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Kōbe-shi, Japan

Iwata A.,Nishi Kobe Medical Center
Kansenshōgaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection in infants aged over 90 days, known as ultra-late onset disease (ULOD), is extremely rare. We present 2 cases of ULOD and investigate etiology from both the host and microbiological aspects. Case 1, 99-day-old girl born in the late preterm, had a history of 6-hour fever. Bacterial meningitis was diagnosed and the patient was treated with intravenous ampicillin for 14 days. The isolate was serotype III GBS. Case 2, a 7-month-old girl with no medically significant history had an intermittent fever for 2 weeks before admission. Serotype Ia GBS was isolated from urine and blood, leading to a diagnosis of urosepsis. Intravenous cefotaxime was administered for 7 days. Both patients were discharged without any sequelae. We examined the host risk factors for ULOD development. (i) One subject had underlying preterm birth and the other had bilateral vesicoureteral reflux. (ii) Both had extremely low serum anti-serotype specific immunoglobulin levels, an important measure of protective immunity. The anti-type Ia antibody concentration was 0.24 microg/mL and the anti-type III IgG antibody concentration was 0.25 microg/mL. We employed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine the genetic background of bacterial isolates. Sequence types (STs) of isolates were ST-335 (one allele variant of ST-19) and ST-23. ST-335 is an epidemic invasive GBS disease strain in Japan and is dominantly correlated with serotype III. ST-23 is highly associated with serotype Ia and is also a common invasive type in Europe, the United States and Japan. Our findings suggest that ULOD likely develops combined with underlying host disease, immunological factors and highly virulent strains. Continuous investigation of large numbers of cases is needed to better understand ULOD etiology. Source

Matsubara K.,Nishi Kobe Medical Center
Kansenshōgaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases

To determine seasonal changes in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children, we retrospectively analyzed 69 children with 72 episodes of IPD, admitted to a regional center in Kobe, Japan, between July 1994 and June 2011. IPD episodes involved occult bacteremia (n = 48), pneumonia (n = 10), meningitis (n = 10), periorbital cellulitis (n = 3), and mastoiditis (n = 1), including 3 cases of two IPD recurrences. We analyzed 5 IPD-associated factors previously documented in Europe and North Amrica with inconsistent results--1) age at onset, 2) sibling number, 3) preschool sibling number, 4) subjects' day care attendance, and 5) siblings' day care attendance. We collected information on these factors by reviewing medical charts or contacting subjects' parents or guardians by telephone. IPD peaked bimodally in April and May (n = 21) and in November and December (n = 20), decreasing prominently between July and September (n = 8). Subjects with IPD attending day care formed a significantly higher propotion during April and May than did those developing IPD during other months: 12/21 [57.1%] vs. 12/51 [23.5%], odds ratio 4.3, 95% confidence interval, 1.5-12.8; p = 0.006. Combined day care attendance among subjects with IPD and/or their siblings also differed significantly between these two groups: 17/21 [80.9%] vs. 27/51 [52.9%], odds ratio 3.8, 95% confidence interval, 1.1-12.8; p = 0.027. Not significant differences were seen in age at onset, sibling number, or preschool sibling number. In contrast, however children with IPD onset during November and December showed no significant difference in association with any of the 5 factors, compared to children with IPD onset in other months. Our findings showed a bimodal peak in IPD in children, the first and highest of which occurred in April and May and was significantly associated with day care attendance by those with IPD and/or their siblings. This first peak may, however, be related to circumstances in Japan, where preschool children usually enter day care center or kindergarten in April. Source

Oga T.,Kyoto University | Tsukino M.,Hikone Municipal Hospital | Hajiro T.,Tenri Hospital | Ikeda A.,Nishi Kobe Medical Center | Nishimura K.,Takanohara Central Hospital
Respiratory Research

