Ahmadabad, India
Ahmadabad, India

23°7′41″N 72°32′40″ENirma University, popularly known as NU , is an autonomous university located in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. It functions under the aegis of Nirma Education and Research Foundation .Nirma University is a statutory university established under the state act. Wikipedia.

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Patel M.M.,Nirma University
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery | Year: 2013

Subcutaneous administration of insulin is associated with several limitations such as discomfort, local pain, irritation, infections, immune reactions and lipoatrophy as well as lipohypertrophy manifestations at the injection site. To overcome these drawbacks, enormous research is currently going on worldwide for designing of an alternative noninvasive route of administration. Pulmonary and oral route seem to be the most promising ones, with respect to the market value. However, after the letdown by pulmonary delivery of insulin, oral colon targeted delivery of insulin has gained tremendous interest among researchers. Although bioavailability remains a challenge for oral colon specific delivery of insulin, the employment of protease inhibitors, permeation enhancers and polymeric delivery systems have proved to be advantageous to overcome the said problem. This Editorial article is not intended to offer a comprehensive review on drug delivery, but shall familiarize the readers with the strategies employed for attaining non-erratic bioavailability of insulin, and to highlight some of the formulation technologies that have been developed for attaining oral colon-specific delivery of insulin. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.

Patel M.M.,Nirma University
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery | Year: 2011

Oral colon-targeted drug delivery systems have gained enormous attention among researchers in the last two decades. The significance of this site-specific drug delivery system can be measured by its usefulness for delivering a variety of therapeutic agents, both for the treatment of local diseases or for systemic therapies. With the arrival of newer innovations, a large number of breakthrough technologies have emerged for targeting a drug molecule to the colon. Researchers have attempted various approaches in the development of these formulation technologies, such as pH-dependent, time-dependent and microflora-activated systems. Recently, a number of approaches have been proposed that utilize a novel concept of di-dependent drug delivery systems, that is, the systems in which the drug release is controlled by two factors: pH and time, and pH and microflora of the colon. This Editorial article is not intended to offer a comprehensive review on drug delivery, but shall familiarize the readers with the formulation technologies that have been developed for attaining colon-specific drug delivery. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

Patel M.M.,Nirma University
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery | Year: 2014

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world and the second most common cause of cancer related deaths. Conventional treatment of CRC is comprised of drug (chemotherapeutic agents) administration by parenteral route, which delivers the drug to both normal as well as cancerous tissues, thus leading to numerous undesirable effects. Enormous research is going on worldwide for designing an alternative route of administration, among which oral colon-targeted drug delivery systems have gained immense attention amongst scientific community. Direct delivery of drugs at the site of action leads to an increase in the availability of drugs at the targeted region. This causes a reduction in the amount of drug required to exert same therapeutic effect, thus reducing the incidents of adverse effects. Various maneuvers (pH-dependent, time-dependent and microflora-activated systems) have been attempted by researchers for targeting drugs successfully to the colonic region by circumventing the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. This Editorial article aims to put forth an overview of the formulation technologies that have been developed for attaining colon specific drug delivery for the treatment of CRC. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Aurora-B kinase plays a crucial role in cell cycle events and is identified as an important factor in regulation of spindle check point assembly. Thus, it can be proved as an important target in the field of oncology. 3D-QSAR model was generated using 54 molecules reported in literature containing thienopyrimidine and thienopyridine as scaffolds. All molecules were aligned using Distill function in Sybyl X1.2. This generated best model of CoMFA-RG (Region focusing) and CoMSIA were statistically significant with correlation coefficient r2ncv of 0.97, for both & Leave one out coefficient (LOO) q2 of 0.70 and 0.72, respectively. Best CoMSIA model was built up using various combination of descriptors and proved statistical significant among all models. Best CoMFA-RG and CoMSIA models were validated by 12 test set molecules giving satisfactory prediction (r2pred) values of 0.86 and 0.88, respectively. External test set validation was performed using 20 molecules and satisfactory prediction of their biological activity was found. Active compounds were docked on protein (PDB ID: 4C2V) by GOLD module and revealed important interactions with amino acids at ATP-binding region. These data explored insight requirements for Aurora-B inhibition which might be fruitful for understanding mechanisms with kinase ligand interactions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Patel B.D.,Nirma University | Ghate M.D.,Nirma University
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is one of the widely explored novel targets for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) currently. Research has been focused on the strategy to preserve the endogenous glucagon like peptide (GLP)-1 activity by inhibiting the DPP-4 action. The DPP-4 inhibitors are weight neutral, well tolerated and give better glycaemic control over a longer duration of time compared to existing conventional therapies. The journey of DPP-4 inhibitors in the market started from the launch of sitagliptin in 2006 to latest drug teneligliptin in 2012. This review is mainly focusing on the recent medicinal aspects and advancements in the designing of DPP-4 inhibitors with the therapeutic potential of DPP-4 as a target to convey more clarity in the diffused data. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Ghatak S.B.,Nirma University
Current diabetes reviews | Year: 2010

