Kristoffersen P.,Copenhagen University |
Buhler O.,Copenhagen University |
Larsen S.U.,AgroTech Institute for Technology and Food Innovation |
Randrup T.B.,NIRAS Consultants
Arboriculture and Urban Forestry | Year: 2010
This tree establishment study investigates the effect of weed control and pruning treatments on stem and branch diameter increment of newly planted broad-leaved lime (Tilia platyphyllos 'Rubra') roadside trees. Weed control significantly increased stem circumference four years after establishment by 3.6 cm (1.4 in) from 24.5 cm (9.7 in, untreated control) to 28.1 cm (11.1 in). In terms of Danish nursery sales prices, this corresponds to an increase of tree cash value of 1201 DKK (160.90 €, 235.40 US$) per tree. Calculating with 400 DKK (53.60 €, 78.40 US$) as cost for contract weeding per hour, this corresponds to 0.75 hours per tree per year for a period of four years. In addition to weed control treatments, trees were pruned at establishment, two years after establishment, or at both times. None of the pruning treatments affected stem diameter growth, but branch diameter and branch:stem diameter ratio were significantly reduced by all pruning treatments. Branch diameter ranged from 40.1 mm (1.6 in) on unpruned trees to 34.6 mm (1.4 in) on trees pruned both times. Branch:stem diameter ratio ranged from 0.54 on unpruned trees to 0.49 on trees pruned both times. In consequence, weed control is recommended as a strong management practice. Mild pruning is also considered advisable, if structural crown problems can be avoided at an early stage, and if the tree has to be prepared for later pruning operations. ©2010 International Society of Arboriculture.
Bentsen P.,Copenhagen University |
Sondergaard Jensen F.,Copenhagen University |
Mygind E.,Copenhagen University |
Barfoed Randrup T.,NIRAS Consultants
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening | Year: 2010
Studies have shown that outdoor environments lend themselves to particular types of learning at the same time promoting physical activity and well-being of children. In the past decade, Danish public and private schools have introduced curriculum-based outdoor learning as a weekly or bi-weekly 'outdoor school' day for children aged 7-16 - called udeskole in Danish. Based on a national population survey of Danish schools (N=2082), information on the extent of udeskole activities, dissemination of udeskole, and barriers to teaching out-of-doors are presented. Findings show that 28% of the responding schools practice udeskole across the country. Furthermore, another 15% are planning to start udeskole within the next three years. It is argued that udeskole plays an increasing and important role in the Danish school system and constitutes a potential for green space management. As potentially key actors, we suggest that green space planners and managers regard udeskole as an important concept in the future development of public green space, and consider school teachers and pupils as an important contemporary and future user group. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH.
Schipperijn J.,Copenhagen University |
Stigsdotter U.K.,Copenhagen University |
Randrup T.B.,NIRAS Consultants |
Troelsen J.,University of Southern Denmark
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening | Year: 2010
Increasing the use of urban green space has appeared on the political agenda, primarily because increased use is expected to improve the health and well-being of the urban population. Green space is contributing to restoring mental fatigue, serving as a resource for physical activity, reducing mortality and reducing the level of stress. However, knowledge and experience on how to implement this agenda are scarce. In this paper, we use a socio-ecological model as framework when studying influences on the use of respondents' nearest urban green space in the Danish city of Odense. Data were obtained from a survey sent to 2500 randomly selected adult residents within the central part of the city. We tested the relative importance of different factors on the frequency of use of the nearest urban green space by using a multivariate logistic regression model. The results show that almost half of the respondents did not use their nearest green space the most. Whether or not respondent used their nearest green space most depends primarily on area size, distance to the area and factors that are likely to express a reduced mobility; old age, young children and poor health. If the nearest urban green space also is the most used green space, having a dog is the only factor that significantly increases the frequency of use. Further research is needed to determine what it is that makes people use an area more, if the basic conditions of a reasonable size (>5 ha) within a reasonable distance (<600 m) are fulfilled. © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.