Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University
Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod - National Research University , also known as Lobachevsky University, was established in 1916 as a People's University.In 1918 it became the first State Higher EducationalInstitution of Soviet Russia. From 1932 to 1956, its name was State University of Gorky – from 1932 to 1990 the city of Nizhny Novgorod was known as Gorky – and from 1956 to 1990 the Lobachevsky State University of Gorky after great Russian mathematician Nikolai Lobachevsky. The University has provided the basis for the development of higher education and a fundamental research system in the Nizhni Novgorod region. Today UNN is one of the leading classical research universities in Russia and the winner of all the major recent Russian higher education competitive programmes. In 2009 Russian Government awarded the University with the honorable status of National Research University. UNN provides quality education to over 30000 undergraduate & graduate students and 1000 postgraduates. The University staff comprises over 1200 Candidates of science and over 450 Doctors of science. International students from more than 65 countries of the world choose UNN.The University is renowned for innovation in the fields of research and higher education. As a result, UNN's scientific and pedagogical schools have won international recognition for their excellence. The continual development of these schools ensures the high standard of UNN's educational activity as a research university. The University aims to respond in an effective manner to new and evolving scientific and educational challenges. The University has concentrated its research efforts through the creation of large research institutes that focus on work in cutting-edge fields. The University also continuously engages in multifaceted interaction with various branches of the economy.UNN is actively involved in cooperation with foreign partners, it has won many international awards and works in close connection with various Russian and foreign companies . The University is also a member of the Association of Russian Leading Universities and European University Association .UNN is placed 20th among CIS & Baltic universities and ranked 74 by the QS World University Ranking BRICS, having five QS Stars for Excellence in Teaching, Employability, Innovation, and Facilities. UNN is one of only 15 Russian universities awarded in 2013 with a prestigious grant of the Government of the Russian Federation to implement the Leading Universities International Competitiveness Enhancement Programme. Wikipedia.

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Verkhratsky A.,University of Manchester | Verkhratsky A.,Ikerbasque | Verkhratsky A.,Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University | Steardo L.,University of Naples | And 2 more authors.
Progress in Neurobiology | Year: 2016

Fundamentally, all brain disorders can be broadly defined as the homeostatic failure of this organ. As the brain is composed of many different cells types, including but not limited to neurons and glia, it is only logical that all the cell types/constituents could play a role in health and disease. Yet, for a long time the sole conceptualization of brain pathology was focused on the well-being of neurons. Here, we challenge this neuron-centric view and present neuroglia as a key element in neuropathology, a process that has a toll on astrocytes, which undergo complex morpho-functional changes that can in turn affect the course of the disorder. Such changes can be grossly identified as reactivity, atrophy with loss of function and pathological remodeling. We outline the pathogenic potential of astrocytes in variety of disorders, ranging from neurotrauma, infection, toxic damage, stroke, epilepsy, neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, Alexander disease to neoplastic changes seen in gliomas. We hope that in near future we would witness glial-based translational medicine with generation of deliverables for the containment and cure of disorders. We point out that such as a task will require a holistic and multi-disciplinary approach that will take in consideration the concerted operation of all the cell types in the brain. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

Dityatev A.,Italian Institute of Technology | Dityatev A.,Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University | Rusakov D.A.,University College London
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2011

The emergence of astroglia as an important participant of the synaptic machinery has led to the 'tripartite synapse' hypothesis. Recent findings suggest that synaptic signaling also involves the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM can incorporate and store molecular traces of both neuronal and glial activities. It can also modulate function of local receptors or ion channels and send diffuse molecular signals using products of its use-dependent proteolytic cleavage. Recent experimental findings implicate the ECM in mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and glial remodeling, thus lending support to the 'tetrapartite synapse' concept. This inclusive view might help to understand better the mechanisms underlying signal integration and novel forms of long-term homeostatic regulation in the brain. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.1.1 | Award Amount: 7.39M | Year: 2009

The Europlanet RI project will provide the European planetary science community with a unique research infrastructure, combining access to a suite of state of the art facilities while fostering their joint development and integration in terms of capacity and performance. This research infrastructure will include access to laboratory and field site facilities, advanced modelling, simulation and data analysis resources and to data produced by space missions and ground-based telescopes hence maximising the scientific impact of major European space missions and ground-based installations. Access will be provided in two forms. Three coordinated Trans National Access activities will open to many users the unique range of laboratory and field site facilities selected for this project. In parallel, the IDIS e-service will provide a user-friendly web-based access to the available planetary science data, information and software tools. Four Joint Research Activities will broaden the scope of the infrastructure, opening access to new field sites, offering new models and data analysis tools for users and widening the opportunity of remote data access by progressively upgrading IDIS into a Planetary Virtual Observatory. Four complementary networking activities will publicize the objectives and opportunities of Europlanet RI and disseminate project results amongst the scientific community, industries, SMEs, space agencies and the public. They will consolidate the establishment of a European Research Area for planetary science and exploration. Building on the synergies between its services, joint research activities and networking activities, Europlanet RI will provide the ideal scientific and technical environment to fully analyse data from past and present planetary missions and prepare the next generation of missions. In this way it will play a vital role in establishing the European Community as a leading player in planetary and space exploration.

