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« Kokam deploys new 24MW and 16MW Lithium NMC energy storage systems for frequency regulation | Main | Toyota developing wearable mobility device for the blind and visually impaired » Nestlé Waters North America is adding more than 150 medium-duty beverage delivery trucks fueled by propane autogas. Over the vehicles’ lifetime, the 155 Ford F-650 trucks will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by more than 24.6 million pounds. These units will be deployed beginning in April. The new medium-duty delivery trucks, added to the company’s existing autogas fleet of 30 Ford trucks of the same model, will also help the company save on maintenance and fuel costs. Propane autogas, a domestically produced fuel, costs the company an average of $1 per gallon, versus their $2 per gallon cost of diesel. Each delivery truck is equipped with a California Air Resources Board- and Environmental Protection Agency-compliant ROUSH CleanTech propane autogas fuel system with a 45-usable gallon fuel tank. Mickey Body in High Point, North Carolina, upfitted the vehicles with side-load beverage bays. The Nestlé Waters North America propane trucks are used to deliver product to its customers across the country including Los Angeles, San Francisco, Washington, D.C., Milwaukee and Fort Lauderdale. Deployments in 2016 will include New York City, Boston, Dallas, Houston, Chicago, Philadelphia and Baltimore. Another propane autogas delivery fleet user is Bimbo Bakeries USA, with 84 Ford F-59 propane autogas-fueled delivery vans for its bread and baked goods. Equipped with ROUSH CleanTech fuel technology, the trucks operate in three of BBU’s major markets: Chicago, Denver, and Washington DC.

« Orange EV taking orders for new Class 8 electric terminal truck | Main | 2017 Audi A4 ultra with Millerized 2.0 TFSI offers 31 mpg combined; highest EPA-estimated fuel economy in competitive segment » The Solar Impulse 2—the solar airplane that recently completed a round-the-world flight—used batteries from Kokam, based on that company’s advanced Ultra High Energy Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt (NMC) Oxide (Ultra High Energy NMC) technology. The Solar Impulse uses four 38.5 kWh Kokam Ultra High Energy NMC battery packs—one in each motor housing—with 150 Ah cells totaling 154 kWh of energy storage. Over the course of 17 flights totaling 26,744 miles (43,041 kilometers), the Solar Impulse 2’s 17,248 mono-crystalline silicon solar cells—mounted atop the wings, fuselage and horizontal stabilizer—produced 11,000 kWh of electricity, much of which was stored in its Kokam Ultra High Energy NMC batteries and then discharged to power the plane at night. Total mass of the batteries is 633kg (2,077 lb). The four brushless, sensorless motors each generating 17.4 hp and are fitted with a reduction gear that limits the rotation speed of the 4m diameter, two-bladed propeller to 525 rev/min. The aircraft can fly at an average speed of 70 km/h (43 mph), takeoff at a speed of 44 km/h (27 mph) and attain a maximum cruising attitude of 8,500 m (27,900 ft). Kokam’s Ultra High Energy NMC batteries feature an energy density of approximately 260 watts hours per kilogram (Wh/kg). This high energy density enables the Solar Impulse 2 to store more energy without increasing the plane’s weight or size. In addition, Kokam’s Ultra High Energy NMC batteries have a 96% efficiency, meaning less energy is wasted when the batteries charge or discharge. Kokam’s NMC battery technology’s high energy density and efficiency, along with its ability to operate over a wide range of temperature, humidity and pressure conditions, led the Solar Impulse team to select Kokam’s NMC battery technology for both the first prototype, the Solar Impulse 1, which was the first zero-fuel solar airplane to fly between continents and across the continental United States, and the current and second prototype, the Solar Impulse 2, which is the first zero-fuel solar airplane to circumnavigate the globe. We had to find and use the most advanced solar, material and battery technologies available on the market at the time of the design to build a plane capable of flying around the world using only the power of the sun. What was critical was to get the lightest and most energy efficient solution, and we consequently selected Kokam’s Ultra High Energy NMC batteries, which has been our battery solution since the first flight of Solar Impulse 1 in December 2009 until the final leg landing of Solar Impulse 2 in Abu Dhabi in July 2016. In April, Kokam introduced a variety of new high energy battery solutions based on its advanced Ultra High Energy NMC battery technology for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and other unmanned systems. In addition, dozens of customers around the world currently use Kokam’s advanced battery solutions for UAV, electric plane and other aviation applications, including industry leaders Airbus, Trimble, ECA Group and FT Sistemas. During the most challenging leg of the Solar Impulse 2’s flight around the world—the 5-day and night record-breaking flight from Nagoya, Japan to Hawaii—the Solar Impulse 2’s battery temperature increased due to a different flight profile than the one planned and the over-insulation of the gondolas (engine housings) in relation to the outside temperature. As a result, the Solar Impulse 2’s Ultra High Energy NMC batteries were heated to a temperature close to 50 ˚C for an extended