Freetown, Sierra Leone
Freetown, Sierra Leone

Njala University is a public university located in Bo and in Njala, Moyamba District, Sierra Leone. It is the second largest university in Sierra Leone and is also part of the University of Sierra Leone. The largest and main campus of Njala University is in Bo, the second largest city in Sierra Leone; the other campus is in the town of Njala, Moyamba District. Wikipedia.


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News Article | April 11, 2016
Site: www.nrl.navy.mil

Lassa virus is widespread in parts of West Africa and causes the often deadly hemorrhagic fever. Scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) are studying the genetic diversity of the virus with hopes that their work can aid the development of vaccines, diagnostic tests, and possibly antiviral drugs, explains Dr. Tomasz Leski, a research biologist and the lead author of the study. The research is published in the April issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases journal. The Lassa virus (LASV) is usually spread to people through contact with rodents or their excretions. To obtain a more complete and updated picture of the LASV strains circulating in Sierra Leone, the NRL researchers isolated viruses from rodents collected from eight locations and examined the viruses at the genetic level. Human cases of Lassa fever have been found in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Nigeria. Estimates suggest that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever cause 5,000 to 10,000 deaths each year in West Africa. Some estimates even project there could be 3 million cases each year with 67,000 deaths. The multimammate rat, a common African rodent, is a natural host and reservoir for the virus. Humans probably get infected by eating contaminated food, by inhaling virus-contaminated aerosols, or while butchering infected rat meat. The virus can also be transmitted in person-to-person contact. The researchers used a combination of techniques including NRL-developed microarray for detection of biothreat agents (RPM technology) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Lassa virus in tissues of rodents captured in several locations in Southern and Eastern provinces of Sierra Leone. Fragments of the viral genome of detected viruses were analyzed using DNA sequencing and similarity of the viral strains was compared using Bayesian statistics. The obtained results allowed the researchers to construct genealogical trees revealing the degree of diversity and relationship between groups of Lassa strains circulating in multimammate rats in Sierra Leone. The NRL research team found that the viruses were more genetically diverse than expected, varying by location. "These findings underscore how much we can still learn about this deadly virus, which was discovered more that 45 years ago. Data generated in the course of this study will help in designing better virus detection methods. They may also help in finding low virulence viral strains that may be potentially used for developing a Lassa vaccine," says Leski. In addition to Leski, the research team members consist of Michael Stockelman, David Stenger, and Baochuan Lin from NRL's Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering; Lina Moses and Daniel Bausch from Tulane University; Matthew Park from Thomas Jefferson High School, Alexandria, Virginia; and Rashid Ansumana from Njala University, Sierra Leone. About the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory provides the advanced scientific capabilities required to bolster our country's position of global naval leadership. The Laboratory, with a total complement of approximately 2,500 personnel, is located in southwest Washington, D.C., with other major sites at the Stennis Space Center, Miss., and Monterey, Calif. NRL has served the Navy and the nation for over 90 years and continues to advance research further than you can imagine. For more information, visit the NRL website or join the conversation on Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube.


Mohamed T.K.,Jiangnan University | Mohamed T.K.,Njala University | Issoufou A.,Jiangnan University | Zhou H.,Jiangnan University
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2012

The objective of the study was to assess the antioxidant potential of defatted foxtail millet protein hydrolysates (DFMPH). Gel filtration (Sephadex G-25) chromatography was used to fractionate DFMPH. The amino acid composition, ABTS, DPPH, inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation, metal-chelating free radical scavenging ability, and reducing power were tested to determine their antioxidant potency. The antioxidant activity of fraction (FIV) (85.71%) was closer to that of α-tocopherol (86.27%) but lower than that of BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) (92.44%) in the linoleic acid oxidation system. Furthermore, FIV exhibited higher ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and metal-chelating activity than the other fractions with a significant difference (P < 0.05). Amino acid profile revealed that FIV, with the strongest antioxidant activity, had the highest hydrophobic amino acids content (51.94%) and hydrophobicity (8.62 kJ/moL amino acid residue "AAR"). Molecular weight of the fractions varied from 77-1042 Da. The data obtained by the in vitro systems established antioxidant potency of DFMPH fractions. © 2008 IFRJ, Faculty of Food Science & Technology, UPM.


