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Higashimurayama-shi, Japan

Sato M.,Nissaku Co. | Shuto K.,Niigata University | Uematsu M.,Kowa Company | Takahashi T.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Petrology

Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene adakitic andesites are found in the southern part of Okushiri Island, the northern Noto Peninsula and in the Toyama region in the present-day back-arc margin of the SW and NE Japan arcs. On Okushiri Island, adakitic andesite is accompanied by moderately alkaline basalt, whereas on the Noto Peninsula, adakitic andesite has been erupted along with high magnesian andesite (HMA), bronzite andesite and tholeiitic basalt. Adakitic andesites from all three locations are characterized by high Sr/Y and low Y, and have higher MgO contents than adakitic melts generated by experimental melting of metabasalt and amphibolite. They also have higher Ni and Cr contents than either Archaean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suites or Early Cretaceous adakitic granites, which have been attributed to partial melting of subducted oceanic crust. The Noto Peninsula adakitic andesite has Sr and Nd isotopic compositions identical to normal mid-ocean ridge basalt (N-MORB), whereas the Okushiri Island and Toyama adakitic andesites are more isotopically primitive than N-MORB. The Noto Peninsula primary adakitic melt was derived from subducted oceanic N-MORB crust, whereas the Okushiri Island and Toyama primary adakites are interpreted as melts of subducted N-MORB and sediment that have subsequently interacted with the overlying mantle wedge peridotite. To explain the comagmatism of adakite, HMA and basalt, the following model is proposed. A hydrated adakitic diapir ascends from the subducting slab and is heated because it enters the overlying hot mantle wedge. The subsequent establishment of thermal and H2O gradients in the adakitic diapir and surrounding mantle wedge peridotite results in concurrent generation of adakitic andesite magma in the inner adakitic diapir region (low temperature and high H2O content), HMA and bronzite andesite magmas in the intermediate peridotite region (intermediate temperature and H2O content), and tholeiitic basalt magma in the outer peridotite region (high temperature and lower H2O content). Comagmatic adakite and mildly alkaline basalt are found in cooler and wetter adakitic diapirs and hotter and drier peridotite regions respectively. The most likely tectono-magmatic situation for the genesis of adakitic magmas in this example of a cool subduction zone involves upwelling of hot asthenosphere into the subcontinental lithosphere beneath the back-arc side of the NE Japan arc and northern end of the SW Japan arc, during the period spanning the pre-Japan Sea opening to syn-opening stages. The unusually high temperature conditions established in the mantle wedge owing to upwelling of hot asthenosphere caused partial melting of the relatively cool subducting Pacific plate, resulting in the generation of adakitic magmas. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Imaoka T.,Yamaguchi University | Nakashima K.,Yamagata University | Kamei A.,The University of Shimane | Itaya T.,Okayama University of Science | And 4 more authors.

Cretaceous episodic magmatism produced Nb-rich lamprophyres and adakitic granitoids in the Kinki district of SW Japan. K-Ar dating of minerals from the lamprophyres, adakites, and hornblende peridotite xenoliths yielded ages of 109-99Ma, indicating a short-lived episodic magmatism. The lamprophyres generally display primitive high-Mg basaltic to basaltic andesite compositions with high Mg# and high Cr and Ni contents that preclude substantial differentiation. Some high-Nb basalt (HNB) and Nb-enriched basalt (NEB) compositions also occur. The lamprophyres have high large-ion lithophile element (LILE) and high field-strength element (HFSE) contents and variable (La/Yb)n ratios, and can be divided into high-(La/Yb)n (12.5-22.1) and low-(La/Yb)n (3.6-6.1) groups. The former contains nepheline-normative rocks with positive initial εNd(T) values, whereas the latter contains hypersthene-normative subalkaline rocks with negative initial εNd(T) values. The adakitic granitoids have relatively high TiO2, Nb, and Ta contents compared to more typical high-silica adakites elsewhere, indicating that they were produced by high temperatures (ca. 920 to 970°C) during slab melting.Early Cretaceous slab rollback and the accompanying asthenospheric upwelling at 105Ma could form a transitory thermal anomaly, and hence induce melting of the subducted slab to form adakitic granitoids, and produce metasomatized wedge mantle to form the lamprophyres. The high-(La/Yb)n lamprophyres originated from small degrees of partial melting of an enriched metasomatized mantle wedge within the garnet stability field at depths of ≥70km, whereas the low-(La/Yb)n lamprophyres originated from a different mantle source by a comparatively larger degree of partial melting in a relatively shallow part of the mantle wedge. The magmatic diversity of the Kyoto lamprophyres thus derives primarily from a heterogeneous mantle source that has been variably affected by the results of subduction. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Shuto K.,Niigata University | Nohara-Imanaka R.,Niigata University | Sato M.,Nissaku Co. | Takahashi T.,Niigata University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Petrology

