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Kanzaki, Japan

Nishikyushu University is a private university in Kanzaki, Saga, Japan. The school was established in 1968. Wikipedia.

Hoover K.C.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Hudson M.J.,Nishikyushu University
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

Resilience theory provides a critical framework for examining the capacity of human societies to respond to changes to essential features of the human-environment relationship. Studies employing the long-term perspective required to understand adaptive cycles of resilience are still rare. Despite the challenges of working with variably preserved materials and small sample sizes, archaeological remains provide access to longitudinal data. One way of approaching human resilience is through its impacts on human well-being, which is often measured via population health. Population health is typically described by child mortality and morbidity rates. Here, we argue that the specific use of permanent biological markers of developmental stress (fluctuating dental asymmetry and dental enamel hypoplasia) serve as a proxy for prehistoric population health. A case study from Japan is used to test this proposal. We focus on persistent hunter-gatherer populations before and after the introduction of agriculture to the region. Too frequently the focus of research in periods of agricultural transition favors those populations making the transition to agriculture, dismissing persistent hunter-gatherers as on the ecological margins. Archaeological data from prehistoric NW Kyushu indicate the persistence of a culturally autonomous hunter-gatherer Jōmon population for several centuries into the agricultural Yayoi period. Did these populations suffer from a decline in population health as might be expected if they were, in fact, reduced to the margins of the social-ecological system? Using dental markers of developmental stress from six persistent hunter-gatherer sites in NW Kyushu, we tested the hypothesis that hunter-gatherer developmental stress loads did not change over time. There were no statistically significant differences in developmental stress between pre-agricultural hunter-gatherers and persistent hunter-gatherer during the agricultural period. We interpret the results as evidence of resilience of these persistent hunter-gatherers in spite of major disruptions from immigrant agricultural populations to the social and ecological environments of NW Kyushu. Developmental stress in an archaeological context may serve as a useful proxy of resilience of past populations and future studies might take additional indicators of health into consideration. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Chang S.K.,University Putra Malaysia | Ismail A.,University Putra Malaysia | Yanagita T.,Nishikyushu University | Yanagita T.,Saga University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2015

Protein extracted from oil palm kernel was hydrolyzed using pepsin-pancreatin (OPKH) and subsequently used to identify the potential antioxidative peptides. Then, the OPKH was purified sequentially by ultrafiltration, reversed-phase and semi-preparative HPLC. Antioxidant capacities (ACs) of the purified peptides from OPKH were evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), β-carotene-linoleate bleaching (BCB) assay and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity assay. Amino acid compositions of the purified peptide fractions were also determined. The amino acid sequence of the antioxidative peptide was identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/multi-stage mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) using de novo sequencing. There were nine fractions purified and collected where F6 demonstrated the highest AC. Three antioxidative peptides, Val-Val-Gly-Gly-Asp-Gly-Asp-Val (VVGGDGDV), Val-Pro-Val-Thr-Ser-Thr (VPVTST) and Leu-Thr-Thr-Leu-Asp-Ser-Glu (LTTLDSE) were identified in fraction F6. These peptides did not show any similarity with other antioxidant peptides listed in BLAST database of NCBI. These peptides may be useful ingredients in food and pharmaceutical applications. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Nishikawa S.,Nishikyushu University
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2013

Ultrasonic absorption coefficients have been measured in aqueous solution of imipramine {3-(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)-N,N-dimethylpropan- 1-amine} in the frequency range of 0.8-220 MHz at 25 C. The frequency dependences of the observed absorption was characterized by a Debye-type relaxational equation with two relaxation frequencies, although only one relaxation had been observed in aqueous solutions of the related molecule amitriptyline. Both of the relaxation frequencies in imipramine solutions were found to be independent of the solute concentration and the amplitudes of the relaxational absorptions increase linearly with increasing solute concentration. It was therefore concluded that these two relaxations are associated with unimolecular reactions, such as a structural change due to rotational motions of the bond in the specified group in the imipramine molecule. To analyze quantitatively the source of the relaxations, semiempirical molecular orbital methods have been applied to determine the standard enthalpy of formation of the imipramine molecule at various dihedral angles around the bonds in the alkylamine side chain. According to the results, only one rotational motion of carbon-carbon bond in the side chain was found to be appropriate and the three minima of the standard enthalpy of formation was obtained as a function of the rotational angle. At the three minimum positions, the values of the standard enthalpy of formation are almost the same. With the assumptions (a) that rotational motion is not accompanied by a volume change of the reaction and (b) that the standard free energy change is close to the difference in the values between the standard enthalpies of formation, the equilibrium constants for the rotational isomerization have been calculated to be near unity. Hence, the forward and backward rate constants of the isomerization reactions are nearly the same. If one assumes that there are two kinds of rotational motions in one bond of the molecule, one proceeds with a rate constant on the order of 10 8 s-1, whereas the other with a rate constant on the order of 106 s-1. The faster and slower processes are also distinguished by the height of the standard enthalpy of formation. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Nagao K.,Saga University | Jinnouchi T.,Saga University | Kai S.,Saga University | Yanagita T.,Saga University | Yanagita T.,Nishikyushu University
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2013

Background: Resveratrol (trans-3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene) is a naturally occurring phytoalexin produced by plants in response to various stresses. Several studies have shown that resveratrol is present in significant amounts in a variety of human diets, including wines, grapes, berries, and peanuts, and it possesses several beneficial health properties, such as atheroprotective, anti-obesity, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of resveratrol on the pathogenesis of obesity and the metabolic profile of nutrients in non-high fat-fed obese OLETF rats. Results: Although lipid parameters in the serum and liver were not changed, the accumulation of abdominal white adipose tissues was markedly prevented in resveratrol diet-fed OLETF rats after 4 weeks of feeding. The results of the respiratory gas analysis indicated that dietary resveratrol induced the partial enhancement of fat metabolism and sparing actions for carbohydrate and protein at 1 week and 3 weeks of feeding in OLETF rats. Additionally, the adipose mRNA level of carnitine palmitoyltransferase in the resveratrol diet-fed OLETF rats was higher than the control rats after 4 weeks of feeding. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that dietary resveratrol can prevent obesity through a change in the metabolic profile of nutrients in obese OLETF rats. © 2013 Nagao et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Yamasaki M.,University of Miyazaki | Yanagita T.,Nishikyushu University
Obesity Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2013

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is a generic term to describe isomers of octadecadienoic acid, has been reported to exert various beneficial physiological effects. Accumulating data show that CLA, especially trans10, cis12 (t10, c12)-CLA, has a potent body fat-reducing effect, which is prominent in mice and to a lesser extent rats. In addition, several clinical studies have demonstrated the body fat- and weight-reducing effect of CLA in humans. However, t10, c12-CLA evokes severe lipodystrophy in mice that results in impaired glucose metabolism. Therefore, while CLA is a promising agent for the amelioration of obesity and obesity-related diseases, it is important to establish its safety prior to common use in humans. In addition, it is important to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of CLA. Here, we focus on the response of adipocyte to CLA. © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity.

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