Siderius H.-P.,NL Agency |
Jeffcott S.,Jeffcott Associates |
Blok K.,University Utrecht
Energy Policy | Year: 2012
In the development of effective product efficiency policy, the critical element for policy makers is comprehensive, independent information. However, easily accessible, reliable information on the energy performance of products and policies is often scarce within a particular market, and rarer still if the policy maker is seeking comparisons on an international level. This article presents a method (Mapping & Benchmarking) to compare energy efficiency of products across countries, and the results for 3 products: refrigerators-freezers, washing machines and laundry driers. The results show an improvement of the efficiency over time for these products. However, part of this improvement is due to increased capacity of the products and not to lower energy consumption. Therefore policy makers should consider the development of policies based on product energy consumption and not (only) on product efficiency in order to capture the full potential of technology improvements for energy savings. Results for refrigerator-freezers suggest that in the long run both a policy strategy where minimum efficiency requirements are prominent and a policy strategy where a mandatory energy label is prominent can provide for increasing efficiencies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Siderius H.-P.,NL Agency
Energy Policy | Year: 2013
Minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) are an important policy instrument to raise the efficiency of products. In most schemes the concept of life cycle costs (LCC) is used to guide setting the MEPS levels. Although a large body of literature shows that product cost is decreasing with increasing cumulative production, the experience curve, this is currently not used for setting MEPS. This article shows how to integrate the concept of the experience curve into LCC calculations for setting MEPS in the European Union and applies this to household laundry driers, refrigerator-freezers and televisions. The results indicate that for driers and refrigerator-freezers at least twice the energy savings compared to the current approach can be achieved. These products also show that energy label classes can successfully be used for setting MEPS. For televisions an experience curve is provided, showing a learning rate of 29%. However, television prices do not show a relation with energy efficiency but are to a large extent determined by the time the product is placed on the market. This suggests to policy makers that for televisions and other products with a short (re)design and market cycle timing is more important than the MEPS levels itself. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Wijshoff L.,NL Agency
Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings | Year: 2012
The challenging question whether 50% energy efficiency improvement in 2030 is possible, has been asked by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation in 2009 to all industrial sectors involved in the Dutch Long Term Agreements programme. A short review on the history of the Dutch Long Term Agreement program (LTA) is provided after which focus is given to the actual status of the LTA and how the Dutch Glass Industry handled the challenging question above and came with a constructive andfocussed answer.
van Rijnsoever F.J.,University Utrecht |
Hagen P.,University Utrecht |
Willems M.,NL Agency
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment | Year: 2013
Using a choice model, we estimate the preferences for alternative fuel vehicles by Dutch local governments. The analysis shows that local governments are willing to pay between 25% and 50% extra for an alternative fuel vehicle without a serious loss of utility. Further, local emissions are an important criterion on which to base a decision, especially for municipalities and provinces. We also calculate the utility for a number of prominent alternative fuel vehicles. We find that show that local governments value the battery electric vehicle and biogas internal combustion engine equally. It is important, however, that the time to refuel for electric vehicles is reduced to about 30. min. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Thomas S.,Wuppertal Institute for Climate |
Boonekamp P.,Energy Research Center of the Netherlands |
Vreuls H.,NL Agency |
Broc J.,Ecole des Mines de Nantes |
And 3 more authors.
Energy Efficiency | Year: 2012
The Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive (ESD) of the European Union requires the member states to define and attain an overall target of at least 9% annual energy savings between 2008 and 2016. Even if this target is indicative, this is the first international framework mandating countries to report on their energy savings results and prove achievement of their targets. The directive thus also required the development of harmonised calculation methods that can be used by member states for this proof and reporting. Existing literature covers most of the usual issues related to energy savings evaluation, but mostly looking at single, given energy efficiency programmes or policies. The evaluation objective for the ESD implementation is different, as it aims at accounting for the whole energy savings achieved in a country. Moreover, one of the main difficulties is the diversity in history and experience on this topic among the member states. In this context, the European project EMEEES has worked out an integrated system of bottom-up and top-down methods for the measurement of energy savings. The paper presents the overview of its final results. The proposals, inter alia, include 20 bottom-up and 14 top-down case applications of general evaluation methods. They enable more than 90% of the potential energy savings to be measured and reported. They were used as a starting point by the European Commission to develop the methods recently recommended to the member states. Furthermore, the paper briefly discusses the importance of the quantity to be measured-all or additional energy savings-and the effect of measures implemented before the entering into force of the ESD ('early action'), and what this meant for the methods to be developed. It compares the main elements of calculation needed to ensure consistent results between bottom-up and top-down methods at the overall national level. Finally, general conclusions are drawn about what could be the next steps in developing an evaluation system that enables a high degree of comparability of results between different countries. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.