Background: Guidelines recommend that symptoms as well as lung function should be monitored for the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, limited data are available regarding the longitudinal change in dyspnea, and it remains unknown which of relevant measurements might be used for following dyspnea.Methods: We previously consecutively recruited 137 male outpatients with moderate to very severe COPD, and followed them every 6 months for 5 years. We then reviewed and reanalyzed the data focusing on the relationships between the change in dyspnea and the changes in other clinical measurements of lung function, exercise tolerance tests and psychological status. Dyspnea with activities of daily living was assessed with the Oxygen Cost Diagram (OCD) and modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (mMRC), and two dimensions of disease-specific health status questionnaires of the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ) and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) were also used. Dyspnea at the end of exercise tolerance tests was measured using the Borg scale.Results: The mMRC, CRQ dyspnea and SGRQ activity significantly worsened over time (p < 0.001), but the OCD did not (p = 0.097). Multiple regression analyses revealed that the changes in the OCD, mMRC, CRQ dyspnea and SGRQ activity were significantly correlated to changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (correlation of determination (r2) = 0.05-0.19), diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (r2 = 0.04-0.08) and psychological status evaluated by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (r2 = 0.14-0.17), although these correlations were weak. Peak Borg score decreased rather significantly, but was unrelated to changes in clinical measurements.Conclusion: Dyspnea worsened over time in patients with COPD. However, as different dyspnea measurements showed different evaluative characteristics, it is important to follow dyspnea using appropriate measurements. Progressive dyspnea was related not only to progressive airflow limitation, but also to various factors such as worsening of diffusing capacity or psychological status. Changes in peak dyspnea at the end of exercise may evaluate different aspects from other dyspnea measurements. © 2012 Oga et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Oga T.,Kyoto University | Tsukino M.,Hikone Municipal Hospital | Hajiro T.,Tenri Hospital | Ikeda A.,Nishi Kobe Medical Center | Nishimura K.,Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital
International Journal of COPD

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered to be a respiratory disease with systemic manifestations. Some multidimensional staging systems, not based solely on the level of airflow limitation, have been developed; however, these systems have rarely been compared. Methods: We previously recruited 150 male outpatients with COPD for an analysis of factors related to mortality. For this report, we examined the discriminative and prognostic predictive properties of three COPD multidimensional measurements. These indices were the modified BODE (mBODE), which includes body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity; the ADO, composed of age, dyspnea, and airflow obstruction; and the modified DOSE (mDOSE), comprising dyspnea, airflow obstruction, smoking status, and exacerbation frequency.Results: Among these indices, the frequency distribution of the mBODE index was the most widely and normally distributed. Univariate Cox proportional hazards analyses revealed that the scores on three indices were significantly predictive of 5-year mortality of COPD (P, 0.001). The scores on the mBODE and ADO indices were more significantly predictive of mortality than forced expiratory volume in 1 second, the Medical Research Council dyspnea score, and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score. However, peak oxygen uptake on progressive cycle ergometry was more significantly related to mortality than the scores on the three indices (P, 0.0001). Conclusion: The multidimensional staging systems using the mBODE, ADO, and mDOSE indices were significant predictors of mortality in COPD patients, although exercise capacity had a more significant relationship with mortality than those indices. The mBODE index was superior to the others for its discriminative property. Further discussion of the definition of disease severity is necessary to promote concrete multidimensional staging systems as a new disease severity index in guidelines for the management of COPD. © 2011 Oga et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd. Source

Matsubara K.,Nishi Kobe Medical Center | Hoshina K.,Sanno Hospital | Suzuki Y.,Tokyo Womens Medical University
International Journal of Infectious Diseases

Objectives: To clarify the incidence and prognosis of early-onset (EOD) and late-onset (LOD) GBS disease in Japan. To evaluate the influence of national guidelines issued in 2008 on the epidemiology of GBS disease. Methods: Retrospective nationwide questionnaire surveillance on culture-confirmed GBS infections between 2004 and 2010. Results: Eighty-eight EOD and 162 LOD cases were reported from 152 participating hospitals. The case fatality of EOD was 13.6% and of LOD was 8.0%. Premature birth <37 weeks (. p<. 0.001) and low birth weight <2500. g (. p<. 0.001) were significantly associated with EOD mortality. A high rate of neurological sequelae was noted in meningitis in EOD (8/24) and LOD (29/85) cases. Based on a live-birth number of 438 359 and inborn case numbers of 36 EOD and 42 LOD, the incidence of EOD and LOD were estimated to be 0.08 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06-0.11)/1000 and 0.10 (95% CI 0.07-0.12)/1000 live-births, respectively. Before (2004-2008) and after (2009-2010) the issue of guidelines, the mortality of EOD (from 14.8% to 11.8%) and LOD (from 9.8% to 2.5%) improved, but the incidence was unchanged. Conclusions: The incidence of EOD and LOD is apparently low in Japan, but the mortality and morbidity rates remain substantial. The issue of national guidelines did not affect the incidence. © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Source

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