Denisov S.,Sumy State University | Denisov S.,University of Augsburg | Denisov S.,Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University | Flach S.,Massey University | And 2 more authors.
Physics Reports | Year: 2014

Transport properties of particles and waves in spatially periodic structures that are driven by external time-dependent forces manifestly depend on the space-time symmetries of the corresponding equations of motion. A systematic analysis of these symmetries uncovers the conditions necessary for obtaining directed transport. In this work we give a unified introduction into the symmetry analysis and demonstrate its action on the motion in one-dimensional periodic, both in time and space, potentials. We further generalize the analysis to quasi-periodic drives, higher space dimensions, and quantum dynamics. Recent experimental results on the transport of cold and ultracold atomic ensembles in ac-driven optical potentials are reviewed as illustrations of theoretical considerations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Mechanism of metals alkylation with an organic halide in the presence of binary systems has been defined in more detail. It has been shown that the passivating film on the surface of zinc and cadmium is partially preserved in the course of the process, and the reaction in diethyl ether is decelerated due to the competitive adsorption of the organyl halide and diethyl ether on the surface of the reacting metal. The ratelimiting stages of the studied alkylation process have been elucidated basing on the experimental data on the effect of the reagents (organyl halide and alkylated metal) nature on the rate of the steady-state reaction and modeling of the suggested catalytic cycle. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Petrov E.Yu.,Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University | Kudrin A.V.,Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

The features of propagation of intense waves are of great interest for theory and experiment in electrodynamics and acoustics. The behavior of nonlinear waves in a bounded volume is of special importance and, at the same time, is an extremely complicated problem. It seems almost impossible to find a rigorous solution to such a problem even for any model of nonlinearity. We obtain the first exact solution of this type. We present a new method for deriving exact solutions of the Maxwell equations in a nonlinear medium without dispersion and give examples of the obtained solutions that describe propagation of cylindrical electromagnetic waves in a nonlinear nondispersive medium and free electromagnetic oscillations in a cylindrical cavity resonator filled with such a medium. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Maslov A.V.,Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University | Bakunov M.I.,Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

We propose a concept of a structure-a resonant optical gun-to realize an efficient propulsion of dielectric microparticles by light forces. The structure is based on a waveguide in which a reversal of the electromagnetic momentum flow of the incident mode is realized by exciting a whispering gallery resonance in the microparticle. The propelling force can reach the value up to the theoretical maximum of twice the momentum flow of the initial wave. The force density oscillates along the particle periphery and has very large amplitude. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

Bakunov M.I.,Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University | Bodrov S.B.,RAS Institute of Applied Physics
Journal of the Optical Society of America B: Optical Physics | Year: 2014

We present a detailed analysis of terahertz generation with tilted-front optical pulses in a scheme, where the pulsefront tilt is introduced by transmitting the laser pulse through a diffraction grating placed on the boundary of an electro-optic crystal. The analysis accounts for a finite transverse size of the pump laser beam, initial chirp of the laser pulse, and distortion of the tilted-front pulse in the crystal due to angular and material dispersion. Two situations of practical interest are explored-LiNbO3 pumped at 0.8 μm wavelength and GaAs pumped at 1.8 μm. Recommendations on increasing the efficiency of the optical-to-terahertz conversion, optimizing the generated terahertz spectrum, and improving the quality of the terahertz beam are given. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

Maslov A.V.,Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

The balances of the electromagnetic powers and momentum flows for the system of a dielectric particle and a dielectric slab waveguide are studied. The emphasis is made on the regime when whispering gallery resonances in the particle are excited. The excitation is achieved by a guided mode that has either transverse electric or magnetic polarization. The scattering problem is solved by using an analytical representation of the solution with subsequent numerical approach to find the scattered fields with high accuracy. It accounts rigorously for the interaction between the particle and the waveguide. It is found that the propelling force on the particle can be comparable to or even exceed the value of the momentum flow of the incident mode. This is related to a highly anisotropic angular distribution of the bulk radiation that can carry some noticeable momentum in the longitudinal direction. The bulk radiation carries also nonvanishing momentum in the transverse direction giving rise to a difference in the transverse forces experienced by the particle and by the waveguide. The strong coupling between the particle and the waveguide operating in the single-mode regime is shown to upshift slightly the resonant frequencies with decreasing gap between the particle and the waveguide. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Maslov A.V.,Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

It is predicted that the optical force experienced by a dielectric particle excited resonantly by a surface wave can be directed opposite to the incident power flow when the exciting wave is a backward one. This is consistent with the electromagnetic momentum flow of the backward wave being directed opposite to the power flow. The magnitude of the force can be comparable to the momentum flow of the surface wave. Such forces bring a deeper understanding of the electromagnetics of backward surface waves and can be used in integrated photonic circuits and optofluidic devices. © 2014 American Physical Society.

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