period of time—a temperature higher than the design specifications. Because it was impossible to rule out capacity loss or other damage to the batteries with the facilities available in Hawaii, for safety reasons the Solar Impulse team decided to replace the batteries with new ones. Later, post flight tests of the original batteries at a facility in Germany determined that the batteries were undamaged, with only a small decrease in the capacity of the batteries compared to their original capacity in November 2013. Given the use of the batteries for two years, this level of capacity loss is normal. However, to avoid potential overheating of its batteries in the future the Solar Impulse team installed a new cooling system designed to prevent any temperature-related problems if the flight mission profile changes. In addition, in case the cooling system breaks down, a new backup system allows the pilot to manually open the container’s vent, allowing him to use outside air to cool the batteries without letting them get too cold and freeze. In addition, a few adjustments have been made to the engine housing, which shelters both the battery and engine: an air vent was added to let air flow into the battery’s cooling system. The Solar Impulse team also ensured that future flight plans provided the batteries with sufficient time to cool between flights, and adjusted its flight planning to avoid overheating batteries in tropical climates. When you are designing an experimental aircraft every additional system is a potential source of failure, and that is why we had not initially integrated a cooling system. As we had the time in Hawaii to replace the batteries, we decided to integrate the cooling system to give the airplane more flexibility, especially in very high temperature environments. The overheating problem was in no way related to any issue with Kokam’s batteries, which have delivered excellent performance for Solar Impulse 1 and on every leg of the flight with Solar Impulse 2, supporting our record- breaking circumnavigation of the globe. In the production of its cells, Kokam uses its patented Z-folding manufacturing technique and advanced Lithium Polymer and thin film laminations. Z-folding is a “zig-zag” type folding technique for Li-ion polymer batteries; other techniques include the conventional flat-wound jelly roll, and plain-stacked electrode structures. Kokam says that its Z-fold cell’s parallel pairs of electrodes offer unmatched low internal resistance, which results in less energy loss in high temperature heat as the cell charges and discharges. The very large surface area and thin cross-section of Kokam’s polymerized aluminum pouch construction allows much more efficient thermal transfer than do cylindrical or thick, plastic coated prismatic cells. The heat dissipation is also correlated with safety. Kokam offers its Ultra High Energy NMC cells in 12, 26 and 150 Ah configurations. In addition to the Ultra High Energy NMC cells, Kokam offers High Power NMC cells, Ultra High Power NMC cells and Lithium Titanate cells. Kokam Co., Ltd has provided a wide range of lithium ion/polymer battery solutions to customers in more than 50 countries and many different industries, including the military, aerospace, marine, Electric Vehicle (EV), Energy Storage System (ESS) and industrial markets.

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« 2017 Range Rover Sport gains new Ingenium 2.0L diesel as option; semi-autonomous driving tech | Main | Solar Impulse 2 used Kokam Ultra High Energy NMC batteries in round-the-world solar flight » Orange EV is accepting orders for its all-new T-Series battery-electric terminal truck. Orange EV’s initial T-Series, a complete re-manufacture of existing trucks, has been operating up to 24+ hours per charge at sites from single shift to 24x7 in: railroad inter-modal, LTL freight, manufacturing, retail distribution, waste management and warehouse container handling. By placing a $10,000 refundable deposit by YE 2016, fleets lock in price, production priority, and Orange EV’s telematics service free of charge on trucks ordered by 31 March 2017. Fleets in the Priority Program place $10,000 refundable deposits and enjoy: Orange EV’s Fleet Information Management System (FIMS) telematics service provides real time information on truck performance. The data available via FIMS helps operators quantify cost savings and emissions eliminated while enabling them to manage and improve truck utilization. Orange EV will continue taking orders as fleets are ready, while on a monthly basis querying program participants in sequence for their orders. In this way the program helps new fleets begin the process, while ensuring those that are ready may begin their deployments as soon as possible. Financing, incentives, carbon credits and other programs provide fleets additional assistance and incentives to accelerate deployment of Orange EV’s pure electric terminal trucks. Traditional equipment financing helps reduce initial cash outlay and fund the balance of purchase from cost savings. Federal and regional programs exist to further reduce purchase price and spur adoption. Even without incentive programs the total cost of ownership for Orange EV’s electric vehicles is often less than what many fleets spend to purchase and operate their diesel trucks. The incentives help fleets invest in their initial vehicles, but it’s the per truck savings of up to $60,000 annually that will drive fleet-wide adoption.

