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Ahmadpour A.,University of Bern | Aliarabi H.,Bu - Ali Sina University | Khan M.G.,Utah State University | Patton R.A.,Nittany Dairy Nutrition Inc. | Bruckmaier R.M.,University of Bern
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2017

The objective of this experiment was to follow the time-course changes of the milk fatty acids (FA) and particularly conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3, and n-6 FA in response to feeding whole rolled safflower seed (SS). Eighteen cows were blocked by milk production, days in milk, and parity, and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets by replacing whole cottonseed with SS. The control diet contained no SS (SS0), whereas the other diets contained 3% of dry matter as SS (SS3) or 6% SS (SS6). The study was conducted for 8 wk. Cows fed SS produced more milk than SS0, with SS3 producing more milk than SS6, but without a change in milk fat yield or milk fat %. Except for C8:0 FA, changes in milk FA were not observed until the third week of SS feeding. The C8:0 began decreasing during wk 1 of SS feeding and continued to decline to wk 8. Short-chain FA (C6:0 to C11:0) and medium-chain FA (C12:0 to C16:1) concentrations decreased in milk when cows were fed SS, whereas long-chain FA (C18:0 and higher) increased after wk 3. The milk long-chain FA increased from wk 3 until wk 5 and then reached a plateau with little difference between SS3 and SS6, whereas the short-chain FA decreased more in milk from cows fed SS6 than SS3. Total CLA increased slightly less than 5× in milk from cows fed SS compared with SS0. Over the same time frame, n-3 FA declined and n-6 FA increased in the milk from cows fed SS, with no difference between SS3 and SS6. This study indicated that SS fed at 3 and 6% of DM had the potential to increase milk production and the CLA in milk, but with a corresponding increase in n-6 FA. © 2017 American Dairy Science Association.

Heimbeck W.,Evonik Industries | Patton R.A.,Nittany Dairy Nutrition Inc.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

Our objective was to evaluate the potential of rumen epithelium to transport 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic isopropyl ester (HMBi) using the Ussing chamber technique. Rumen tissues were obtained from a nearby slaughterhouse, separated from the muscle and serosal layer as quickly as possible after exsanguination, placed in buffer, and gassed with 95:5 (vol/vol) O2:CO2 before tissue mounting. Two levels of HMBi (0.44 and 0.88mg/mL) and 2 incubation times (120 and 180min) were used in 12 chambers with 3 replicates per treatment with an exposed surface area of 2cm2. Four separate experiments were conducted (n=16). Concentrations of HMBi and methionine hydroxy analog (HMB) were measured by HPLC in rumen-side and serosal-side buffers. Data are expressed as percentage of added HMBi. Initial time samples were taken for comparison with incubated samples. Adding the HMBi-buffer mixture to the rumen side caused an immediate release of HMB (mean=6.3%). Breakdown of HMBi to HMB at initial time was due to hydrolysis reactions at the epithelial surface. Overall, a small and variable amount of HMBi was transferred to the serosal buffer (mean of 0.58% across both times and both concentrations). A larger amount of HMB (8.94%) was isolated in the serosal buffer. Increasing incubation time increased the amount of HMB in the ruminal buffer (34.0% at 120min vs. 43.4% at 180min) and decreased the amount of HMBi (37.9% at 120min vs. 28.1% at 180min). These data indicate that very limited amounts of HMBi may cross the rumen epithelium. The amount of HMB isolated on the serosal side was about 10 times higher than HMBi. The hydrolysis of HMBi to HMB required the presence of rumen tissue or perhaps microbes attached to the tissue. Based on this in vitro system, direct transport from the rumen would not explain rapid blood methionine increases observed when HMBi is fed. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.

Patton R.A.,Nittany Dairy Nutrition Inc. | Patton J.R.,Nittany Dairy Nutrition Inc. | Boucher S.E.,Kemin AgriFoods North America
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