Type 2 diabetes mellitus causes significant morbidity and mortality on account of its progressive nature and results in considerable burden on healthcare resources. It is characterized by high circulating levels of glucose resulting from insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Current treatment strategies have only limited long-term efficacy and tolerability given the progressive nature of the disease leading to inadequate glycemic control and are also associated with undesirable side effects such as weight gain, hypoglycemia and gastrointestinal distress. In the light of these existing limitations, exploring new treatment targets and new therapies have become the need of the hour at present. The incretin pathway, in particular, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), plays an important pathological role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and treatments targeting the incretin system have recently generated surmount interest. These can mainly be categorized into two broad classes; GLP-1 agonists/analogs (exenatide, liraglutide), and dipeptidyl peptidase- 4 inhibitors (sitagliptin, vildagliptin). The gliptins act by prolonging the action of incretins, the gut hormones which can boost insulin levels. Alogliptin is a potent, highly selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor now undergoing clinical testing to support a new drug application for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The results of Phase II and Phase III human studies, upon evaluation for clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability in patients with type 2 diabetes, have demonstrated that Alogliptin is effective and well tolerated as a treatment for type 2 diabetes, either as monotherapy or in combination with metformin, thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas and insulin, with an excellent safety profile.

Sharma D.S.,Nirma University
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences | Year: 2012

General solutions for determining the stress distribution around holes in an infinite plate subjected to arbitrary biaxial in-plane loadings at infinity, are obtained using Muskhelishvili's complex variable method. The stress functions are obtained by evaluating Cauchy's integral for the given boundary conditions. The generalized formulation thus obtained is coded and numerical results are presented for triangular, square, pentagonal, hexagonal, heptagonal and octagonal cut-out. The effect of the hole geometry and loading pattern on the stress concentration factor is studied. For some of the cases, plane stress finite element models are prepared in ANSYS and results are compared with present method. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Adhyaru D.M.,Nirma University
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2012

In this paper, an observer design is proposed for nonlinear systems. The Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation based formulation has been developed. The HJB equation is formulated using a suitable non-quadratic term in the performance functional to tackle magnitude constraints on the observer gain. Utilizing Lyapunov's direct method, observer is proved to be optimal with respect to meaningful cost. In the present algorithm, neural network (NN) is used to approximate value function to find approximate solution of HJB equation using least squares method. With time-varying HJB solution, we proposed a dynamic optimal observer for the nonlinear system. Proposed algorithm has been applied on nonlinear systems with finite-time-horizon and infinite-time-horizon. Necessary theoretical and simulation results are presented to validate proposed algorithm. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Jain S.V.,Nirma University | Patel R.N.,Nirma University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

In remote communities where it is not economical and practically possible to take the grid connection, stand-alone small hydro systems can be used to fulfill the energy requirement. Small-scale hydroelectric power systems are emerging as a promising source of renewable energy generation, but they require low cost hydraulic and electric equipments to make them economically feasible. In such plants, pumps can be used in turbine mode considering various advantages associated with pump e.g. ease of availability, proven technology, low initial and maintenance cost, availability for a wide range of heads and flows, etc. The efficiency of pump as turbine (PAT) is usually lower than that of conventional hydro turbines. However, efficiency is not the primary selection criterion for such machines and it is recommended to operate such machines around maximum efficiency point. In the present study, different turbines suitable for micro-hydropower plants are discussed. The historical development of PAT is described. The review of the state-of-the-art of pump running in turbine mode is presented. Different pumps suitable to run in turbine mode for low capacity power generation in micro-hydropower plants as well as in water supply piping systems are discussed. Theoretical, experimental and numerical investigations carried out by different researchers on PAT are reviewed. The research work on PAT including criteria for selection of pump running as turbine, cavitation analysis, force analysis, loss distribution, various methods of performance enhancement, cost analysis of hydropower plant with conventional hydro turbine and PAT, applications of PAT in water supply pipelines, etc. is discussed. The worldwide implementation of PAT and different manufacturers of PAT are described. The limitations in implementation of PAT as well as the recommendations to improve the performance of PAT are described. The current trends and future scope for the further improvement and implementation of PAT are also discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Sharma D.S.,Nirma University
Engineering Letters | Year: 2012

General stress functions for determining the stress concentration around circular, elliptical and triangular cutouts in laminated composite infinite plate subjected to arbitrary biaxial loading at infinity are obtained using Muskhelishvili's complex variable method. The generalized stress functions are coded using MATLAB and the effect of fiber orientation, stacking sequence, loading factor, loading angle and cutout geometry on stress concentration around cutouts in orthotropic/anisotropic plates is studied. Some of the results are compared with existing literature and finite element solutions.

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