Thomas S.,Wuppertal Institute for Climate |
Boonekamp P.,Energy Research Center of the Netherlands |
Vreuls H.,NL Agency |
Broc J.,Ecole des Mines de Nantes |
And 3 more authors.
Energy Efficiency | Year: 2012
The Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive (ESD) of the European Union requires the member states to define and attain an overall target of at least 9% annual energy savings between 2008 and 2016. Even if this target is indicative, this is the first international framework mandating countries to report on their energy savings results and prove achievement of their targets. The directive thus also required the development of harmonised calculation methods that can be used by member states for this proof and reporting. Existing literature covers most of the usual issues related to energy savings evaluation, but mostly looking at single, given energy efficiency programmes or policies. The evaluation objective for the ESD implementation is different, as it aims at accounting for the whole energy savings achieved in a country. Moreover, one of the main difficulties is the diversity in history and experience on this topic among the member states. In this context, the European project EMEEES has worked out an integrated system of bottom-up and top-down methods for the measurement of energy savings. The paper presents the overview of its final results. The proposals, inter alia, include 20 bottom-up and 14 top-down case applications of general evaluation methods. They enable more than 90% of the potential energy savings to be measured and reported. They were used as a starting point by the European Commission to develop the methods recently recommended to the member states. Furthermore, the paper briefly discusses the importance of the quantity to be measured-all or additional energy savings-and the effect of measures implemented before the entering into force of the ESD ('early action'), and what this meant for the methods to be developed. It compares the main elements of calculation needed to ensure consistent results between bottom-up and top-down methods at the overall national level. Finally, general conclusions are drawn about what could be the next steps in developing an evaluation system that enables a high degree of comparability of results between different countries. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Verspecht A.,Ghent University |
Vandermeulen V.,Ghent University |
Ter Avest E.,NL Agency |
van Huylenbroeck G.,Ghent University
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences | Year: 2012
Anthropogenic release of greenhouse gasses (GHG) has increased in the last 50 years, contributing to global climate change. Because agriculture is one of the major contributors to the production of non-CO2 GHG, the opportunities for mitigating GHG emissions from agriculture are often considered by policy makers. However, the implementation of agricultural GHG mitigation policies can have unintended consequences or trade-offs (both negative and positive). A major problem, for policy makers, is that although most of these trade-offs have been described in the past, no overview of them exists; and in many cases, there is no consensus with regard to the impact of the mitigation measures on aspects such as cost effectiveness, social acceptance, environmental impact, etc. The current article gives an overview of the different kinds of trade-off that might occur and their relationships to GHG mitigation and agricultural production. The authors offer policy makers a framework which can be applied to any GHG mitigation measure to determine which trade-offs are the most important and which ones should be taken into consideration. This will help policy makers to create an optimal agricultural GHG mitigation measure. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Wijshoff L.,NL Agency
Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings | Year: 2012
The challenging question whether 50% energy efficiency improvement in 2030 is possible, has been asked by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation in 2009 to all industrial sectors involved in the Dutch Long Term Agreements programme. A short review on the history of the Dutch Long Term Agreement program (LTA) is provided after which focus is given to the actual status of the LTA and how the Dutch Glass Industry handled the challenging question above and came with a constructive andfocussed answer.
Siderius H.-P.,NL Agency
Energy Policy | Year: 2013
Minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) are an important policy instrument to raise the efficiency of products. In most schemes the concept of life cycle costs (LCC) is used to guide setting the MEPS levels. Although a large body of literature shows that product cost is decreasing with increasing cumulative production, the experience curve, this is currently not used for setting MEPS. This article shows how to integrate the concept of the experience curve into LCC calculations for setting MEPS in the European Union and applies this to household laundry driers, refrigerator-freezers and televisions. The results indicate that for driers and refrigerator-freezers at least twice the energy savings compared to the current approach can be achieved. These products also show that energy label classes can successfully be used for setting MEPS. For televisions an experience curve is provided, showing a learning rate of 29%. However, television prices do not show a relation with energy efficiency but are to a large extent determined by the time the product is placed on the market. This suggests to policy makers that for televisions and other products with a short (re)design and market cycle timing is more important than the MEPS levels itself. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Abeelen C.,NL Agency |
Harmsen R.,University Utrecht |
Worrell E.,University Utrecht
Energy Policy | Year: 2013
As potentials for energy savings are huge, industry can provide a major contribution to energy savings goals. This paper focuses on the energy savings realized under the Dutch voluntary agreements in the period 2001-2011. Participants in these schemes are obliged to plan and implement all measures with a payback period of less than 5 years. This paper shows how many of these projects have been implemented and how much savings they generate. Our findings show that large differences exist in the realized savings between individual companies. There is however no significant difference in savings observed between companies that participate in the Emission Trading System (ETS) and companies that do not. Although it is impossible to disentangle the drivers behind the implementation of these projects, the amount of savings suggest that at least part of them was implemented because of different energy policy instruments. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
van Rijnsoever F.J.,University Utrecht |
Hagen P.,University Utrecht |
Willems M.,NL Agency
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment | Year: 2013
