Burugu R.,Nizam College |
Venkateshwarlu G.,Nizam College
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2012
A simple, rapid, precise and accurate isocratic reversed-phase stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of carbocisteine (CS) a mucolytic and expectorant drug with an amino acid structure was developed and validated in commercial tablets, capsules and syrups. The method has shown adequate separation for CST from its associated main impurities and the degradation products. Separation was achieved on a Nucleosil C18, 3μm, 100 mm × 4.6 mm. column using a mobile phase consisting of 0.01 M ammonium dihydrogen ortho phosphate buffer (pH 2.6) at a flow rate of 1ml/min and UV detection at 220 nm. The drug was subjected to oxidation, hydrolysis, photolysis and heat to apply stress conditions. Photoisomerization product carbocisteine lactum and sulfoxidation 1 product carbocisteine Sulfoxide were determined and separated well demonstrating the utility of the method for studies of forced degradation. The linearity of the proposed method was investigated in the range of 0.1-0.3 μg/ml (r 2 = 0.9997). The limit of detection was 0.007μg/ml and the limit of quantitation was 0.021μg/ml. Degradation products produced as a result of stress studies did not interfere with the detection of CST assay can thus be considered stability-indicating.
Rajagopal S.,Nizam College |
Fields B.L.,Norfolk State University |
Burton B.K.,Norfolk State University |
On C.,Norfolk State University |
And 2 more authors.
Neuroscience | Year: 2014
Cav2.2 channels are a substrate for phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes. The contribution of Cavβ, an auxiliary subunit of these channels, in the PKC modulation was studied. Cav2.2 channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes in various subunit combinations with or without Cavβ subunits. Currents were recorded using a two-electrode voltage clamp with barium as the charge carrier (IBa). Acetyl-β-methylcholine (MCh), an activator of PKCα, potentiated Cav2.2 currents expressed with Cav2.2α1 alone or Cav2.2α1α2/δ. Similarly PKC isozymes α, βII or e potentiated IBa through Cav2.2α1 subunit channels. In contrast, MCh failed to potentiate currents expressed with Cav2.2α1 and Cavβ1b, β2a, β3 or β4 subunits. Similarly, in the presence of Cavβ1b subunits, PKC isozymes failed to potentiate these currents; contrarily, PKCs α or βII decreased the IBa. MCh failed to potentiate Cav2.2α1 subunit currents in the serine/threonine (Ser/Thr)→alanine mutants, T422A, S1757A or S2132A of Cav2.2α1 subunits. Hence Thr-422, Ser-1757 and Ser-2132 may be PKCα isozyme target sites. The action of PKC on these sites was further substantiated by the increased basal IBa along with the loss of MCh potentiation when Ser/Thr was mutated to aspartate. The observation that MCh or PKC isozymes failed to affect Cav2.2 currents in the presence of Cavβ subunits suggests that these subunits may have interfered with the interaction between PKC and Ser/Thr sites of Cav2.2α1 subunits. In addition to affecting channel expression and current kinetics, Cavβ subunits may also modulate the response of these channels to neurochemicals. © 2014 IBRO.
Veerappan R.,Rajah Serfoji Government College |
Senthilkumar R.,Nizam College
International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases | Year: 2015
Objectives: The study seeks to evaluate the effect of chrysin; a natural, biologically active compound extracted from plants, honey or propolis, on the tissues and circulatory antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods: Male albino rats were divided into four groups. Control (Group I) and chrysin supplementation of the control (Group II) received normal diet. Groups III and IV received L-NAME (40 mg/kg B.W). Groups II and IV received chrysin (25 mg/kg B.W) dissolved in 0.2% dimethylsulfoxide solution after the 4 th week. Results and Discussion: The results showed significantly elevated levels of tissue and circulatory thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes and lipid hydroperoxides, and significantly lowered enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats compared with those in control group. From chrysin administration to rats with L-NAME-induced hypertension leads to tissue damage which significantly decreases the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes, and significantly elevates the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E in the tissues and circulation compared with those on the unsupplemented L-NAME induced hypertensive group. Conclusions: Chrysin offers protection against free radical-mediated oxidative stress in rats with L-NAME-induced hypertension. © 2015, Wolters Kluwer - Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.
