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.02-1.06; P=210(-4)) identified in the general populations, and rs113824616 (P=710(-5)) identified in the meta-analysis of BCAC ER-negative cases and BRCA1 mutation carriers. SNPs rs7297051, rs805510 and rs113824616 were also associated with breast cancer risk at P<0.05 in East Asians, but none of the associations were statistically significant in African descendants. Multiple candidate functional variants are located in putative enhancer sequences. Chromatin interaction data suggested that PTHLH was the likely target gene of these enhancers. Of the six variants with the strongest evidence of potential functionality, rs11049453 was statistically significantly associated with the expression of PTHLH and its nearby gene CCDC91 at P<0.05.This study identified four independent association signals at 12p11 and revealed potentially functional variants, providing additional insights into the underlying biological mechanism(s) for the association observed between variants at 12p11 and breast cancer risk.


Landwehr R.,Hannover Medical School | Bogdanova N.V.,Hannover Medical School | Antonenkova N.,Nn Alexandrov Research Institute Of Oncology And Medical Radiology | Meyer A.,Hannover Medical School | And 6 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

SLX4 coordinates three structure-specific endonucleases in the DNA damage response. One subtype of Fanconi anaemia, FA-P, has recently been attributed to biallelic SLX4 gene mutations. To investigate whether monoallelic SLX4 gene defects play some role in the inherited component of breast cancer susceptibility, in this study we resequenced the whole SLX4 coding region and flanking untranslated sections in genomic DNA samples obtained from a total of 52 German or Byelorussian patients with familial breast cancer. Selected variants were subsequently screened by RFLP or TaqMan-based assays in an extended set of 965 German breast cancer cases and 985 healthy female controls. The resequencing study uncovered four new SLX4 missense substitutions, each of them in a single breast cancer patient. Three missense substitutions (p.V197A, p.G700R and p.R1034H) were not found in a subsequent screening of 240 additional breast cancer patients, while one missense substitution (p.R237Q) was more common and was detected in a total of 12 cases (1.3%) and seven controls (0.7%) in the Hannover breast cancer study. The rare missense substitution, p.G700R, resides in the conserved BTB domain and was in silico predicted to be pathogenic. Seven additional missense polymorphisms were correlated and formed one haplotype which was, however, neither associated with breast cancer risk nor with survival from breast cancer. In summary, this study did not reveal truncating or clearly pathogenic mutations, but unravelled four new unclassified missense variants at a low frequency. We conclude that there is no evidence for a major role of SLX4 coding variants in the inherited susceptibility towards breast cancer in German and Byelorussian patients, although very rare mutations such as the p.G700R substitution could make a minor contribution. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Kohlhase S.,Hannover Medical School | Bogdanova N.V.,Hannover Medical School | Schurmann P.,Hannover Medical School | Bermisheva M.,Hannover Medical School | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The ERCC4 protein forms a structure-specific endonuclease involved in the DNA damage response. Different cancer syndromes such as a subtype of Xeroderma pigmentosum, XPF, and recently a subtype of Fanconi Anemia, FA-Q, have been attributed to biallelic ERCC4 gene mutations. To investigate whether monoallelic ERCC4 gene defects play some role in the inherited component of breast cancer susceptibility, we sequenced the whole ERCC4 coding region and flanking untranslated portions in a series of 101 Byelorussian and German breast cancer patients selected for familial disease (set 1, n = 63) or for the presence of the rs1800067 risk haplotype (set 2, n = 38). This study confirmed six known and one novel exonic variants, including four missense substitutions but no truncating mutation. Missense substitution p.R415Q (rs1800067), a previously postulated breast cancer susceptibility allele, was subsequently screened for in a total of 3,698 breast cancer cases and 2,868 controls from Germany, Belarus or Russia. The Gln415 allele appeared protective against breast cancer in the German series, with the strongest effect for ductal histology (OR 0.67; 95%CI 0.49; 0.92; p = 0.003), but this association was not confirmed in the other two series, with the combined analysis yielding an overall Mantel-Haenszel OR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.81; 1.08). There was no significant effect of p.R415Q on breast cancer survival in the German patient series. The other three detected ERCC4 missense mutations included two known rare variants as well as a novel substitution, p.E17V, that we identified on a p.R415Q haplotype background. The p.E17V mutation is predicted to be probably damaging but was present in just one heterozygous patient. We conclude that the contribution of ERCC4/FANCQ coding mutations to hereditary breast cancer in Central and Eastern Europe is likely to be small. © 2014 Kohlhase et al.