Using a choice model, we estimate the preferences for alternative fuel vehicles by Dutch local governments. The analysis shows that local governments are willing to pay between 25% and 50% extra for an alternative fuel vehicle without a serious loss of utility. Further, local emissions are an important criterion on which to base a decision, especially for municipalities and provinces. We also calculate the utility for a number of prominent alternative fuel vehicles. We find that show that local governments value the battery electric vehicle and biogas internal combustion engine equally. It is important, however, that the time to refuel for electric vehicles is reduced to about 30. min. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Siderius H.-P.,NL Agency |
Jeffcott S.,Jeffcott Associates |
Blok K.,University Utrecht
Energy Policy | Year: 2012
In the development of effective product efficiency policy, the critical element for policy makers is comprehensive, independent information. However, easily accessible, reliable information on the energy performance of products and policies is often scarce within a particular market, and rarer still if the policy maker is seeking comparisons on an international level. This article presents a method (Mapping & Benchmarking) to compare energy efficiency of products across countries, and the results for 3 products: refrigerators-freezers, washing machines and laundry driers. The results show an improvement of the efficiency over time for these products. However, part of this improvement is due to increased capacity of the products and not to lower energy consumption. Therefore policy makers should consider the development of policies based on product energy consumption and not (only) on product efficiency in order to capture the full potential of technology improvements for energy savings. Results for refrigerator-freezers suggest that in the long run both a policy strategy where minimum efficiency requirements are prominent and a policy strategy where a mandatory energy label is prominent can provide for increasing efficiencies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Siderius P.J.S.,NL Agency |
Nakagami H.,Chiyoda Corporation
Energy Efficiency | Year: 2013
Both Top Runner in Japan and Ecodesign in the European Union are schemes to set requirements on the energy efficiency (minimum efficiency performance standards, MEPS) of a variety of products. This article provides an overview of the main characteristics and results of both schemes and gives recommendations for improving them. Both schemes contribute significantly to the energy efficiency targets set by the European Commission and the Japanese government. Although it is difficult to compare the absolute levels of the requirements, comparison of the relative improvements and of the savings on household electricity consumption (11 % in Japan, 16 % in the EU) suggest they are in the same range. Furthermore, the time needed to set or review requirements is in both schemes considerable (between 5 and 6 years on average) and the manageability increasingly will become a challenge. The appeal of the Top Runner approach is that the most efficient product (Top Runner) sets the standard for all products at the next target year. Although the Ecodesign scheme includes the elements for a Top Runner approach, it could exploit this principle more explicitly. On the other hand, the Top Runner scheme could benefit by using a real minimum efficiency performance standard instead of a fleet average. This would make the monitoring and enforcement more simple and transparent, and would open the scheme for products where the market situation is less clear. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Gynther L.,Motiva |
Mikkonen I.,Motiva |
Smits A.,NL Agency
Energy Efficiency | Year: 2012
This article is based on the findings of the BEHAVE Project (Evaluation of Energy Behavioural Change Programmes) which was supported by the European Commission under the EU Intelligent Energy-Europe (IEE) Programme. The project started with a review of behavioural theories and their applicability in the development and evaluation of energy-related behavioural change programmes, progressed to a case study analysis and finished with a publication of guidelines for programme developers and policy makers. This paper concentrates on the results of the case study analysis and the recommendations arising from it. In the case study analysis, information was collected on almost 100 cases aiming at behavioural change in energy use from 11 European countries. More detailed information was collected on 41 cases which were subject to meta-analysis to identify success factors and weak points and to gather information on the current evaluation practices in such programmes. The meta-analysis was carried out in five phases: context (pre-planning), planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Planning and evaluation were recognised as two of the most critical phases. Many of the programmes operated with quite formal plans but were typically not based on scientific theories or evidence. In many cases, there was lack of market segmentation; the goals were not targeted and the programmes tried to offer "everything to everybody". A multitude of ex-post evaluation methods for programme impacts were reported ranging from participant surveys, testing and comparison with control groups to top-down method evaluating the impact of several programmes focusing on the same target group. Process evaluation (25 cases) was slightly less common than impact evaluation (29 cases). Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of the programmes was a rarity, most likely due to difficulties in quantitative impact evaluation. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Kers J.G.,VU University Amsterdam |
Van Burg E.,VU University Amsterdam |
Stoop T.,NL Agency |
Cornel M.C.,VU University Amsterdam
European journal of human genetics : EJHG | Year: 2014
We studied trends in genetic patent applications in order to identify the trends in the commercialization of research findings in genetics. To define genetic patent applications, the European version (ECLA) of the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes was used. Genetic patent applications data from the PATSTAT database from 1990 until 2009 were analyzed for time trends and regional distribution. Overall, the number of patent applications has been growing. In 2009, 152 000 patent applications were submitted under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and within the EP (European Patent) system of the European Patent Office (EPO). The number of genetic patent applications increased until a peak was reached in the year 2000, with >8000 applications, after which it declined by almost 50%. Continents show different patterns over time, with the global peak in 2000 mainly explained by the USA and Europe, while Asia shows a stable number of >1000 per year. Nine countries together account for 98.9% of the total number of genetic patent applications. In The Netherlands, 26.7% of the genetic patent applications originate from public research institutions. After the year 2000, the number of genetic patent applications dropped significantly. Academic leadership and policy as well as patent regulations seem to have an important role in the trend differences. The ongoing investment in genetic research in the past decade is not reflected by an increase of patent applications.