Manichand R.N.,Staatsolie Maatschappij Suriname N.V. |
Seright R.S.,NM Technology
Proceedings - SPE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery | Year: 2014
During a polymer flood, polymer retention can have a major impact on the rate of polymer propagation through a reservoir, and consequently, on oil recovery. A review of the polymer-retention literature revealed that iron and high-surface-area minerals (e.g., clays) dominate polymer retention measurements in permeable rock and sand (>100 md). A review of the literature on inaccessible pore volume revealed inconsistent and unexplained behavior. A conservative approach to design of a polymer flood in high-permeability (>1 darcy) sands would assume that inaccessible pore volume is zero. Laboratory measurements using fluids and sands associated with the Sarah Maria polymer flood , Suriname suggested polymer retention and inaccessible pore volume values near zero. A procedure was developed using salinity-tracer and polymer concentrations from production wells to estimate polymer retention during the Sarah Maria polymer flood in the Tambaredjo reservoir. Field calculations indicated much higher polymer retention values than lab tests, typically ranging from ∼50 to 250 μg/g. Field cores necessarily represent an extremely small fraction of the reservoir. Because of the importance of polymer retention, there is considerable value in deriving polymer retention from field results, so that information can be used in the design of project expansions. Copyright 2014 Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Rapin N.,University of Saskatchewan |
Johns K.,University of Saskatchewan |
Martin L.,University of Saskatchewan |
Warnecke L.,University of Winnipeg |
And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Recently bats have been associated with the emergence of diseases, both as reservoirs for several new viral diseases in humans and other animals, in the northern Americas, as hosts for a devastating fungal disease that threatens to drive several bat species to regional extinction. However, despite these catastrophic events little Information is available on bat defences or how they interact with their pathogens. Even less is known about the response of bats to infection during torpor or long-term hibernation. Using tissue samples collected at the termination of an experiment to explore the pathogenesis of White Nose Syndrome in Little Brown Bats, we determined if hibernating bats infected with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans could respond to infection by activating genes responsible for innate immune and stress responses. Lesions due to fungal infection, in some cases, secondary bacterial infections, were restricted to the skin. However, we were unable to obtain sufficient amounts of RNA from these sites. We therefore examined lungs for response at an epithelial surface not linked to the primary site of infection. We found that bats responded to infection with a significant increase in lungs of transcripts for Cathelicidin (an anti-microbial peptide) as well as the immune modulators tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukins 10 and 23. In conclusion, hibernating bats can respond to experimental P. destructans infection by activating expression of innate immune response genes. ©2014 Rapin et al.
Ammar N.,Wayne State University |
Malik Z.,Wayne State University |
Rezgui A.,NM Technology |
Alodib M.,Qassim University
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2014
Iverson N.,Iowa State University |
Person M.,NM Technology
Geofluids | Year: 2012
Characterizing glaciotectonic deformation, glacial erosion and sedimentation, and basal hydrologic conditions of ice sheets is vital for selecting sites for nuclear waste repositories at high latitudes. Glaciotectonic deformation is enhanced by excess pore pressures that commonly persist near ice sheet margins. Depths of such deformation can extend locally to a few tens of meters, with depths up to approximately 300m in exceptional cases. Rates of glacial erosion are highly variable (0.05-15mma -1), but rates <1mma -1 are expected in tectonically quiescent regions. Total erosion probably not exceeding several tens of meters is expected during a glacial cycle, although locally erosion could be greater. Consolidation of glacial sediments that is less than expected from independent estimates of glacier thickness indicates that heads at the bases of past ice sheets were usually within 30% of the floatation value. This conclusion is reinforced by direct measurements of water pressure beneath portions of the West Antarctic ice sheet, which indicate average heads <7m below floatation. Landforms of the Laurentide and Scandinavian ice sheets and recent observations in Greenland indicate that high seasonal discharges of surface water are conducted to the bed, despite thick ice at subfreezing temperatures. Therefore, in models of subglacial groundwater flow used to assess sites for nuclear waste repositories, a flux upper boundary condition based on water input from only basal melting will be far more uncertain than applying a hydraulic head at the upper boundary set equal to a large fraction of the floatation value. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Ovezmyradov M.,NM Technology |
Magedov I.V.,NM Technology |
Frolova L.V.,NM Technology |
Chandler G.,NM Technology |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Year: 2015
Simultaneous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of graphene and "in-situ " phosphorous or boron doping of graphene was accomplished using Triphenylphosphine (TPP) and 4-Methoxyphenylboronic acid (4-MPBA). The TPP and 4-MPBA molecules were sublimated and supplied along with CH4 molecules during graphene growth at atmospheric pressure. The grown graphene samples were characterized using Raman spectroscopy. Phosphorous and boron presence in phosphorous and boron doped graphene was confirmed with Auger electron spectroscopy. The possibility of obtaining phosphorous and boron doped graphene using solid-source molecule precursors via CVD can lead to an easy and rapid production of modified large area graphene. Copyright © 2015 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America.