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Esplanade, OR, United States

Kang J.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Li Z.,Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry | Wu T.,Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry | Jensen G.S.,NIS Labs | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry

Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been demonstrated to exhibit extremely high anti-oxidant capacity. Seven major flavonoids were isolated from freeze-dried acai pulp by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated as orientin (1), homoorientin (2), vitexin (3), luteolin (4), chrysoeriol (5), quercetin (6), and dihydrokaempferol (7) by NMR, MS and compared with the reported literature. Compounds 3 and 6 were reported from acai pulp for the first time. Anti-oxidant capacities of these flavonoids were evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, cell-based anti-oxidant protection (CAP-e) assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells (ROS PMN assay). ORAC values varied distinctly (1420-14,800 μmol TE/g) among the seven compounds based on numbers and positions of hydroxyl groups and/or other substitute groups. The ORAC values of aglycones are generally higher than that of glycosides. CAP-e results indicated that only three compounds (4, 6 and 7) could enter the cytosol and contribute to the reduction of oxidative damage within the cell. The ROS PMN assay showed that five compounds (2-3 and 5-7) demonstrated exceptional effects by reducing ROS formation in PMN cells, which produced high amounts of ROS under oxidative stress. In evaluating the anti-oxidant capacity of natural products, combining both chemical and cell-based assays will provide more comprehensive understanding of anti-oxidant effects and potential biological relevance. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Kang J.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Thakali K.M.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Xie C.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Kondo M.,Brunswick Laboratories | And 6 more authors.
Food Chemistry

There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as "aaí" found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and their phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has received considerable attention as a "super fruit" because of its high antioxidant capacity, while studies on E. precatoria (EP) remain rare. In this study, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of EP fruit pulps were evaluated by different assays including a series of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) based assays, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocyte (CAP-e) assay, as well as the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) assay. Total phenolics were also measured as an indication of the total phenol content. For comparative purposes, the EO fruit pulp was included. The antioxidant capacity of the EP fruit pulp was determined to be superior to the EO fruit pulp in every chemical based assay. In the cell-based CAP-e assay, the EP fruit pulp showed a dose-dependent inhibition against oxidative damage with an IC 50 of 0.167 g/l. In the SEAP reporter assay, the EP fruit pulp polyphenol-rich extracts inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-κB activation by 23% (p < 0.05) at 20 μg/ml, whereas the extract of the EO fruit pulp did not show a significant inhibitory effect at comparable doses. In addition, carotenoids were quantified for the first time in EP, since EP has high scavenging capacity against singlet oxygen. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Benson K.F.,NIS Labs | Beaman J.L.,NIS Labs | Okubena A.,Forever Inc. | Okubena O.,Forever Inc. | Jensen G.S.,NIS Labs
Journal of Medicinal Food

The impact of chronic inflammatory conditions on immune function is substantial, and the simultaneous application of anti-inflammatory and immune modulating modalities has potential for reducing inflammation-induced immune suppression. Sorghum-based foods, teas, beers, and extracts are used in traditional medicine, placing an importance on obtaining an increased understanding of the biological effects of sorghum. This study examined selected anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties in vitro of Jobelyn™, containing the polyphenol-rich leaf sheaths from a West African variant of Sorghum bicolor (SBLS). Freshly isolated primary human polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear cell subsets were used to test selected cellular functions in the absence versus presence of aqueous and ethanol extracts of SBLS. Both aqueous and nonaqueous compounds contributed to reduced reactive oxygen species formation by inflammatory PMN cells, and reduced the migration of these cells in response to the inflammatory chemoattractant leukotriene B4. Distinct effects were seen on lymphocyte and monocyte subsets in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The aqueous extract of SBLS triggered robust upregulation of the CD69 activation marker on CD3- CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells, whereas the ethanol extract of SBLS triggered similar upregulation of CD69 on CD3+ CD56+ NKT cells, CD3+ T lymphocytes, and monocytes. This was accompanied by many-fold increases in the chemokines RANTES/CCL5, Mip-1α/CCL3, and MIP-1β/CCL4. Both aqueous and nonaqueous compounds contribute to anti-inflammatory effects, combined with multiple effects on immune cell activation status. These observations may help suggest mechanisms of action that contribute to the traditional use of sorghum-based products, beverages, and extracts for immune support. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. Source

Jensen G.S.,NIS Labs | Patel D.,South Dakota State University | Patel D.,Sterling Technology Inc. | Benson K.F.,NIS Labs
Preventive Medicine

Objective: To evaluate acute effects of bovine colostrum low-molecular weight fraction (CLMWF) on selected aspects of innate immune function in healthy human subjects. Methodology: A placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized cross-over trial involving 12 healthy subjects, age 22-72, was conducted at NIS Labs during the year 2010. Placebo or 150. mg CLMWF was given orally. Blood was drawn immediately before and at 1 and 2. h after consumption. Results: A single dose of CLMWF, when compared to placebo, resulted in rapid increase in phagocytic activity of monocytes at 1h (P<0.12) and polymorphonuclear cells at 1h (P<0.08) and 2h (P<0.03) after consumption. Observations included increased numbers of CD3 + T cells (P<0.05), and a transient reduction in circulating CD3 -CD56 + natural killer (NK) cells at 1h (P<0.04), returning to normal levels at 2h after consumption (P<0.96). The relative increase of NK cells from 1 to 2h after consumption was not associated with an increase in CD69 or CD25 activation markers, suggesting that new NK cells were mobilized into circulation. Conclusion: The increased phagocytic activity and rapid transient changes in NK cell numbers suggest that upon consumption, interaction of CLMWF with immune cells in the gut mucosa triggers immediate events with systemic consequences. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.. Source

Objective: To evaluate effects on the innate immune system after exposure to, a consumable low-molecular weight fraction (CLMWF) of immunoglobulin-depleted bovine colostrum whey. Methodology: Cell-based immune assays were performed in vitro, and host resistance towards bacterial and viral infection was evaluated in two mouse studies. Results: In vitro data showed a multimodal effect, as CLMWF treatment resulted in a rapid increase in phagocytosis. CLMWF increased chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear cells towards the bacterial peptide f-MLP. CLMWF treatment of natural killer cells increased expression of the CD69 activation marker. Mononuclear phagocytes showed decreased numbers of CD14 bright and increased number of CD14 dim cells. The remaining CD14 bright cells showed reduced expression of CD80 and CD86, whereas CD14 dim cells showed increased expression of CD80 and CD86, suggesting dendritic cell maturation.Mouse models were applied to evaluate the immune-modulating capacity of CLMWF when consumed acutely during bacterial (Streptococcus) and viral (Influenza) infections in vivo. Reduced bacterial and viral loads were observed in lungs within 24. h. Viral load was also reduced when CLMWF was introduced intranasally. Conclusion: The data suggest that the support of antimicrobial immune defense mechanisms and maturation of antigen-presenting cells in vitro translates to protection in vivo when product is introduced across mucosal membranes. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.. Source

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