To investigate the nature and origin of across-arc geochemical variations over time in mantle wedge derived magmas, we have carried out a geochemical study of basalts in the NE Japan arc spanning an age range from 35Ma to the present. Back-arc basalts erupted at 24-18 Ma, 10-8 Ma, 6-3Ma and 2.5-0Ma have higher concentrations of both high field strength elements (HFSE) and rare earth elements (REE) [particularly light REE (LREE) and middle REE (MREE)], and higher incompatible trace element ratios compared with frontal-arc basalts at any given time. Geochemical modeling of Nb/Yb versus Nb shows that the frontal-arc and back-arc compositional differences are independent of subduction modification and can, in many cases, be explained by different degrees of melting (higher degrees of melting for frontal-arc magmas and lower degrees of melting for back-arc magmas) of a nearly homogeneous depleted mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) mantle (DMM)-like source, although there are several exceptions. These include some Pliocene frontal-arc basalts that may originate from a source that is slightly more depleted than DMM, several 35-32Ma and 24-18Ma back-arc basalts derived from a lithospheric mantle source that is enriched in HFSE compared with DMM, and a rare 16-12Ma basalt that was erupted in the back-arc but was produced by a similar degree of melting to frontal-arc basalts erupted at the same time. Variations in ratios of fluid-mobile and -immobile elements and those of melt-mobile and -immobile elements for the 35-0Ma NE Japan basalts indicate that the principal subduction component added to the source mantle prior to generation of these basalt magmas is a sediment-derived melt. Comparison of Sr and Nd isotopic compositions for Pacific Ocean MORB, the NE Japan basalts and subducting sediments suggests that the isotopic compositions of most post-16Ma more depleted back-arc basalts can be explained by the addition of <2% bulk sediment; the most enriched isotope compositions of the subcontinental lithosphere-derived magmas can be accounted for by addition of a maximum 5-7% Japan Trench Sediment (JTS), if the original Sr and Nd compositions of the lithosphere approximated that of DMM. The Sr and Nd isotope composition of the frontal-arc basalts can be accounted for by the addition of 1-5% JTS. A depleted asthenospheric mantle (DMM-like) upwelling model with interaction between asthenospheric mantle-derived magmas and overlying lithospheric mantle can account for the geochemical characteristics of the 35-0Ma NE Japan basalts. The frontal-arc magmas were generally generated by higher degrees of melting of the shallower part of the asthenospheric mantle, whereas the back-arc magmas resulted from lower degrees of melting of the deeper part of asthenospheric mantle. These latter magmas underwent interaction with the lithospheric mantle, resulting in more enriched Sr and Nd isotopic signatures for the pre-18Ma back-arc basalts and post-22Ma frontal-arc basalts, but less interaction, resulting in more depleted Sr and Nd isotopic signatures, for most of the back-arc basalts younger than 16 Ma. © The Author 2015. Source

Sato M.,Nissaku Co. | Shuto K.,Niigata University | Nohara-Imanaka R.,Niigata University | Takazawa E.,Niigata University | And 2 more authors.

