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Mangalore, India

Moodithaya S.,NITTE University | Avadhany S.T.,St Johns Medical College
Journal of Aging Research | Year: 2012

Ageing is associated with changes in cardiac autonomic control as measured by Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Not many studies have explored the influence of gender on age-related changes in cardiac autonomic regulation. This study evaluated the gender differences in age-associated changes in cardiac autonomic nervous activity by assessing HRV using frequency domain analysis of short-term stationary R-R intervals. HRV was studied in healthy males and females ranging in age from 6 to 55 years. Total power and absolute power in High-Frequency (HF) and Low-Frequency (LF) components as well as HF in normalized unit declined significantly with ageing. The HF/LF ratio was significantly higher in the adolescent and adult females compared to male of these age groups. This study suggests that gender differences exist in age-related changes in HRV. The finding that gender differences are limited to adolescent and adult age groups may indicate a role for female sex hormones in cardiac autonomic modulation. © 2012 Shailaja Moodithaya and Sandhya T. Avadhany. Source

Venkatesh T.,NITTE University | Suresh P.S.,Mangalore University | Tsutsumi R.,Tokushima University
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2015

A significant fraction of the human genome is transcribed as non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). This non-coding transcriptome has challenged the notion of the central dogma and its involvement in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is well established. Interestingly, several ncRNAs are dysregulated in cancer and current non-coding transcriptome research aims to use our increasing knowledge of these ncRNAs for the development of cancer biomarkers and anti-cancer drugs. In endocrine-related cancers, for which survival rates can be relatively low, there is a need for such advancements. In this review, we aimed to summarize the roles and clinical implications of recently discovered ncRNAs, including long ncRNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs, tRNA- and Y RNA-derived ncRNAs, and small nucleolar RNAs, in endocrine-related cancers affecting both sexes. We focus on recent studies highlighting discoveries in ncRNA biology and expression in cancer, and conclude with a discussion on the challenges and future directions, including clinical application. ncRNAs show great promise as diagnostic tools and therapeutic targets, but further work is necessary to realize the potential of these unconventional transcripts. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Pandit L.,NITTE University
Autoimmune Diseases | Year: 2011

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is being diagnosed in increasing numbers in metropolitan cities of India for which the availability of specialist neurologists and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facilities are primarily responsible. Epidemiological data are unavailable. Existing data have been obtained from small often retrospective studies from different parts of the country. These earlier studies suggested that optic nerve and spinal cord involvement are considerably high, and that perhaps optic spinal MS was the most prevalent form in India. On this basis it was also speculated that neuromyelitis optica (NMO) may be overrepresented in Indians. However in recent times, prospective studies backed by MRI data have shown no distinct differences between MS seen in the west and India. Sero positivity for NMO IgG is low though NMO phenotype disorders constitute nearly 20 of demyelinating disorders in India. Genetic susceptibility for MS among Indians may be similar to that for white populations. In the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), HLA DR11501 has been strongly associated with MS in Indians. A recent study that evaluated the established non-MHC multiple sclerosis loci in a small data set of Indian patients suggested a strong similarity with white populations. This review highlights some of the background information available on MS from India and so also some recent studies that unveiled the disease characteristics in Indian patients. © 2011 Lekha Pandit. Source

Kumaraswamy K.L.,Mahe Institute of Dental science and Hospitals | Vidhya M.,NITTE University
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2011

Human papilloma virus (HPV) is one of the most common virus groups affecting the skin and mucosal areas of the body in the world today. It is also a known fact that HPV causes many lesions in the oral cavity. The most common conditions induced by oral HPV infection are usually benign-like oral papillomas, oral condylomas, and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Oral HPV infection has been found to be associated with some cases of oropharyngeal cancer, but it is not the main risk factor for this kind of cancer. HPV is been proved to be the causative agent in causation of cervical cancers without doubt, but its role as a etiologic agent in causing oral cancers needs to be evaluated and studied more to come into any conclusion. We have used review papers, case reports, cohort studies, case control studies, and various internet sources published from 1960 to 2011 to prepare this review of literature. Source

Adiga R.,NITTE University
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2016

ZIKV infection has become a global threat spreading across 31 countries in Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. However, little information is available about the molecular epidemiology of ZIKV. Shared mutation of a threonine residue to alanine at the same position in the C terminal of NS5 sequences was observed in sequences from Colombia, Mexico, Panama, and Martinique. The sequences in the phylogenetic tree fell within the same cluster. Based on shared mutation the presence of a Latin American genotype was proposed. Comparison of African and Asian lineages yielded R29N, N273S, H383Q, and P391S mutation. The study highlights that mutation of amino acids at NS5 may contribute to neutropism of ZIKV. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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