Foh M.B.K.,Jiangnan University | Foh M.B.K.,Njala University | Wenshui X.,Jiangnan University | Amadou I.,Jiangnan University | Jiang Q.,Jiangnan University
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2012

The physicofunctional and chemical properties of acid-aided protein isolate (AcPi), alkaline-aided protein isolate (AlPi) and soy protein isolate (SPI) prepared from tilapia muscle and defatted soy flour as a function of pH and/or NaCl concentration were investigated. Both acid- and alkali-aided processes lead to significant recoveries (P<0.05) of proteins with substantial reduction of lipids in AlPi (0. 81%) and AcPi (0. 96%), the lowest for SPI (0. 336%) facilitated by the processing method and sample used. There is greater lipid reduction at alkali pH, effective removal of impurities such as bones and scales, indicated by percentage ash (AcPi, 4. 53%; AlPi, 3. 75% and SPI, 3. 51%). No major difference noted in sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein bands (14. 4-97. 4 kDa) possibly representing partial hydrolysis of myosin. Solubility was the highest at pH 3. 0 and 11. 0 and the lowest at isoelectric point with foam capacity showing similarity at varying pH. The addition of NaCl improved foam stability, possibly due to the increased solubility and surface activity of the soluble protein. On the whole, AcPi, AlPi and SPI manifested lower solubility and foamability at pH 4. 0 and 5. 0. AlPi exhibited appreciable levels of solubility, emulsion capacity, oil-holding capacity, viscosity and whiteness, whereas SPI had appreciable water-holding capacity. AcPi, AlPi and SPI have excellent relevance for product development based on their functionality. © 2011 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.


Gbanie S.P.,University of New South Wales | Gbanie S.P.,University of the Sierra | Tengbe P.B.,University of the Sierra | Momoh J.S.,University of the Sierra | And 2 more authors.
Applied Geography | Year: 2013

Among the various approaches devised in managing municipal solid wastes, landfills remain the final destination of waste irrespective of the technology used in treating it. Incorrect siting of landfill sites could lead to environmental, social and economic cost; hence, appropriate techniques are required in the identification of potential landfill sites. In densely populated areas in Sierra Leone, there is often tension over the location of landfill sites, where 'not in my backyard' campaigns have sparked riots. This article presents a methodological framework for identifying municipal landfill sites in urban areas in Sierra Leone using Bo in Southern Sierra Leone as a case in point. This framework involves a multi-criteria GIS approach that blends two aggregation techniques: Weighted Linear Combination and Ordered Weighted Averaging. Key results show that 83.3% of the study area is unsuitable for municipal landfill. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Jia K.,University of Kentucky | Mohamed K.,Njala University
African Health Sciences | Year: 2015

Background: Most underdeveloped countries do not meet core disease outbreak surveillance because of the lack of human resources, laboratory and infrastructural facilities. The use of cell phone technology for disease outbreak syndromic surveillance is a new phenomenon in Sierra Leone despite its successes in other developing countries like Sri Lanka. In this study we set to evaluate the effectiveness of using cell phone technology for Ebola hemorrhagic fever syndromic surveillance in a high risked community in Sierra Leone. Objectives: This study evaluated the effectiveness of using cell phone messaging (text and calls) for community Ebola hemorrhagic fever syndromic surveillance in high risked community in southern Sierra Leone. Method: All cell phone syndromic surveillance data used for this study was reported as cell phone alert messages-texts and voice calls; by the Moyamba District Health Management Team for both Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect and mortalities. We conducted a longitudinal data analysis of the monthly cumulative confirmed Ebola hemorrhagic fever cases and mortalities collected by both the traditional sentinel and community cell phone syndromic surveillance from August 2014 to October 2014. Results: A total of 129 and 49 Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect and confirmed cases respectively were recorded using the community Ebola syndromic surveillance cell phone alert system by the Moyamba District Health Management Team in October 2014. The average number of Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspects and confirmed cases for October 2014 were 4.16 (Std.dev 3.76) and 1.58 (Std.dev 1.43) respectively. Thirty-four percent (n=76) of the community Ebola syndromic surveillance cell phone alerts that were followed-up within 24 hours reported Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect cases while 65.92% (n=147) reported mortality. Conclusion: Our study suggests some form of underreporting by the traditional sentinel Ebola hemorrhagic fever disease surveillance system in Moyamba District southern Sierra Leone for August-September 2014. Cell phone messaging technology can be effectively use as a tool for community epidemic surveillance from peripheral health care facilities to higher levels. © 2015, Makerere University, Medical School. All rights reserved.


Local community involvement is a pre-requisite to successful natural resource management. Local people's use of and proximity to the resources puts them in a good position to offer useful information on past usage and the historical development of the resource. Communities also often contribute to resource conservation or replenishment through by-laws for the conservation of the multiple resources of forests in particular and the environment in general. In upland rice crop cultivation, farmers leave fringe vegetation along footpaths and river banks. Tall forest patches in village peripheries often indicate locations of abandoned settlements. Politicians can have a positive impact if they support government policy and conservation goals, but can have a negative impact if they have a vested interest in using the resource. The division of household labor puts women directly in charge of trees, which offer food, fuel wood and pharmaceuticals.


