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Mossoba M.M.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Azizian H.,NIR Technologies Inc. | Tyburczy C.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Kramer J.K.G.,Guelph Food Research Center | And 3 more authors.
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society

Declarations of the total content of trans fatty acids (FA) and saturated FA (SFA) are mandatory on food labels in the US and Canada. Gas chromatography (GC) has been the method of choice for the determination of FA composition. However, GC is time consuming and requires conversion of fats and oils to their FA methyl esters. In the present study, a recently published Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopic procedure was applied to the rapid (<5 min) determination of total SFA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA), polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), and trans FA contents of 30 commercially available edible fats and oils. Good agreement was obtained between the GC and FT-NIR methods for the determination of total SFA, MUFA, and PUFA contents. Differences between the two methods were apparent for the determination of trans fat at trans fat levels <2 % of total fat. The analytical determinations of total SFA, MUFA, and PUFA contents for many of the oils examined differed from the respective values declared on the product labels. Our findings demonstrate that the FT-NIR procedure serves as a suitable alternative method for the rapid determination of total SFA, MUFA, PUFA and trans FA contents of neat vegetable oils. © 2013 AOCS (outside the USA). Source

Azizian H.,NIR Technologies Inc. | Kramer J.K.G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Josse A.R.,Brock University
Lipid Technology

The application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy for the determination of body fat content is a fairly new technique. Its accuracy was demonstrated to be similar to that of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, compared to MRI and DXA, there are numerous advantages associated with FT-NIR such as speed of measurement, portability, cost, availability, and accuracy. These advantages make this technique a desirable tool for use in various nutritional, fitness, research and medical settings. This is particularly true given the negative health impact of overweight and obesity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Mossoba M.M.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Kramer J.K.G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Azizian H.,NIR Technologies Inc. | Kraft J.,University of Vermont | And 5 more authors.
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society

Since trans fat labeling requirements became mandatory in the US and many other countries, there has been a need for rapid and accurate analytical methodologies that can facilitate compliance with the various regulations. The determination of total trans fatty acids by midinfrared (IR) spectroscopy is a widely used procedure that was standardized and validated as AOCS Official Method Cd 14e-09 (negative second derivative infrared spectroscopic method for the rapid (5 min) determination of total isolated trans fat) in 2009. The C-H out-of-plane deformation mid-IR band observed at 966 cm -1 is uniquely characteristic of isolated (non-conjugated) double bonds with trans configuration. AOCS Official Method Cd 14e-09, the most recent attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform IR (ATR-FTIR) official method, entails the measurement of the height of the negative second derivative of the trans absorption band. In the present study, the performance of a novel, portable FTIR system equipped with a heated 9-bounce diamond ATR crystal was evaluated and compared to that of a conventional benchtop single-bounce ATR-FTIR spectrometer. The introduction of the 9-bounce diamond ATR crystal resulted in the lowering of the limit of quantification of trans fat, as a percentage of the total fat, from approximately 2 to 0.34%. The data collected from accurately weighed gravimetric standards and 28 unknown test samples ranging in trans fat content from about 0.5 to 54%, as a percentage of the total fat, indicated that this IR official method and the use of the new 9-bounce portable ATR-FTIR instrumentation could lead to a five-fold enhancement in sensitivity relative to single-bounce systems. Implementing these changes would facilitate regulatory compliance and verification of fat and oil samples for trans fat content in the US and other countries, since all of the published regulations (e.g., "0 g trans fat per serving") have levels of trans fat, as percentage of total fat, that exceed 0.34%. © AOCS 2011. Source

Azizian H.,NIR Technologies Inc. | Kramer J.K.G.,NIR Technologies Inc. | Mossoba M.M.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society

Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with partial least squares 1 (PLS1) calibration models was previously reported to be an alternative method to GC for the rapid determination of the fatty acid (FA) composition of fats and oils. These calibration models had been developed based on accurate GC data (primary reference method) and observed FT-NIR spectra. In the present three-laboratory limited collaborative study, the transferability of these pre-developed calibration models to four other FT-NIR spectrometers from the same manufacturer was evaluated. Six samples were selected that provided a wide range of FA contents. Our results indicate that these models were successfully transferable to spectrometers operating in the transflection mode with 2- or 4-mm pathlength fiber optic probes or in the transmission mode using 5-mm, but not 8-mm, outer diameter tubes. The predicted FA composition fell within the statistically accepted limits of agreement between FTNIR and GC. The FT-NIR precision data were consistent with those reported in a published GC collaborative study. The application of FT-NIR to the determination of the total content of SFA, trans FA, MUFA, and PUFA is costeffective and potentially suitable for the rapid screening of commercial products for compliance verification with labeling regulations. © AOCS 2012. Source

Azizian H.,NIR Technologies Inc. | Mossoba M.M.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Fardin-Kia A.R.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Delmonte P.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Karunathilaka S.R.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration

A new, rapid Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopic procedure is described to screen for the authenticity of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) and to determine the kind and amount of an adulterant in EVOO. To screen EVOO, a partial least squares (PLS1) calibration model was developed to estimate a newly created FT-NIR index based mainly on the relative intensities of two unique carbonyl overtone absorptions in the FT-NIR spectra of EVOO and other mixtures attributed to volatile (5280 cm-1) and non-volatile (5180 cm-1) components. Spectra were also used to predict the fatty acid (FA) composition of EVOO or samples spiked with an adulterant using previously developed PLS1 calibration models. Some adulterated mixtures could be identified provided the FA profile was sufficiently different from those of EVOO. To identify the type and determine the quantity of an adulterant, gravimetric mixtures were prepared by spiking EVOO with different concentrations of each adulterant. Based on FT-NIR spectra, four PLS1 calibration models were developed for four specific groups of adulterants, each with a characteristic FA composition. Using these different PLS1 calibration models for prediction, plots of predicted vs. gravimetric concentrations of an adulterant in EVOO yielded linear regression functions with four unique sets of slopes, one for each group of adulterants. Four corresponding slope rules were defined that allowed for the determination of the nature and concentration of an adulterant in EVOO products by applying these four calibration models. The standard addition technique was used for confirmation. © AOCS 2015. Source

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