Literature was searched for studies performed in adult dairy cattle that simultaneously measured starch degradability in the rumen (RSDeg) and starch digestion in the total tract to compute postruminal starch digestion (PRSDig). Forty-one studies with 161 dietary treatments were used to form the data set. Of these diets, the major starch source was corn for 83 diets, small grain for 58 diets, and sorghum for 8 diets. Corn RSDeg was more variable than other sources. As measured in vivo across all starch sources, the percent RSDeg was influenced only by the amount of starch consumed, with the amount of degradation being approximately 75% at low starch intakes and decreasing to about 60% when 4. kg or more of starch were consumed. Small grain starch had greater RSDeg than corn or sorghum starch, which were approximately equal. The PRSDig of corn and small grain starches were approximately equal, but sorghum was about 15% less. Across all diets, models derived from the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System predicted percentage of total-tract digestibility of starch very accurately, but overpredicted RSDeg and, as a result, underpredicted percent PRSDig. Calculation of RSDeg using a French model predicted the mean RSDeg with greater accuracy but less precisely. The relative differences in RSDeg percent among starch sources was correctly predicted by these models. A model using a revised rate of digestion as a way of combining effects of starch type and processing was developed, which predicted corn starch RSDeg and PRSDig with greater accuracy than nutrition models but only slightly better than using the mean observed degradation or the French calculation. Inaccuracies in prediction of RSDeg may be due mainly to processing effects and particle sizes, but these were not well reported in literature studies and were difficult to estimate. More accurate assessment of RSDeg and PRSDig will require better and more consistent reporting of grain processing. Based on this study, the French calculation is the most accurate of the models examined, although adjustments will be required to improve accuracy. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.

Lee C.,Pennsylvania State University | Hristov A.N.,Pennsylvania State University | Cassidy T.W.,Pennsylvania State University | Heyler K.S.,Pennsylvania State University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing a metabolizable protein (MP)-deficient diet with rumen-protected (RP) Lys, Met, and specifically His on dairy cow performance. The experiment was conducted for 12. wk with 48. Holstein cows. Following a 2-wk covariate period, cows were blocked by DIM and milk yield and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets, based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage: control, MP-adequate diet (ADMP; MP balance: +9 g/d); MP-deficient diet (DMP; MP balance: -317. g/d); DMP supplemented with RPLys (AminoShure-L, Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY) and RPMet (Mepron; Evonik Industries AG, Hanau, Germany; DMPLM); and DMPLM supplemented with an experimental RPHis preparation (DMPLMH). The analyzed crude protein content of the ADMP and DMP diets was 15.7 and 13.5 to 13.6%, respectively. The apparent total-tract digestibility of all measured nutrients, plasma urea-N, and urinary N excretion were decreased by the DMP diets compared with ADMP. Milk N secretion as a proportion of N intake was greater for the DMP diets compared with ADMP. Compared with ADMP, dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be lower for DMP, but was similar for DMPLM and DMPLMH (24.5, 23.0, 23.7, and 24.3. kg/d, respectively). Milk yield was decreased by DMP (35.2. kg/d), but was similar to ADMP (38.8. kg/d) for DMPLM and DMPLMH (36.9 and 38.5. kg/d, respectively), paralleling the trend in DMI. The National Research Council 2001. model underpredicted milk yield of the DMP cows by an average (±SE) of 10.3 ± 0.75. kg/d. Milk fat and true protein content did not differ among treatments, but milk protein yield was increased by DMPLM and DMPLMH compared with DMP and was not different from ADMP. Plasma essential amino acids (AA), Lys, and His were lower for DMP compared with ADMP. Supplementation of the DMP diets with RP AA increased plasma Lys, Met, and His. In conclusion, MP deficiency, approximately 15% below the National Research Council requirements from 2001, decreased DMI and milk yield in dairy cows. Supplementation of the MP-deficient diet with RPLys and RPMet diminished the difference in DMI and milk yield compared with ADMP and additional supplementation with RPHis eliminated it. As total-tract fiber digestibility was decreased with the DMP diets, but DMI tended to increase with RP AA supplementation, we propose that, similar to monogastric species, AA play a role in DMI regulation in dairy cows. Our data implicate His as a limiting AA in high-producing dairy cows fed corn silage- and alfalfa haylage-based diets, deficient in MP. The MP-deficient diets clearly increased milk N efficiency and decreased dramatically urinary N losses. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.