Kain R.J.,Njala University | Chen Z.,Yangtze University
Journal of Food Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Cold- and heat-pressed peanut meal cakes were milled, defatted and ground into fine powder and evaluated for proximate composition and functional food properties. Flours contained over 50% protein as compared with 25-45% protein in peanut meal cake. Cold-pressed peanut meal flour (CPMF) had a solubility profile similar to heat-pressed peanut meal flour (HPMF), with minimum and maximum solubility observed at pH 3.5-5.0 and pH 10.0 and higher, respectively. HPMF exhibited relatively high functional properties (emulsification, stability, oil and water absorption, whipping) compared with CPMF and commercial soy flour. Results suggest that flour obtained from peanut meal can be used as emulsifiers in different food formulations. Peanut flour could be a good source of food formulation for different food products in developing countries. Results show that high temperatures and long-time pressing affected physicochemical and functional properties of peanut flour. © 2010, The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Richards P.,Njala University | Amara J.,Njala University | Ferme M.C.,University of California at Berkeley | Kamara P.,Njala University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

The current outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Upper West Africa is the largest ever recorded. Molecular evidence suggests spread has been almost exclusively through human-to-human contact. Social factors are thus clearly important to understand the epidemic and ways in which it might be stopped, but these factors have so far been little analyzed. The present paper focuses on Sierra Leone, and provides cross sectional data on the least understood part of the epidemic—the largely undocumented spread of Ebola in rural areas. Various forms of social networking in rural communities and their relevance for understanding pathways of transmission are described. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between marriage, funerals and land tenure. Funerals are known to be a high-risk factor for infection. It is suggested that more than a shift in awareness of risks will be needed to change local patterns of behavior, especially in regard to funerals, since these are central to the consolidation of community ties. A concluding discussion relates the information presented to plans for halting the disease. Local consultation and access are seen as major challenges to be addressed. © 2015 Richards et al.


Olapade O.J.,Njala University
West African Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2012

Investigation of the anthropogenic pollution impact on microbial contamination of Lake Kivu, Rwanda was carried out in Gisenyi, Kibuye and Cyangugu over a period of 24 months. Total coliforms (TC), total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) and fecal coliforms (FC) counts were monitored. Indicator bacteria were enumerated by membrane filtration while pathogenic bacteria were recovered by broth enrichment of water samples. Microbial load did not differ significantly with season and locations but fecal coliform (FC) had positive significant correlation (r = 0.36*; P < 0.05) with season. Mean total coliform (TC) (cfu/100 ml) was highest 7.7 × 105 at Gisenyi and lowest 1.7 × 105 at Cyangugu. These values exceeded the zero faecal coliforms counts/100 ml recommended by WHO for water considered safe for human consumption. Total heterotrophic bacteria (THB), fecal coliforms (FC), total coliforms (TC) and Fecal streptococcus (FS) were widespread with abnormally high values at the sampling locations, signifying poor water quality. Microbial isolates from the water samples were of wide range of groups, and their occurrence and distribution varied from location to location. Bacillus sp., E. coli, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus sp. were the dominant microbial species in the lake water. The microbial quality of the water was poor, suggesting contamination of the lake water by animals and human domestic wastes and other anthropogenic activities, such as laundry, swimming, farming, transportation, etc. The lake water is unfit for human domestic use without any form of treatment.


Kanu P.J.,Njala University | Kanu P.J.,Bennimix Food Company
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

An analytical comparison of the biochemical composition of Black Sesame (BS) and White Sesame (WS) produced in China was carried out. The aim of the study was to analyze the black and white sesame seeds grown in China and compare their biochemical properties. Various approved methods that have been reported by researchers were used to do the analysis. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectra (GC/MS) system was used to identify and quantify the fatty acids. Nicolet 360Ft-IR spectrometer was used to determine the Infrared (IR) spectra of WS and BS. Protein for WS was 22.20%; BS 20.82%; fat WS was 52.61% and BS 48.40%; moisture was higher in WS than BS but ash was higher in BS than WS and the amount was significantly different at (p<0.05); carbohydrate was higher in BS than WS. The two colors were good sources of minerals. Vitamins vary in quantity for the two colors, the same was also observed for the sugars. The fatty acids, oleic and linoleic, were the major unsaturated fatty acids while palmitic and stearic were the main saturated fatty acids significantly observed in both samples. Both colors were higher in essential amino acids with the exception of lysine. The IR spectra of WS and BS showed different peak structures and both possess different functional groups at different regions of their spectra. The overall results indicated that WS and BS have different biochemical properties.© 2011 Academic Journals Inc.

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