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Haji-Saeed B.,Air Force Research Lab | Woods C.L.,Air Force Research Lab | Kierstead J.,Solid State Scientific Corporation | Peyghambarian N.,University of Arizona | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

In this paper, we exploit the nonlinearity inherent in four-wave mixing in organic photorefractive materials and demonstrate edge enhancement, contrast conversion, and defect enhancement in a periodic structure. With the availability of these materials, which have large space-bandwidth products, edge enhancement, contrast conversion and defect enhancement are possible. © 2010 SPIE.


Christenson C.W.,University of Arizona | Thomas J.,University of Arizona | Blanche P.-A.,University of Arizona | Voorakaranam R.,University of Arizona | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

The electron transporting molecule tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) was introduced into a photorefractive composite in a low density to study the effects of electron traps on the performance. Compared to a control sample, Alq3 samples exhibited higher dielectric strength, over-modulation at reduced voltage, and increased writing speed. Transient measurements indicated grating revelation via decay of a competing grating. The dynamics are consistent with a bipolar charge transport model. Overall, Alq 3 improves the sensitivity, trapping, and breakdown voltage without significant losses in absorption or phase stability. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.


Christenson C.W.,University of Arizona | Thomas J.,University of Arizona | Blanche P.-A.,University of Arizona | Voorakaranam R.,University of Arizona | And 3 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2010

The electron transporting molecule tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) was added in low concentrations to a photorefractive polymer composite to provide trapping sites for electrons. This sample exhibited larger two-beam coupling gain, higher diffraction efficiency at lower voltages, and an increased dielectric breakdown strength compared to a control sample. The dynamics also revealed the presence of a competing grating, and a bipolar charge transport model is shown to fit the data. Overall, Alq3 improves the response time, efficiency, and breakdown voltage without a significant increase in absorption or loss of phase stability. This has applications for reflection displays and pulsed writing, where charge trapping and generation are major factors limiting the usefulness of photorefractive polymers. © 2010 Optical Society of America.


Khoury J.,Air Force Research Lab | Haji-Saeed B.,Air Force Research Lab | Woods C.L.,Air Force Research Lab | Kierstead J.,Solid State Scientific Corporation | And 2 more authors.
Optical Engineering | Year: 2011

In this paper, we exploit the nonlinearity inherent in four-wave mixing in organic photorefractive materials and demonstrate edge enhancement, contrast conversion, and defect enhancement in a periodic structure. With the availability of these materials, which have large space-bandwidth products, edge enhancement, contrast conversion and defect enhancement are possible. Some simulation results also are provided. © 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).


Christenson C.W.,University of Arizona | Blanche P.-A.,University of Arizona | Voorakaranam R.,University of Arizona | Bablumian A.,Tipd, Llc | And 4 more authors.
Optics InfoBase Conference Papers | Year: 2010

The first updatable three-dimensional holographic display based on a photorefractive polymer device, exhibiting a fast response, long persistency, and phase stability is discussed. Material and optical setup changes for new and broader applications are outlined. © 2009 Optical Society of America.


Blanche P.-A.,University of Arizona | Bablumian A.,University of Arizona | Voorakaranam R.,University of Arizona | Christenson C.,University of Arizona | And 5 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

The very first demonstration of our refreshable holographic display based on photorefractive polymer was published in Nature early 20081. Based on the unique properties of a new organic photorefractive material and the holographic stereography technique, this display addressed a gap between large static holograms printed in permanent media (photopolymers) and small real time holographic systems like the MIT holovideo. Applications range from medical imaging to refreshable maps and advertisement. Here we are presenting several technical solutions for improving the performance parameters of the initial display from an optical point of view. Full color holograms can be generated thanks to angular multiplexing, the recording time can be reduced from minutes to seconds with a pulsed laser, and full parallax hologram can be recorded in a reasonable time thanks to parallel writing. We also discuss the future of such a display and the possibility of video rate. © 2009 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.


Norwood R.A.,University of Arizona | Tay S.,University of Arizona | Wang P.,Nitto Denko Technical | Blanche P.-A.,University of Arizona | And 9 more authors.
ACS Symposium Series | Year: 2010

Photorefractive polymers are dynamic holographic recording materials that allow for updating of images. They have been investigated over the last decade and have a wide range of applications including optical correlation, imaging through scattering media, and optical communication. Here, we review the achievement of the first updatable holographic 3D display based on photorefractive polymers and report the fabrication of a 6 × 6 inch 2 display, the largest photorefractive 3D display to date capable of recording and displaying new images every few minutes. The holograms can be viewed for several hours without the need for refreshing, and can be completely erased and updated whenever desired. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Thomas J.,University of Central Florida | Christenson C.W.,University of Arizona | Lynn B.,University of Arizona | Blanche P.-A.,University of Arizona | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2011

Photorefractive composites derived from conducting polymers offer the advantage of dynamically recording holograms without the need for processing of any kind. Thus, they are the material of choice for many cutting edge applications, such as updatable three-dimensional (3D) displays and 3D telepresence. Using photorefractive polymers, 3D images or holograms can be seen with the unassisted eye and are very similar to how humans see the actual environment surrounding them. Absence of a large-area and dynamically updatable holographic recording medium has prevented realization of the concept. The development of a novel nonlinear optical chromophore doped photoconductive polymer composite as the recording medium for a refreshable holographic display is discussed. Further improvements in the polymer composites could bring applications in telemedicine, advertising, updatable 3D maps and entertainment. © 2011 SPIE.


Christenson C.W.,University of Arizona | Greenlee C.,University of Arizona | Lynn B.,University of Arizona | Thomas J.,University of Central Florida | And 7 more authors.
Optics Letters | Year: 2011

Organic photorefractive polymer composites can be made to exhibit near 100% diffraction efficiency and fast writing times, though large external slants are needed to project the applied field onto the grating vector. We show here that the use of interdigitated electrodes on a single plane provides similar performance to these standard devices and geometries but without a external slant angle. This new device's structure also greatly improves the diffraction efficiency and sensitivity compared to less slanted standard devices necessary for some real applications, such as holographic displays, optical coherence imaging, and in-plane switching. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

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