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Tashima T.,Nippon Pharmaceutical Chemicals Co.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2015

Abstract Carbostyril (2-quinolinone, 2-quinolone) is an important structural component frequently used in natural products and in physiologically active substances including drugs. It is a 2-ring condensed heterocyclic compound containing several positions that can be replaced by arbitrary substituent groups and is used as a chemical building block, scaffold, fragment, and pharmacophore in drug design or discovery. Since the number of compounds that can be designed using carbostyril is exceedingly large, the steric structures of carbostyril derivatives can be adjusted to the unique, spatially oriented shape of, for example, the active sites of pharmaceutical target molecules. Moreover, the internal amide of the carbostyril unit exhibits distinctive features because of the fixed cis form of the lactam amide group. Because carbostyril has been used as a component in drugs and other bioactive compounds over time, carbostyril derivatives may improve absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET). Therefore, carbostyril derivatives have enormous potential. In this review, the potential and advantages of the use of carbostyril and its related molecular skeletons, such as 3,4-dihydrocarbostyril, are discussed by focusing on the physiologically active substances in which they are incorporated. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Tashima T.,Nippon Pharmaceutical Chemicals Co.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015

It has been revealed that many types of drugs interact with transporter proteins within an organism. Transporter proteins absorb or excrete materials, including drugs and nutrients, across the cell membrane. Some hydrophobic drugs are excreted from the cell as xenobiotics by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. However, solute carrier (SLC) transporters are tissue-specifically expressed and have substrate specificities. Thus, transporter-conscious drug design is an excellent method of delivering drugs to pharmaceutical target organs and provides advantages in absorption, distribution, excretion, and toxicity of drugs (ADMET) due to transport systems. In fact, based on this strategy, the bioavailability of prodrugs designed as peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) substrates was better than that of the corresponding parent compounds due to the transport system in the small intestine. Furthermore, in central nervous system (CNS) drug developing, drug delivery into brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a serious problem. However, this problem can be also solved by the use of the transport systems at the BBB. Therefore, transporter-consciously designed drugs not only may effectively elicit activity but also may control adverse side effects caused by off-targets and drug-drug interactions and, consequently, may show good performance in clinical trials. In this review, I introduce possibilities and advantages of transporter-conscious drug designs. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Tashima T.,Nippon Pharmaceutical Chemicals Co. | Murata H.,Nippon Pharmaceutical Chemicals Co. | Kodama H.,Nippon Pharmaceutical Chemicals Co.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitions are known to elicit anticancer effects. We designed and synthesized several HDAC inhibitors. Among these compounds, compound 40 exhibited a more than 10-fold stronger inhibitory activity compared with that of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) against each human HDAC isozyme in vitro (IC50 values of 40: HDAC1, 0.0038 μM; HDAC2, 0.0082 μM; HDAC3, 0.015 μM; HDAC8, 0.0060 μM; HDAC4, 0.058 μM; HDAC9, 0.0052 μM; HDAC6, 0.058 μM). The dose of the administered HDAC inhibitors that contain hydroxamic acid as the zinc-binding group may be reduced by 40. Because the carbostyril subunit is a time-tested structural component of drugs and biologically active compounds, 40 most likely exhibits good absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET). Thus, compound 40 is expected to be a promising therapeutic agent or chemical tool for the investigation of life process. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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