Maiti B.,Banaras Hindu University |
Rathore A.,Nizam College |
Srivastava S.,National Institute of Technology Durgapur |
Shekhawat M.,Banaras Hindu University |
Srivastava P.,Banaras Hindu University
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2011
Ethanol is a potential energy source and its production from renewable biomass has gained lot of popularity. There has been worldwide research to produce ethanol from regional inexpensive substrates. The present study deals with the optimization of process parameters (viz. temperature, pH, initial total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration in sugar cane molasses and fermentation time) for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using Box-Behnken experimental design and genetic algorithm (GA). An empirical model was developed through response surface methodology to analyze the effects of the process parameters on ethanol production. The data obtained after performing the experiments based on statistical design was utilized for regression analysis and analysis of variance studies. The regression equation obtained after regression analysis was used as a fitness function for the genetic algorithm. The GA optimization technique predicted a maximum ethanol yield of 59.59 g/L at temperature 31 °C, pH 5.13, initial TRS concentration 216 g/L and fermentation time 44 h. The maximum experimental ethanol yield obtained after applying GA was 58.4 g/L, which was in close agreement with the predicted value. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Shantha G.,MGIT Hyderabad |
Shanker B.,Nizam College
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat and Fluid Flow | Year: 2010
Purpose - This paper aims to examine the unsteady flow of an incompressible, viscous, conducting couple stress fluid flow through a porous medium over an infinite plate that is started into motion in its own plane by an impulse. The presence of a uniform magnetic field in a direction perpendicular to the plate is assumed. Design/methodology/approach - Casting the governing equations into matrix form, the authors use state space approach and Laplace transform technique to obtain the field variables. The inversion of Laplace transform is carried through the adoption of a numerical technique. Findings - Two specific problems related to a heated plate and a plate under uniform heating are examined and the variation of temperature and velocity with respect to the couple stress parameter numerically is studied. Numerical results concerning velocity and temperature distribution are presented graphically. Originality/value - The authors have attempted the problem in fluid dynamics through state space approach which is exploited with tremendous success in modern control theory but not enough in fluid dynamics. © 2010 Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Rao S.,Nizam college
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2013
Six drugs viz., Astemizole, Domperidone, Esomeprazole, Losartan potassium, Sumatriptan and Terazosin were tested for the formation of charge transfer complexes with 2, 3-dichloro 5, 6-dicyano- p- benzoquinone, (DDQ). Each of these drugs turned the pale yellow colour of reagent i.e DDQ. in CH3CN, to purple and exhibited three bands at 455, 545 and 588 nm due to anion of the reagent whose intensity increased with increase in the concentration of the drugs and formed a basis for quantitative determination of the drugs. The complexes were found to have 1:1 composition and have stability of the order 103 to 104 The effect of the concentration reagent, polarity of solvent, interferenceof excipients have been studied and optimized. Acetonitrile was found to be suitable solvent for the analysis. The methods have been validated in terms of ICH guidelines and applied to the quantification of pharmaceuticals. The variation of slopes of calibration plots and stability constants of the complexes are discussed in terms of structures of the drugs.
Fathima A.,Nizam College |
Rao S.,Nizam College |
Venkateshwarlu G.,Nizam College
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2012
Nine drugs viz., Famotidine, Ketorolac tromethamine, Dextromethorphan, Quetiapine, Salmeterol, Sumatriptan, Tamoxifen, Torsemide and Pantoprazole turned the pale yellow colour of reagent viz., p-chloranilic acid, in CH 3CN, to purple and exhibited a band at 520nm due to anion of the reagent whose intensity increased with increase in the concentration of the drugs and formed a basis for quantitative determination of the drugs. The composition of each complex is found to be 1:1 and stability of the order of 10 5. The effect of the concentration reagent, polarity of solvent, interference of excipients have been studied and optimized. The methods have been validated in terms of IVH guidelines and applied to the quantification of pharmaceuticals. The variations of slopes of calibration plots and stability constants are discussed in terms of structures of the drugs.
Pandey V.,Nizam College
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2014
In the aftermath of Globalization with relatively easy trans border movement of people, there is diffusion of material and non-material culture. With specific reference to Hyderabad, the diffusion of various cultures in Hyderabad has led to a unique way of life in cities which has contributed to further consolidation and development of cosmopolitanism. On the other hand Globalization indirectly has threatened the regional identities of people and places. This has resulted in the people associating with their regional specific identities in a very rigid manner resulting in increase in regional conflicts world over. The present research study tries to present the contrasts of cosmopolitanism and regionalism; their influence on urban development and how regionalism in its extreme form leads to regional conflicts. © Research India Publications.
Sivan S.K.,Nizam college |
Manga V.,Nizam college
Journal of Molecular Modeling | Year: 2010
Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are allosteric inhibitors of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Recently a series of Triazolinone and Pyridazinone were reported as potent inhibitors of HIV-1 wild type reverse transcriptase. In the present study, docking and 3D quantitative structure activity relationship (3D QSAR) studies involving comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were performed on 31 molecules. Ligands were built and minimized using Tripos force field and applying Gasteiger-Hückel charges. These ligands were docked into protein active site using GLIDE 4.0. The docked poses were analyzed; the best docked poses were selected and aligned. CoMFA and CoMSIA fields were calculated using SYBYL6.9. The molecules were divided into training set and test set, a PLS analysis was performed and QSAR models were generated. The model showed good statistical reliability which is evident from the r2 nv, q2100 and r2pred values. The CoMFA model provides the most significant correlation of steric and electrostatic fields with biological activities. The CoMSIA model provides a correlation of steric, electrostatic, acceptor and hydrophobic fields with biological activities. The information rendered by 3D QSAR model initiated us to optimize the lead and design new potential inhibitors. © Springer-Verlag 2009.
Rajender P.S.,Nizam College |
Vasavi M.,Nizam College |
Vuruputuri U.,Nizam College
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2011
Cancer is a global multidrug resistant calamity, demanding an urgent need to design a novel/potent anti cancer agent. CDK8, 3/cyclin C biosynthetic pathway plays a specific role in G0/G1/S phases of cell cycle. Cyclin C is identified as a potential anti cancer target candidate. In order to understand the mechanism of ligand binding and interaction between ligand and cyclin C, a 3D homology model for cyclin C is generated. The cyclin C binding groove can be checked by small ligand molecules leading to inhibition. Virtual screening of molecules from an online data base of ChemBank library throws light to arrive at possible inhibitors for cyclin C inhibition. The molecules with better docking scores and acceptable ADME properties were prioritised to obtain potential lead molecules as cyclin C inhibitors. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.