Kyle Field, Matthew Klippenstein, and I had an extra long session for Cleantech Talk #16. In this episode, we discussed… … a huge BYD energy storage project that is supposed to help Lancaster, California, become a net-zero-energy city. (Matthew found out about the 500 MW project on another podcast — storage capacity is unknown at this point. There are more details down in the show notes.) You can listen and subscribe to our podcasts on iTunes or SoundCloud, you can listen by hitting the play button in the embedded player below, or you can download the podcast and then listen. Matthew puts together show notes, and we’ve decided to share those here now as well: CleanTechnica has previously featured the city of Lancaster, California, highlighting how its Republican (!) Mayor convinced city council to pass a law in March 2013 requiring solar panels to be installed for every newly-built single family home, as of January 1, 2014. Lancaster – which enjoys 350 days of sunshine per year – is aiming to be a net-zero-electricity city by 2020, producing as much power within city limits as it consumes, each year. Home to BYD’s North American electric bus manufacturing facilities, it stands a good chance of reaching its stated goal of becoming the Alternative Energy Capital of the World. And now its chances have gotten even better. On a recent conference call of West Coast mayors convened by the No New Fossil Fuel Infrastructure movement, Mayor Parris revealed that the city of Lancaster is working with BYD on a 500 MW energy storage system. A BYD representative confirmed this via email, taking care to emphasize that discussions were still in the early stages. (A big, big tip of the hat to Alex Smith’s Radio Ecoshock podcast.) Greentech Media had projected that cumulative battery storage installations in the United States wouldn’t exceed a power rating of 500 MW until 2018 – and even then, just barely. Some upward revisions may be in order…! If the project under discussion follows the typical pattern of 4 MWh energy storage per 1 MW power capacity (meaning that the batteries are sized to be able to discharge at 100% of rated power for four hours) that would mean this “battery peaker plant” would involve an enormous 2 GWh of BYD’s lithium-iron-phosphate batteries. That’s 2 million kWh, which is the equivalent of 200,000 Tesla Powerwalls, or 22,000 top-of-the-line Telsa Model S or X 90D’s. It’s also about double the 280 MW of battery storage that California utility SoCal Edison recently signed up for. And this project’s size – on par with many legacy natural gas peakers – might make it a milestone we back on years from now, marking the beginning of our transition in earnest to battery peaker plants. All in all, it’s fantastic news with which to ring in the New Year — and all of us at CleanTechnica (and the Cleantech Talk podcast too) can’t wait to bring you the daily latest and greatest as we accelerate into this epochal transition! This battery peaker plant should work well for Lancaster, the per-capita solar capital of America. (A comparison from three years ago had them at 130 Watts of solar panels installed per capita, way ahead of second-place San Jose which had 40 Watts. Given the growth of photovoltaics since then, their per-capita lead alone is probably 130 Watts by now…) City Council had also come out swinging against a proposed 570 MW natural gas combined-cycle generator in the neighbouring city of Palmdale, so the city’s support for the battery peaker could be a case of proving their new proposal better. It would also help them manage any “duck curve” effects they might see from the solar infrastructure they continue to build throughout the city. As such, the battery peaker should greatly enhance the value of Lancaster’s solar electricity – the California Energy Storage Alliance estimates the value of storage-backed solar at 25 cents/kWh! The contrast in BYD and Tesla business plans makes for a great “pincer” movement on personal vehicles, with Tesla attacking from above (with unparalleled aspirational vehicles) and BYD striking from below (moving up the aspirational ladder). BYD anticipated sales of 6,000 electric buses worldwide in 2015, roughly on par with the number of buses (of all sorts) sold in the United States every year. Worldwide, there are probably about half a million (500,000) buses in the world, with the number expected to increase as urban centers grow and become more dense. It’s worth noting that they use lithium-iron-phosphate batteries (LiFePO4), instead of the lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide type (“NMC” or LiNiMnCoO2) favoured by Tesla and many other electric vehicle makers. The advantage of NMC batteries is superior energy density, with the disadvantage being stability. Safety systems need to be designed around them to prevent freak instances of thermal runaway (fires) during recharging. Lithium-iron-phosphate batteries have roughly half the energy density, but are very stable, so need a lot less in the way of protective sub-systems. BYD clearly thinks the savings make their chemistry worthwhile. A decent high-level overview of litihium-ion battery chemistries is here. The CNN story featuring Bob Lutz pooh-poohing the Toyota Prius back in 2004 is here. And the infamous Steve Ballmer video pooh-poohing the iPhone back in 2007 or so is here.    