Prokofyeva D.,Hannover Medical School | Prokofyeva D.,Bashkir State University | Bogdanova N.,Hannover Medical School | Dubrowinskaja N.,Hannover Medical School | And 13 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2013

Bloom's syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive chromosomal instability disorder with a high incidence of various types of neoplasia, including breast cancer. Whether monoallelic BLM mutations predispose to breast cancer has been a long-standing question. A nonsense mutation, p.Q548X, has recently been associated with an increased risk for breast cancer in a Russian case-control study. In the present work, we have investigated the prevalence of this Slavic BLM founder mutation in a total of 3,188 breast cancer cases and 2,458 controls from Bashkortostan, Belarus, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan. The p.Q548X allele was most frequent in Russian patients (0.8 %) but was also prevalent in Byelorussian and Ukrainian patients (0.5 and 0.6 %, respectively), whereas it was absent in Altaic or other non-European subpopulations. In a combined analysis of our four case-control series, the p.Q548X mutation was significantly associated with breast cancer (Mantel-Haenszel OR 5.1, 95 % CI 1.2; 21.9, p = 0.03). A meta-analysis with the previous study from the St. Petersburg area corroborates the association (OR 5.7, 95 % CI 2.0; 15.9, p = 3.7 × 10-4). A meta-analysis for all published truncating mutations further supports the association of BLM with breast cancer, with an estimated two- to five-fold increase in risk (OR 3.3, 95 %CI 1.9; 5.6, p = 1.9 × 10-5). Altogether, these data indicate that BLM is not only a gene for Bloom's syndrome but also might represent a breast cancer susceptibility gene. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


PubMed | Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Hannover Medical School, Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Helmholtz Center for Infection Research and Nn Alexandrov Research Institute Of Oncology And Medical Radiology
Type: | Journal: Breast cancer research and treatment | Year: 2017

APOBEC3B belongs to the family of DNA-editing enzymes. A copy number variant targeting the genomic APOBEC3A-APOBEC3B locus has a significant impact on breast cancer risk, but the relative contribution of APOBEC3B is uncertain. In this study, we investigate a loss-of-function mutation that selectively targets APOBEC3B, for its association with breast cancer risk.We performed exome sequencing on genomic DNA samples of 6 Byelorussian patients with familial breast cancer. We then studied through mutation-specific genotyping four hospital-based breast cancer case-control series from Belarus, Russia, Germany, and Iran, respectively, comprising a total of 3070 breast cancer patients and 2878 healthy females. Results were evaluated using fixed-effects meta-analyses.Exome sequencing uncovered a frameshift mutation, APOBEC3B*c.783delG, that was recurrent in the study populations. Subsequent genotyping identified this mutation in 23 additional breast cancer cases and 9 healthy female controls, with an adjusted Odds Ratio 2.29 (95% CI 1.04; 5.03, P=0.04) in the combined analysis. There was an enrichment of the c.783delG mutation in patients with breast cancer diagnosed below 50years of age (OR 3.22, 95% CI 1.37; 7.56, P=0.007).APOBEC3B*c.783delG showed evidence of modest association with breast cancer and seemed to contribute to earlier onset of the disease. These results may need to be reconciled with proposals to consider APOBEC3B as a possible therapeutic target in breast cancer.


PubMed | Hannover Medical School, Hospital DIAKOVERE Henriettenstift and Nn Alexandrov Research Institute Of Oncology And Medical Radiology
Type: | Journal: Familial cancer | Year: 2016

RECQL is a DNA helicase required for genomic stability. Two studies have recently identified RECQL as a novel breast cancer susceptibility gene. The most common RECQL mutation, the 4bp-deletion c.1667_1667+3delAGTA, was five-fold enriched in Polish breast cancer patients, but the exact magnitude of the risk is uncertain. We investigated two hospital-based breast cancer case-control series from Belarus and Germany, respectively, comprising a total of 2596 breast cancer patients and 2132 healthy females. The mutation was found in 9 cases and 6 controls, with an adjusted Odds Ratio 1.23 (95% CI 0.44-3.47; p=0.69) in the combined analysis. Among the cases, heterozygosity for c.1667_1667+3delAGTA was linked with estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer. There was no significant difference in age at diagnosis between carriers and non-carriers, and only one of the carriers reported a first-degree family history. Meta-analysis with the initial study from Poland suggests an about two-fold increase in risk for this mutation (OR 2.51; 95% CI 1.13-5.57, p=0.02). Altogether, the data indicate that RECQL* c.1667_1667+3delAGTA is not a high-risk mutation for breast cancer though it could represent a moderate-risk breast cancer susceptibility allele. Further studies will be required to determine the clinical significance of testing for this RECQL mutation.

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