Ikeura H.,Meiji University |
Kobayashi F.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University |
Tamaki M.,Meiji University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011
The removal of fenitrothion (FT) pesticide residues from vegetables by immersion in ozone-microbubbled solution was demonstrated. FT-treated lettuce, cherry tomatoes, and strawberries were immersed in ozone-microbubbled, ozone-millibubbled, and dechlorinated water. After that the percentage of residual FT in the vegetables was determined. Residual FT was efficiently removed from lettuce by immersing it in ozone-microbubbled solution containing more than 1.0. ppm dissolved ozone, or continuously generated ozone-microbubbled solution containing 2.0. ppm dissolved ozone. Similarly, for cherry tomatoes and strawberries, the continuously generated ozone-microbubbled solution containing 2.0. ppm dissolved ozone was highly effective. These results showed that ozone microbubbles effectively removed residual pesticides not only from leafy vegetables but also from fruity vegetables. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Tanaka Y.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University |
Sato Y.,Tokyo Medical University |
Sasaki T.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases
Viruses | Year: 2013
Coronaviruses infect a variety of mammalian and avian species and cause serious diseases in humans, cats, mice, and birds in the form of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), mouse hepatitis, and avian infectious bronchitis, respectively. No effective vaccine or treatment has been developed for SARS-coronavirus or FIP virus, both of which cause lethal diseases. It has been reported that a cyclophilin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA), could inhibit the replication of coronaviruses. CsA is a well-known immunosuppressive drug that binds to cellular cyclophilins to inhibit calcineurin, a calcium-calmodulin-activated serine/threonine-specific phosphatase. The inhibition of calcineurin blocks the translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells from the cytosol into the nucleus, thus preventing the transcription of genes encoding cytokines such as interleukin-2. Cyclophilins are peptidyl-prolyl isomerases with physiological functions that have been described for many years to include chaperone and foldase activities. Also, many viruses require cyclophilins for replication; these include human immunodeficiency virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and hepatitis C virus. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the suppression of viral replication differ for different viruses. This review describes the suppressive effects of CsA on coronavirus replication. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Kobayashi F.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University |
Odake S.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2015
Yeast in unfiltered beer (UFB) was inactivated by a two-stage system that was additionally pressurised at an ambient temperature after carbon dioxide microbubbles (MB-CO2) were mixed with UFB at a low temperature and pressure (two-stage MB-CO2). The quality of the treated beer was compared with UFB and heat-treated beer (HTB). Five-log reductions could be achieved by two-stage MB-CO2 treatment with a heating coil at 50 °C for 5 min, while yeast in UFB was not completely inactivated by heat treatment at 80 °C for 5 min. In sensory evaluation of these beers, there were no significant differences on the score of flavour, although bitterness of two-stage MB-CO2-treated beer (MBB) was significantly low on the score of taste. In analysis of volatile compounds, dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide, β-myrcene and styrene in MBB were less than those in UFB and HTB. Glucose and maltose contents in MBB and UFB were almost the same, although those in HTB significantly decreased. Organic acids, except for acetic acid in MBB, were nearly identical with those in UFB and HTB. Most of the free amino acids in MBB were lower than those in UFB and HTB. Bitter units of beer increased in the order of MBB, HTB and UFB. These results suggested that two-stage MB-CO2 shows promise as a practical technique for inactivating yeast in UFB. The inactivation efficiency of two-stage MB-CO2 had less influence of materials in beer than that of heat treatment, and two-stage MB-CO2 has little negative impact on the beer quality. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Yoshida M.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014
Japanese food self-sufficiency was only 39% on the basis of kcal in 2012, so Japan relies heavily on imported food. Hence the necessity of having international rules on the regulation of food contaminants is important especially for countries like Japan that depend on food imports. A One-Stop-Testing system is desired, in which the test result obtained from a single testing laboratory is accepted as valid worldwide. To establish this system, laboratory accreditation under international standards is a necessary step. Furthermore, the importance of supply of reference materials for internal quality control and proficiency testing for external quality control of each laboratory's analytical system is reviewed in connection with the experience of radioactive nuclide contamination resulting from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Hatai K.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University
Progress in molecular and subcellular biology | Year: 2012
Fungal diseases are problematic in cultured fish and shellfish, their seeds, and sometimes wild marine animals. In this chapter fungal diseases found in marine animals, especially in Japan, are described. Pathogens in the fungal diseases are divided into two groups. One of them is marine Oomycetes, which cause fungal diseases in marine shellfish and abalones. The diseases caused by the fungi of this group and the fungal characteristics are introduced. The pathogens include members of the genera Lagenidium, Haliphthoros, Halocrusticida, Halioticida, Atkinsiella, and Pythium. On the other hand, some fungal diseases caused by mitosporic fungi are also known in marine fish and shellfish. The diseases caused by these fungi and the fungal characteristics are described. The pathogens include members of the genera Fusarium, Ochroconis, Exophiala, Scytalidium, Plectosporium, and Acremonium.
