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Nishi O.,Kyushu University | Nishi O.,Japan Society for the Promotion of Science | Nishi O.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Iiyama K.,Kyushu University | And 2 more authors.
Mycological Progress | Year: 2015

Some isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato with large conidia (MALC), which was formerly known as M. anisopliae var. majus, from a scarabaeid host, such as isolates from the coconut rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes spp.), have a narrow host range and are particularly adapted to their original host. Despite recent taxonomic revisions of the genus Metarhizium on the basis of DNA sequences, variations in host preferences of MALC have not been linked to DNA sequence variations. This study focused on the phylogenetic status and pathogenicity of MALC isolated from the fruit beetle larva Protaetia orientalis submarumorea (Pos) in Japan to investigate the relationship between virulence and nucleotide sequence variation among MALC. On the basis of the results of the phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from five loci, we identified an isolate from Pos (Hn1) as M. majus, which comprised many isolates with large conidia from scarabaeid insects. In the virulence assay of genetically diverse Metarhizium isolates, only Hn1 and its most closely related isolates from soil showed pathogenicity to Pos; however, these Pos-pathogenic isolates showed weak virulence against silkworms. In the analysis of the intergenic spacer region of rDNA, the Pos-pathogenic isolates displayed unique sequence variation and were clearly distinguished from closely related lineages, including isolates from Oryctes sp., which formed a separate monophyletic group. These results indicate that the Pos-pathogenic isolates from Japan are particularly adapted to Pos and can be genetically distinguished from M. majus isolates from different scarabaeid insects. © 2015, German Mycological Society and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Ogawa T.,Tokyo University of Agriculture | Kameyama Y.,Tokyo University of Agriculture | Kanazawa Y.,Nishi Nippon Junior College | Suzuki K.,Tokyo University of Agriculture | Somego M.,Tokyo University of Agriculture
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Flowering cherry trees (Prunus subgenus Cerasus) are characterized by beautiful flowers along with the existence of hundreds of flower ornamental cultivars. The long history of cultivation of flowering cherries, however, has caused significant confusion over names and origins. We conducted experimental crosses and AFLP analysis to reveal the origins or parentages of early-flowering cherry cultivars, Prunus×kanzakura cv. Atami-zakura and Prunus×kanzakura cv. Kawazu-zakura. Multivariate analysis based on pairwise genetic similarity (principal coordinate analysis; PCoA), and Bayesian statistical methods to find genetic group (STRUCTURE analysis) and to classify samples into different hybrid classes (NewHybrids) clearly demonstrated that (1) Prunus×kanzakura cv. Atami-zakura is the F 1 hybrid between P. jamasakura and P. campanulata, and (2) Prunus×kanzakura cv. Kawazu-zakura is the F 1 hybrid between P. lannesiana var. speciosa and P. campanulata. The experimental crosses revealed the significant difficulty of generating these hybrids. In addition, 18 of 20 and six of six samples of Prunus×kanzakura cv. Atami-zakura and Prunus×kanzakura cv. Kawazu-zakura, respectively, are classified into a single AFLP genotype. It is apparent that the original trees or genets of these taxa have long been propagated by grafting over several tens to one hundred years. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Park S.-G.,Kyushu University | Ohashi M.,University of Hyogo | Kurosawa K.,Kyushu University | Kim Y.-J.,Kyushu University | Yahata H.,Nishi Nippon Junior College
Soil Science and Plant Nutrition | Year: 2010

To evaluate water treatment residue (WTR) as a soil substitute material, its physical properties were investigated and compared with decomposed granite soil (DGS). For comparison purposes, relative gas diffusivity (D/D0), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), water retention curve, porosity and readily available water were measured for both the WTR and the DGS. The measured D/D0, Ks, water retention ability and porosity were higher for the WTR than for the DGS. These differences may be attributable to intra-aggregate and inter-aggregate pores created in the WTR through binding of silt and clay particles in the flocculation process. The behavior of water and gasses surrounding these pores may explain the physical properties of the WTR. The characteristics measured in this evaluation indicate that WTR has good potential for reuse as a soil substitute material. © 2010 Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. Source


Park S.-G.,Kyushu University | Yahata H.,Nishi Nippon Junior College | Chikushi J.,Kyushu University | Teak-Keun O.H.,Kyushu University
Environmental Control in Biology | Year: 2010

The possibility of reusing water treatment residue (WTR) was examined as an alternative material for sand that is now widely used as a growing medium. Physical properties such as water retention curve, relative gas diffusivity (D/D0), saturated hydraulic conductivity, porosity, available water-holding capacity and bulk density were compared between WTR and sand. D/Do, water retention capacity, total available water-holding capacity, total and capillary porosities, and bulk density were higher for WTR than for sand. This is attributed to creation of intra- and inter-aggregate pores through binding of silt and clay particles in the flocculation process of aggregates in the WTR. These physical characteristics of the WTR endorse a high possibility of reusing the WTR as an alternative for sand as a growing medium. Source

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