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Freetown, Sierra Leone

Njala University is a public university located in Bo and in Njala, Moyamba District, Sierra Leone. It is the second largest university in Sierra Leone and is also part of the University of Sierra Leone. The largest and main campus of Njala University is in Bo, the second largest city in Sierra Leone; the other campus is in the town of Njala, Moyamba District. Wikipedia.

Background: Most underdeveloped countries do not meet core disease outbreak surveillance because of the lack of human resources, laboratory and infrastructural facilities. The use of cell phone technology for disease outbreak syndromic surveillance is a new phenomenon in Sierra Leone despite its successes in other developing countries like Sri Lanka. In this study we set to evaluate the effectiveness of using cell phone technology for Ebola hemorrhagic fever syndromic surveillance in a high risked community in Sierra Leone. Objectives: This study evaluated the effectiveness of using cell phone messaging (text and calls) for community Ebola hemorrhagic fever syndromic surveillance in high risked community in southern Sierra Leone. Method: All cell phone syndromic surveillance data used for this study was reported as cell phone alert messages-texts and voice calls; by the Moyamba District Health Management Team for both Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect and mortalities. We conducted a longitudinal data analysis of the monthly cumulative confirmed Ebola hemorrhagic fever cases and mortalities collected by both the traditional sentinel and community cell phone syndromic surveillance from August 2014 to October 2014. Results: A total of 129 and 49 Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect and confirmed cases respectively were recorded using the community Ebola syndromic surveillance cell phone alert system by the Moyamba District Health Management Team in October 2014. The average number of Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspects and confirmed cases for October 2014 were 4.16 (Std.dev 3.76) and 1.58 (Std.dev 1.43) respectively. Thirty-four percent (n=76) of the community Ebola syndromic surveillance cell phone alerts that were followed-up within 24 hours reported Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect cases while 65.92% (n=147) reported mortality. Conclusion: Our study suggests some form of underreporting by the traditional sentinel Ebola hemorrhagic fever disease surveillance system in Moyamba District southern Sierra Leone for August-September 2014. Cell phone messaging technology can be effectively use as a tool for community epidemic surveillance from peripheral health care facilities to higher levels. © 2015, Makerere University, Medical School. All rights reserved. Source

Local community involvement is a pre-requisite to successful natural resource management. Local people's use of and proximity to the resources puts them in a good position to offer useful information on past usage and the historical development of the resource. Communities also often contribute to resource conservation or replenishment through by-laws for the conservation of the multiple resources of forests in particular and the environment in general. In upland rice crop cultivation, farmers leave fringe vegetation along footpaths and river banks. Tall forest patches in village peripheries often indicate locations of abandoned settlements. Politicians can have a positive impact if they support government policy and conservation goals, but can have a negative impact if they have a vested interest in using the resource. The division of household labor puts women directly in charge of trees, which offer food, fuel wood and pharmaceuticals. Source

Gbanie S.P.,University of New South Wales | Gbanie S.P.,University of the Sierra | Tengbe P.B.,University of the Sierra | Momoh J.S.,University of the Sierra | And 2 more authors.
Applied Geography

Among the various approaches devised in managing municipal solid wastes, landfills remain the final destination of waste irrespective of the technology used in treating it. Incorrect siting of landfill sites could lead to environmental, social and economic cost; hence, appropriate techniques are required in the identification of potential landfill sites. In densely populated areas in Sierra Leone, there is often tension over the location of landfill sites, where 'not in my backyard' campaigns have sparked riots. This article presents a methodological framework for identifying municipal landfill sites in urban areas in Sierra Leone using Bo in Southern Sierra Leone as a case in point. This framework involves a multi-criteria GIS approach that blends two aggregation techniques: Weighted Linear Combination and Ordered Weighted Averaging. Key results show that 83.3% of the study area is unsuitable for municipal landfill. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Mohamed T.K.,Jiangnan University | Mohamed T.K.,Njala University | Issoufou A.,Jiangnan University | Zhou H.,Jiangnan University
International Food Research Journal

The objective of the study was to assess the antioxidant potential of defatted foxtail millet protein hydrolysates (DFMPH). Gel filtration (Sephadex G-25) chromatography was used to fractionate DFMPH. The amino acid composition, ABTS, DPPH, inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation, metal-chelating free radical scavenging ability, and reducing power were tested to determine their antioxidant potency. The antioxidant activity of fraction (FIV) (85.71%) was closer to that of α-tocopherol (86.27%) but lower than that of BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) (92.44%) in the linoleic acid oxidation system. Furthermore, FIV exhibited higher ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and metal-chelating activity than the other fractions with a significant difference (P < 0.05). Amino acid profile revealed that FIV, with the strongest antioxidant activity, had the highest hydrophobic amino acids content (51.94%) and hydrophobicity (8.62 kJ/moL amino acid residue "AAR"). Molecular weight of the fractions varied from 77-1042 Da. The data obtained by the in vitro systems established antioxidant potency of DFMPH fractions. © 2008 IFRJ, Faculty of Food Science & Technology, UPM. Source

Foh M.B.K.,Jiangnan University | Foh M.B.K.,Njala University | Wenshui X.,Jiangnan University | Amadou I.,Jiangnan University | Jiang Q.,Jiangnan University
Food and Bioprocess Technology

The physicofunctional and chemical properties of acid-aided protein isolate (AcPi), alkaline-aided protein isolate (AlPi) and soy protein isolate (SPI) prepared from tilapia muscle and defatted soy flour as a function of pH and/or NaCl concentration were investigated. Both acid- and alkali-aided processes lead to significant recoveries (P<0.05) of proteins with substantial reduction of lipids in AlPi (0. 81%) and AcPi (0. 96%), the lowest for SPI (0. 336%) facilitated by the processing method and sample used. There is greater lipid reduction at alkali pH, effective removal of impurities such as bones and scales, indicated by percentage ash (AcPi, 4. 53%; AlPi, 3. 75% and SPI, 3. 51%). No major difference noted in sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein bands (14. 4-97. 4 kDa) possibly representing partial hydrolysis of myosin. Solubility was the highest at pH 3. 0 and 11. 0 and the lowest at isoelectric point with foam capacity showing similarity at varying pH. The addition of NaCl improved foam stability, possibly due to the increased solubility and surface activity of the soluble protein. On the whole, AcPi, AlPi and SPI manifested lower solubility and foamability at pH 4. 0 and 5. 0. AlPi exhibited appreciable levels of solubility, emulsion capacity, oil-holding capacity, viscosity and whiteness, whereas SPI had appreciable water-holding capacity. AcPi, AlPi and SPI have excellent relevance for product development based on their functionality. © 2011 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC. Source

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