Yokosuka M.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University
Experimental Animals | Year: 2012
In mammals, the vomeronasal system (VS) originating from the vomeronasal organ (VNO; also called "Jacobson's organ") is considered to be a chemosensory system that recognizes "pheromone" signals. In the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the primary center of the VS, the glomerular cell layer (GL) of the AOB is regarded as an important functional area in the transmission of pheromone signals from vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) of the VNO. In mice, the most frequently used animal model for the study of the VS, the GL of the AOB has several unique histological properties when compared with the main olfactory bulb (MOB): (i) each glomerular size is far smaller than in the MOB; (ii) many juxtaglomerular cells (JGCs) are GABA immunopositive, but subpopulations of cells distributed in the AOB are tyrosine hydroxylase- or calcium-binding protein immunopositive; and (iii) the dendritic branching pattern of the JGC in the AOB is heteromeric. The biological significance of the mammalian VS is still debated. The unique histological properties of the mouse AOB summerized in the present review may give some useful information that may help in understanding the function of the mammalian VS. © 2012 Japanese Association for Laboratory Animal Science.
Hasegawa D.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2016
The use and availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other neurosurgical devices is rapidly increasing in the field of veterinarian medicine. Coincident with these technological advances, there is an increased expectation to treat drug resistant epilepsy in dogs and cats by epilepsy surgery. However, the presurgical evaluation of epileptic animals, by using methodologies to detect the epileptogenic zone for example, have yet to become established in common practice.The epileptogenic zone, defined as the minimum amount of cortex to produce seizure freedom, consists of five conceptual cortical abnormal 'zones': symptomatogenic, irritative, seizure-onset, structurally abnormal (epileptogenic lesion) and functional deficit. These zones can now be detected by suitable modalities including ictal video monitoring, interictal non-invasive or invasive electroencephalography (EEG), ictal video-EEG, magnetoencephalography, structural and functional MRIs, or nuclear imaging. These diagnostic techniques are essential for selecting both appropriate patients and surgical techniques, and are also important in understanding the pathophysiology of epilepsy. This review describes the diagnostic techniques available for detecting each abnormal zone while considering the current veterinary status to realise future surgery for canine and feline epilepsy. © 2016 The Author.
Bonkobara M.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2015
Imatinib inhibits the activity of several tyrosine kinases, including BCR-ABL, KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR). Dysregulation of KIT is found in mast cell tumours (MCTs) and KIT is mutated in approximately 30% and 70% of canine and feline MCTs, respectively. KIT mutations have also been reported in canine and feline gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), canine acute myeloid leukaemia and canine melanoma. In addition, BCR-ABL and PDGFR mutations have been found in canine leukaemia and haemangiosarcoma, respectively. Imatinib has anti-tumour activity with tolerable toxicity towards a certain subset of MCTs in dogs and cats. Favourable clinical responses are likely to be associated with the presence of KIT mutation. Anti-tumour activity of imatinib has also been demonstrated in canine GISTs with a KIT mutation and in feline hypereosinophilic syndrome; however, to date only one of each of these cases has been reported. In conclusion, analysis of KIT mutations appears to provide valuable data for individual treatment with imatinib in dogs and cats. © 2014 The Author.
Narai-Kanayama A.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University |
Hanaishi T.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University |
Aso K.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University
Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012
Poly-l-cysteine (PLCys) is drawing attention as a potential sorbent of thiol (SH)-reactive toxic heavy metal ions in the wastewater and polluted soils. However, preparation of PLCys relies on chemically synthesized polymers, in which SH groups must be protected and deprotected prior to use. On the other hand, α-chymotrypsin polymerized l-cysteine ethyl ester in a frozen aqueous solution, provides PLCys with degree of polymerization from 6 to 11 without blocking of SH groups. Kinetic analyses suggested that the acylation of α-chymotrypsin with the initial substrate was a rate-limiting step in the enzymatic polymerization. The peptide yields reached 85% and 65% of SH groups in PLCys were assumed to be free forms. Although detail information on correlation between the state of SH groups and heavy metal adsorption properties of PLCys should be explored in further studies, the present study for the first time proposed an easy method for synthesis of PLCys requiring neither SH-protection nor-deprotection. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..
Lee P.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University
Bioengineered Bugs | Year: 2010
Stability is an important issue when engineering bacteria for use as live vaccine vectors. For the majority of live bacterial vaccines, the antigen-encoding gene is either plasmid located or integrated into the chromosome. Regardless, several safety concerns can be raised for both instances. One concern when using plasmid-encoded antigens is the transfer of antibiotic resistance markers. Alternatively, for chromosomal integrated antigens however, the concern focuses on the spread and possible release of genetically- modified microorganisms (GMM) into the environment, which is problematic. Their recombinant nature calls for a proper bio-containment strategy to be implemented or in place before any realistic attempt at releasing a live bacterial vaccine. No examples of human bacterial vaccines causing problems among animals have been found in the literature but the possibility exists and has to be both tested and evaluated before release of a live bacterial vaccine. The ideal GMM for use in humans should therefore contain the minimal amount of foreign DNA and must not include an antibiotic resistance marker. Furthermore, the possibilities of transgene horizontal transfer must be minimized, and GMM lethality for biocontainment should be achieved in an unconfined environment. © 2010 Landes Bioscience.