Get CleanTechnica’s 1st (completely free) electric car report → “Electric Cars: What Early Adopters & First Followers Want.”   Come attend CleanTechnica’s 1st “Cleantech Revolution Tour” event → in Berlin, Germany, April 9–10.   Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter.   Zachary Shahan is tryin' to help society help itself (and other species) one letter at a time. He spends most of his time here on CleanTechnica as its director and chief editor. Otherwise, he's probably enthusiastically fulfilling his duties as the director/editor of EV Obsession, Gas2, Solar Love, Planetsave, or Bikocity; or as president of Important Media. Zach is recognized globally as a solar energy, electric car, energy storage, and wind energy expert. If you would like him to speak at a related conference or event, connect with him via social media: ZacharyShahan.com, .

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Site: http://www.nanotech-now.com/

Abstract: The material at the heart of the lithium ion batteries that power electric vehicles, laptop computers and smartphones has been shown to impair a key soil bacterium, according to new research published online in the journal Chemistry of Materials. The study by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the University of Minnesota is an early signal that the growing use of the new nanoscale materials used in the rechargeable batteries that power portable electronics and electric and hybrid vehicles may have untold environmental consequences. Researchers led by UW-Madison chemistry Professor Robert J. Hamers explored the effects of the compound nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC), an emerging material manufactured in the form of nanoparticles that is being rapidly incorporated into lithium ion battery technology, on the common soil and sediment bacterium Shewanella oneidensis. "As far as we know, this is the first study that's looked at the environmental impact of these materials," says Hamers, who collaborated with the laboratories of University of Minnesota chemist Christy Haynes and UW-Madison soil scientist Joel Pedersen to perform the new work. NMC and other mixed metal oxides manufactured at the nanoscale are poised to become the dominant materials used to store energy for portable electronics and electric vehicles. The materials, notes Hamers, are cheap and effective. "Nickel is dirt cheap. It's pretty good at energy storage. It is also toxic. So is cobalt," Hamers says of the components of the metal compound that, when made in the form of nanoparticles, becomes an efficient cathode material in a battery, and one that recharges much more efficiently than a conventional battery due to its nanoscale properties. Hamers, Haynes and Pedersen tested the effects of NMC on a hardy soil bacterium known for its ability to convert metal ions to nutrients. Ubiquitous in the environment and found worldwide, Shewanella oneidensis, says Haynes, is "particularly relevant for studies of potentially metal-releasing engineered nanomaterials. You can imagine Shewanella both as a toxicity indicator species and as a potential bioremediator." Subjected to the particles released by degrading NMC, the bacterium exhibited inhibited growth and respiration. "At the nanoscale, NMC dissolves incongruently," says Haynes, releasing more nickel and cobalt than manganese. "We want to dig into this further and figure out how these ions impact bacterial gene expression, but that work is still underway." Haynes adds that "it is not reasonable to generalize the results from one bacterial strain to an entire ecosystem, but this may be the first 'red flag' that leads us to consider this more broadly." The group, which conducted the study under the auspices of the National Science Foundation-funded Center for Sustainable Nanotechnology at UW-Madison, also plans to study the effects of NMC on higher organisms. According to Hamers, the big challenge will be keeping old lithium ion batteries out of landfills, where they will ultimately break down and may release their constituent materials into the environment. "There is a really good national infrastructure for recycling lead batteries," he says. "However, as we move toward these cheaper materials there is no longer a strong economic force for recycling. But even if the economic drivers are such that you can use these new engineered materials, the idea is to keep them out of the landfills. There is going to be 75 to 80 pounds of these mixed metal oxides in the cathodes of an electric vehicle." Hamers argues that there are ways for industry to minimize the potential environmental effects of useful materials such as coatings, "the M&M strategy," but the ultimate goal is to design new environmentally benign materials that are just as technologically effective. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

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