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Ishii J.,Nippon Formula Feed Manufacturing Company Ltd | Omura H.,Nosan Corporation | Mitsui T.,Nippon Formula Feed Manufacturing Company Ltd | Eguchi N.,Nosan Corporation | And 3 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2012

This study evaluated the effects of hinokitiol (a natural antibacterial compound extracted from Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and an organic acid mixture (citrate content 50%) on ruminal fermentation. Antibacterial properties were examined by measuring minimal inhibitory concentration. Hinokitiol at 1.56μg/mL or an organic acid mixture at 1600μg/mL inhibited Streptococcus bovis growth. The combination of 0.78μg/mL hinokitiol and 200μg/mL of an organic acid mixture also inhibited S. bovis growth. Both hinokitiol and the hinokitiol and an organic acid mixture combination showed strong antibacterial properties on Gram-positive bacteria such as S. bovis, but relatively weak antibacterial activities on Gram-negative bacteria such as Megasphaera elsdenii. Three ruminally cannulated heifers were fed a bloat-producing diet containing barley, pelleted alfalfa meal, soybean meal and salt without long-cut roughage to investigate the ruminal characteristics in vivo. Feeding to heifers a bloat-producing diet containing 7.8mg/kg hinokitiol and 0.2% of an organic acid mixture significantly decreased the increase in stable ingesta volume. Hinokitiol or an organic acid mixture did not affect ruminal volatile fatty acids, protozoa and bacteria. These results suggest that a combination of hinokitiol and an organic acid mixture might reduce frothy bloat in cattle fed high-grain diets. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source


Ishii J.,Nippon Formula Feed Manufacturing Company Ltd | Ishii J.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Ishii J.,Utsunomiya University | Uramoto A.,Nippon Formula Feed Manufacturing Company Ltd | And 3 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2015

Solanum glaucophyllum (SG) contains 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) glycosides. We investigated the effect of SG on hypocalcemia in cows. Serum levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3, total calcium and phosphorus dose-relatedly increased after feeding with SG, while serum magnesium and chloride levels fell (P<0.05). We also performed an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) infusion to induce artificial hypocalcemia. Cows that had been fed 4.0mg/kg body weight of SG daily for 2 weeks had a higher serum concentration of total calcium at the end of EDTA infusion than those not fed SG (P<0.05). In a field trial, multiparous cows were assigned to one of four groups: (1) no SG, (2) 1.3g or (3) 2.6g of SG daily from 14 days before the estimated calving day until 3 days after calving, or (4) a single feed of 35.75g SG at 3 days before the estimated calving day. The concentrations of serum total calcium after the calving in each treatment group were (1) 7.4, (2) 7.9, (3) 8.0 and (4) 8.9mg/dL and higher for (4) than for (1) (P<0.05). The data suggests that feeding a high dose of SG before the calving may maintain higher concentrations of serum calcium after the calving. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source

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