Patton R.A.,Nittany Dairy Nutrition Inc. | Hristov A.N.,Pennsylvania State University | Lapierre H.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Veterinary Clinics of North America - Food Animal Practice | Year: 2014

This article summarizes the current literature as regards metabolizable protein (MP) and essential amino acid (EAA) nutrition of dairy cattle. Emphasis has been placed on research since the publication of the National Research Council Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Seventh Revised Edition (2001). Postruminal metabolism of EAA is discussed in terms of the effect on requirements. This article suggests methods for practical application of MP and EAA balance in milking dairy cows. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Pacheco D.,Agresearch Ltd. | Patton R.A.,Nittany Dairy Nutrition Inc. | Parys C.,Evonik Industries | Lapierre H.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

The objective of this analysis was to compare the rumen submodel predictions of 4 commonly used dairy ration programs to observed values of duodenal flows of crude protein (CP), protein fractions, and essential AA (EAA). The literature was searched and 40 studies, including 154 diets, were used to compare observed values with those predicted by AminoCow (AC), Agricultural Modeling and Training Systems (AMTS), Cornell-Penn-Miner (CPM), and National Research Council 2001 (NRC) models. The models were evaluated based on their ability to predict the mean, their root mean square prediction error (RMSPE), error bias, and adequacy of regression equations for each protein fraction. The models predicted the mean duodenal CP flow within 5%, with more than 90% of the variation due to random disturbance. The models also predicted within 5% the mean microbial CP flow except CPM, which overestimated it by 27%. Only NRC, however, predicted mean rumen-undegraded protein (RUP) flows within 5%, whereas AC and AMTS underpredicted it by 8 to 9% and CPM by 24%. Regarding duodenal flows of individual AA, across all diets, CPM predicted substantially greater (>10%) mean flows of Arg, His, Ile, Met, and Lys; AMTS predicted greater flow for Arg and Met, whereas AC and NRC estimations were, on average, within 10% of observed values. Overpredictions by the CPM model were mainly related to mean bias, whereas the NRC model had the highest proportion of bias in random disturbance for flows of EAA. Models tended to predict mean flows of EAA more accurately on corn silage and alfalfa diets than on grass-based diets, more accurately on corn grain-based diets than on non-corn-based diets, and finally more accurately in the mid range of diet types. The 4 models were accurate at predicting mean dry matter intake. The AC, AMTS, and NRC models were all sufficiently accurate to be used for balancing EAA in dairy rations under field conditions. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.

A meta-analysis of published studies was used to investigate the effect of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) added to the diets of lactating dairy cattle on dry matter intake, milk production, true milk protein (TMP) production, and milk fat yield. Differences in responses between 2 commonly used RPM products, Mepron (Evonik Industries, Hanau, Germany) and Smartamine (Adisseo, Antony, France), were investigated as well as dietary and animal factors that could influence responses. Diets were coded with respect to the amino acid (AA) deficiency of the control diet as predicted by the AminoCow model (version 3.5.2, http://www.makemilknotmanure.com/aminocow.php; 0=no AA deficiency, 1=Met deficiency, 2=Met and Lys deficiency, 3=Met and Lys plus at least 1 other AA deficiency) to test the effect of AA deficiencies on RPM response. Thirty-five studies were identified, 17 studies evaluating Mepron, 18 studies evaluating Smartamine, and 1 study evaluating both. This permitted 75 dietary comparisons between control and RPM-added diets. Diets were entered into the AminoCow and the 2001 National Research Council models to compare predictions of Met, Lys, and metabolizable protein (MP) flow. Mean Met and Lys in diets where RPM was fed were estimated to be 2.35 and 6.33% of MP, respectively. Predictions of flows between models were similar. Overall, RPM addition to diets increased production of TMP, both as percentage (0.07%) and yield (27 g/d). Dry matter intake and milk fat percentage were slightly decreased, whereas milk production was slightly increased. Differences between products were detected for all production variables, with Mepron-fed cows producing less TMP percentage but greater milk production, resulting in twice as much TMP yield. Milk protein response to RPM was not related to predicted AA deficiency, calculated Met deficiency, or Met as a percentage of MP. Other dietary factors, including Lys flow (g/d), Lys as percentage of MP, neutral detergent fiber percentage, crude protein percentage, or energy balance, had no detectable effects on TMP response. When cows with a predicted positive AA balance were fed RPM, milk production increased, but when AA balance was negative, milk production decreased. Amount of RPM added to the diet was not correlated to TMP response. This study does not support the necessity of a high Lys level as a prerequisite to obtaining a TMP response to feeding RPM or the MP requirement suggested by the National Research Council model (2001). However, more dose-response studies over a wide range of milk production and dietary regimens will be required to more clearly establish AA requirements and to predict responses to RPM supplementation. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.

PubMed | Pennsylvania State University, Nittany Dairy Nutrition Inc. and Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Veterinary clinics of North America. Food animal practice | Year: 2014

This article summarizes the current literature as regards metabolizable protein (MP) and essential amino acid (EAA) nutrition of dairy cattle. Emphasis has been placed on research since the publication of the National Research Council Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Seventh Revised Edition (2001). Postruminal metabolism of EAA is discussed in terms of the effect on requirements. This article suggests methods for practical application of MP and EAA balance in milking dairy cows.