The southern part of Okushiri Island in the present-day back-arc margin of the NE Japan arc is one of the rare convergent plate boundaries where similar magma types (high-magnesian adakitic andesite (HMAA) and high-TiO2 basalt (HTB)) have been erupted concurrently at more than one time. Oligocene HMAA can be divided into two types: HMAA-I is characterized by high Sr/Y and low Y, and HMAA-II by relatively low Sr/Y and high Y. HMAA-I is primitive in terms of MgO (8.5wt.%), Mg# (67), Ni (232ppm) and Cr (613ppm) contents, and the most Mg-rich olivine phenocrysts plot within the mantle olivine array in terms of Fo and NiO. The similar Cr versus Ni relations of types I and II HMAA indicate some interaction of slab-derived adakitic melts with mantle peridotite, whereas Ni contents are higher than those of most boninites derived by partial melting of mantle peridotite at a given Cr content. Types I and II HMAA have more enriched Sr and Nd isotopic compositions than N-MORB. The petrography and geochemistry of these rocks, combined with published results on the genesis of high-magnesian andesite (HMA) indicate that types I and II HMAA could be produced by interaction of slab (N-MORB and sediment)-derived adakitic melts with mantle peridotite. The comagmatism of HMAA and HTB is ascribed to the following model. A cool, less hydrous, adakite magma (spherical diapir) would rise from the subducting slab (Pacific Plate) and become more hydrous as a result of its interaction with overlying hydrous peridotite. This hydrated adakitic diapir further ascends and is heated on entering the overlying mantle wedge. Subsequently, the temperature and H2O gradients in the ascending adakitic diapir and surrounding mantle peridotite would have been established. The HTB magma segregated from the surrounding mantle peridotite region (high temperature and low H2O content) at a depth of 60km or more, whereas the adakitic diapir (low temperature and high H2O content) continued to rise, with its chemical composition modified due to interaction with the surrounding mantle peridotite. Type I HMAA then segregated at about 50km. The most attractive tectono-magmatic model to account for production of adakitic magma at two different periods in the same cool subduction zone region involves upwelling of depleted hot asthenosphere into the subcontinental lithosphere beneath the back-arc margin of the NE Japan arc, coincident with back-arc rifting which took place at the initiation of the Japan Sea opening. The unusually high temperature conditions established in the mantle wedge due to upwelling of depleted hot asthenosphere caused partial melting of a limited part of the cool oceanic crust subducting beneath the NE Japan arc, resulting in the generation of adakitic magma. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Shuto K.,Niigata University | Sato M.,Nissaku Co. | Kawabata H.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Osanai Y.,Kyushu University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Petrology

The Ryozen Formation, which crops out on the trench side of the NE Japan arc, contains middle Miocene rhyodacite with adakite-like trace element geochemical characteristics (Ryozen adakitic rhyodacite) and spatially and temporally related basalt (Ryozen basalt) and andesite (Ryozen andesite). K-Ar age data for the basalt and a zircon U-Pb age for the adakitic rhyodacite, combined with the stratigraphy, suggest that all of these volcanic rocks were erupted at about 16-14 Ma. The primitive nature of the Ryozen basalt is shown by its high MgO (maximum 14·1wt %), Ni (392 ppm) and Cr (1193 ppm) contents. Using the olivine maximum fractionation model, the segregation depth of the parental primary magma to this basalt is estimated at c. 50 km (about 1·5 GPa).The Ryozen andesite has slightly higher 87Sr/86Srinitial (SrI) and lower 143Nd/144Nd initial (NdI) ratios than the Ryozen basalt.This, and the characteristics of the variation trends defined by basalt and andesite samples in SiO2 versus major and trace element variation diagrams, suggests that the andesite may have resulted from fractional crystallization of basaltic magma with minor assimilation of pre-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks (i.e. an AFC process). The Ryozen rhyodacite has phenocrysts of plagioclase, amphibole, garnet and titanomagnetite, and is characterized by low Sr/Y ratios (o30), low Yconcentrations (510 ppm), high chondrite-normalized La/Yb [(La/Yb)cn] (425) and low chondrite-normalized Yb [(Yb)cn] values (55 ppm). These geochemical characteristics are similar to those of a new adakite subgroup (rhyodacite lavas in eastern Jamaica; Jamaican-type adakite). Thus, we define the Ryozen rhyodacite as the Ryozen low Sr/Yadakitic rhyodacite. A potential mechanism for the generation of this rhyodacite is crystal fractionation of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, amphibole, garnet, titanomagnetite and minor apatite from an andesitic parent magma.This mechanism is consistent with mass-balance modeling, which matches the observed major and trace element chemistry, as well as SrI and NdI, for the Ryozen andesite and low Sr/Yadakitic rhyodacite.The most likely tectono-magmatic model for the production of the volcanic rocks of the Ryozen Formation involves the upwelling of depleted hot asthenosphere, which modified the thermal structure of the mantle wedge beneath the trench side of the arc during the middle Miocene.This resulted in partial melting of both mantle wedge peridotite and the relatively cool subducting Pacific plate, leading to the simultaneous production of primitive basalt, normal andesite, high-magnesium andesite and low and high Sr/Y adakitic rhyodacites. © 2013 The Author. Source

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