PubMed | Pennsylvania State University, Alltech Inc., Nittany Dairy Nutrition Inc., Agriculture and Agri Food Canada and Evonik Industries
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2015

This experiment was conducted with the objective to investigate the effects of slow-release urea and rumen-protected (RP) Met and His supplementation of a metabolizable protein (MP)-deficient diet (according to NRC, 2001) on lactation performance of dairy cows. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were used in a 10-wk randomized complete block-design trial. Cows were fed a covariate diet for 2 wk and then assigned to one of the following treatments for an 8-wk experimental period: (1) MP-adequate diet [AMP; 107% of MP requirements, based on the National Research Council (NRC, 2001)]; (2) MP-deficient diet (DMP; 95% of MP requirements); (3) DMP supplemented with slow-release urea (DMPU); (4) DMPU supplemented with RPMet (DMPUM); and (5) DMPUM supplemented with RPHis (DMPUMH). Total-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein, and urinary N and urea-N excretions were decreased by DMP, compared with AMP. Addition of slow-release urea to the DMP diet increased urinary urea-N excretion. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield (on average 44.00.9kg/d) were not affected by treatments, except DMPUMH increased DMI and numerically increased milk yield, compared with DMPUM. Milk true protein concentration and yield were increased and milk fat concentration tended to be decreased by DMPUMH, compared with DMPUM. Cows gained less body weight on the DMP diet, compared with AMP. Plasma concentrations of His and Lys were not affected by treatments, whereas supplementation of RPMet increased plasma Met concentration. Plasma concentration of 3-methylhistidine was or tended to be higher for DMP compared with AMP and DMPU, respectively. Addition of RPHis to the DMPUM diet tended to increase plasma glucose and creatinine. In conclusion, feeding a 5% MP-deficient diet (according to NRC, 2001) did not decrease DMI and yields of milk and milk components, despite a reduction in nutrient digestibility. Supplementation of RPHis increased DMI and milk protein concentration and yield. These results are in line with our previous data and suggest that His may have a positive effect on voluntary feed intake and milk production and composition in high-yielding dairy cows fed MP-deficient diets.

PubMed | Pennsylvania State University, Nittany Dairy Nutrition Inc., Evonik Industries and Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to better define essential AA (EAA) requirements in lactating dairy cows through examination of the relationship between plasma essential AA concentration (p[EAA]) and predicted duodenal flow of essential AA (EAAduo). Our hypothesis was that at a given level of milk protein output, p[EAA] would remain steady in response to increasing EAAduo until the EAA requirement was met, at which point p[EAA] would increase rapidly in response to greater duodenal flow of EAA until p[EAA] reached a plateau as other body processes degraded excess EAA to avoid toxicity. Thus, the requirement of each EAA would be fulfilled when p[EAA] increased rapidly. To investigate this hypothesis, we compiled a literature database that included 102 studies with 420 treatment means that reported p[EAA], dietary nutrient content, body weight, and milk production. A second database was produced to validate relationships developed in the first database and included 32 studies with 98 treatment means. All relationships were evaluated as regression equations with study as a random factor. Breed, days in milk, body weight, and milk protein production had no effect on the plasma concentration of any EAA. Other than metabolizable protein supply, nutritional content of the rations did not affect p[EAA]. Only p[Arg] was affected by parity, with primiparous cows having higher concentrations of Arg than older cows. No break points in the relationship between p[EAA] versus EAAduo were detected as either steep increases or plateaus. Plasma Arg, Ile, Lys, Thr, and Val concentrations were best associated with their respective EAAduo as quadratic equations, whereas His, Leu, Met, and Phe were associated only linearly. Adding a quadratic term improved the adjusted R(2) or decreased the root mean square error marginally (<2.0%). Thus, we conclude that the main effect of EAAduo on p[EAA] is linear. Abomasal or duodenal infusions of Met, Lys, His, Lys+Met, and casein revealed that Met or Lys infused alone increased the plasma concentration of the infused EAA and lowered the concentration of other EAA, particularly His. Infusion of Lys+Met or His alone was associated with increases in concentrations of these EAA without affecting others. We conclude that over a wide range of protein intakes in lactating cows, plasma levels of EAA increase linearly with duodenal flow. No evidence was found that EAA requirements are reflected in blood plasma concentrations.

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