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FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: Release No. SPR-17-0504-01 CONTACT: Gabriella Lehimdjian, AIHA Communications (703) 846-0700; glehimdjian@aiha.org   FALLS CHURCH, Va. (May 4, 2017) – Nearly 80% of teens are currently in the workforce. Research shows that these teens are twice as likely to be injured at work compared to adults. As a result, nearly 60,000 teens end up in the emergency room annually from workplace injuries. Recognizing this problem, Texas State House Representative Dr. Greg Bonnen (R-24) introduced House Bill 2010, which would encourage school districts and educators to include workplace health and safety training information in the curriculum of appropriate courses for students in Grades 7 – 12. On May 2, AIHA President Steven E. Lacey, PhD, CIH, CSP traveled to Texas to testify in support of this bill at a House Public Education Committee hearing. “We tell our children to not play with matches and to be careful around swimming pools as soon as they are old enough to understand the message, but we rarely say a word about how to stay safe and healthy when they get their first job,” Lacey said. “Teen workplace injuries can permanently damage kids and their families, cost the US economy billions of dollars each year, and they are preventable,” he continued. During the hearing, President Lacey also discussed how AIHA partnered with experts at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to address the widespread problem of teen workplace health and safety issues by developing the Safety Matters program. This program raises awareness among teens in Grades 7 – 12 about workplace health and safety, and provides basic skills that contribute to a safe work environment. This program is 100% free, voluntary, with no special training required to deliver it. AIHA hopes to see House Bill 2010 enacted into law before the State Legislature adjourns at the end of May, and views the Public Education Committee hearing as a positive sign of momentum. The Association, along with its six Local Sections in Texas, and American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE), Institute for Safety and Health Management, and the National Safety Council recently sent letters to key Texas State Legislators in support of House Bill 2010. By enacting this bill, Texas would join a growing list of states that are taking steps to improve teen workplace health and safety. ###

1 in 5 Students Have Hearing Loss; Motes Audio Launches Kickstarter Campaign with the First Headphone Specifically Designed to Protect Students Hearing Salt Lake City, UT, May 02, 2017 --( Motes Audio engineered its first headphones, the KadenceTM, to address the problem of high-volume sounds in headphones by automatically keeping sounds at or below 85 dB. These parameters align with CDC and OSHA recommendations for preventing permanent hearing loss from repeated exposure to high volume sounds. [ii] [iii] The KadenceTM headphones also provide up to 17 dB of sound isolation. The KadenceTM headphone is ideal for educators and parents. It is easy to clean, durable, compatible (3.5mm), affordable (MSRP $40), and comfortable to wear. Company Founder Denarius Motes, a musician and music producer, knows firsthand the importance of protecting your hearing. “At a young age, I was exposed to loud music. I was not properly taught how to protect my ears. If I had a product like what we’re developing here at Motes Audio I could have avoided permanent hearing loss.” Dr. Spencer Lifferth, AuD oversees the integrity of the technology within the Motes Audio headphones and products. While the Kadence was designed with school aged students in mind, it is equally important for adults to protect their hearing. “Adults are just as vulnerable to hearing loss from loud sounds as students and children. At Motes Audio, we dedicate ourselves to creating products that can protect hearing at any age,” explains Dr. Lifferth. As Motes Audio is still in its initial stages of development, the Kickstarter campaign will help bring the full suite of its products to market. Motes Audio products are available for preorder on Kickstarter. www.kickstarter.com/projects/motesaudio/motes-audio-headphones Contact Trish Alderman, CPA Managing Partner 435-201-4347 [i] Dr. Gary C. Curhan, MD, ScD, Associate Professor at Harvard Medical School, Change in Prevelance of Hearing Loss in US Adolescence; JAMA. 2010;304(7):772-778. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.1124 [ii] CDC/NIOSH. Revised Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Noise Exposure (NIOSH Publication 98-126). Cincinnati: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1998. [iii] OSHA Regulation 1910.95 Salt Lake City, UT, May 02, 2017 --( PR.com )-- Motes Audio today launched a Kickstarter campaign featuring the first volume governing headphones specifically designed for schools and school age students. According to a study by Harvard Medical School Associate Professor Dr. Curhan, one in five students has permanent hearing loss most likely due to high-volume sounds. [i] With the increasing use of headphones in the classroom and the spike in recreational use of them by children and teenagers, parents and educators now have a solution to help protect against hearing loss.Motes Audio engineered its first headphones, the KadenceTM, to address the problem of high-volume sounds in headphones by automatically keeping sounds at or below 85 dB. These parameters align with CDC and OSHA recommendations for preventing permanent hearing loss from repeated exposure to high volume sounds. [ii] [iii] The KadenceTM headphones also provide up to 17 dB of sound isolation.The KadenceTM headphone is ideal for educators and parents. It is easy to clean, durable, compatible (3.5mm), affordable (MSRP $40), and comfortable to wear.Company Founder Denarius Motes, a musician and music producer, knows firsthand the importance of protecting your hearing. “At a young age, I was exposed to loud music. I was not properly taught how to protect my ears. If I had a product like what we’re developing here at Motes Audio I could have avoided permanent hearing loss.”Dr. Spencer Lifferth, AuD oversees the integrity of the technology within the Motes Audio headphones and products. While the Kadence was designed with school aged students in mind, it is equally important for adults to protect their hearing. “Adults are just as vulnerable to hearing loss from loud sounds as students and children. At Motes Audio, we dedicate ourselves to creating products that can protect hearing at any age,” explains Dr. Lifferth.As Motes Audio is still in its initial stages of development, the Kickstarter campaign will help bring the full suite of its products to market. Motes Audio products are available for preorder on Kickstarter.ContactTrish Alderman, CPAManaging Partner435-201-4347[i] Dr. Gary C. Curhan, MD, ScD, Associate Professor at Harvard Medical School, Change in Prevelance of Hearing Loss in US Adolescence; JAMA. 2010;304(7):772-778. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.1124[ii] CDC/NIOSH. Revised Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Noise Exposure (NIOSH Publication 98-126). Cincinnati: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1998.[iii] OSHA Regulation 1910.95 OSHA Recommendations for Safe Listening OSHA recommends listening to sounds no louder than 85 dB in order to prevent permanent hearing loss. Filename: Graph-1copy.jpg My Hearing Matters Keeping headphones at or below 85 dB can help preserve a students hearing. Filename: Student.jpg Click here to view the list of recent Press Releases from Motes Audio, LLC

LONDON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--According to the latest market study released by Technavio, the global PPE market for oil and gas industry is projected to grow to USD 9.7 billion by 2021, at a CAGR of close to 8% over the forecast period. This research report titled ‘Global PPE Market for Oil and Gas Industry 2017-2021’ provides an in-depth analysis of the market in terms of revenue and emerging market trends. This market research report also includes up to date analysis and forecasts for various market segments and all geographical regions. Personal protective equipment is worn by workers to protect themselves from occupational, as well as household hazards. The global PPE market for the oil and gas industry is expected to be driven by the stringent and comprehensive safety regulations that enforce employers to provide necessary PPE for workers. Looking for more information on this market? Request a free sample report Technavio’s sample reports are free of charge and contain multiple sections of the report including the market size and forecast, drivers, challenges, trends, and more. Based on the product type, the report categorizes the global PPE market for oil and gas industry into the following segments: The top three revenue-generating product segments in the global PPE market for oil and gas industry are discussed below: “Head, eye, and face protection equipment occupied a majority 22% of the global market and is expected to continue its dominance through the forecast period. The major types of head, eye, and face protection equipment include safety spectacles, face shields, hard hats, welding shields, and bump caps,” says Neelesh Prakash Singh, a lead analyst at Technavio for power research. The vendors in the market are currently exploring various material technologies to optimize weight, comfort, and performance of PPE gear. For instance, vendors of safety eyewear are incorporating cushioned materials at all points of contact, in addition to offering products with soft material-based nosepieces for enhanced comfort. Workers in the oil and gas industry are exposed to various respiratory threats, including exposure to hydrogen sulfide, mercury vapor, silica, and drilling fluid. Employers ensure that all the workers on the floor are equipped with OSHA- and NIOSH-compliant respirators to minimize the impact of such harmful chemicals. These respirators and masks effectively filter out chemicals and other contaminants and provide a supply of clean breathing air to the wearers. The fall in oil prices has led to its increased demand, which is positively impacting the respiratory protection market. “The fall protection segment of the market is expected to be worth USD 1.7 billion by 2021, driven by the need to protect workers working on access platforms and equipment located high above the ground,” says Neelesh. Working from a height poses fall hazards, such as climbing and working from derrick, unprotected sides and edges, and uneven working surfaces. Various organizations including OSHA, have constantly been introducing reforms to reduce occupational hazards caused by falls, trips, and slips, which is positively impacting the growth of fall protection PPE gear. The top vendors highlighted by Technavio’s research analysts in this report are: Become a Technavio Insights member and access all three of these reports for a fraction of their original cost. As a Technavio Insights member, you will have immediate access to new reports as they’re published in addition to all 6,000+ existing reports covering segments like energy storage, oil and gas, and smart grid. This subscription nets you thousands in savings, while staying connected to Technavio’s constant transforming research library, helping you make informed business decisions more efficiently. Technavio is a leading global technology research and advisory company. The company develops over 2000 pieces of research every year, covering more than 500 technologies across 80 countries. Technavio has about 300 analysts globally who specialize in customized consulting and business research assignments across the latest leading edge technologies. Technavio analysts employ primary as well as secondary research techniques to ascertain the size and vendor landscape in a range of markets. Analysts obtain information using a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches, besides using in-house market modeling tools and proprietary databases. They corroborate this data with the data obtained from various market participants and stakeholders across the value chain, including vendors, service providers, distributors, resellers, and end-users. If you are interested in more information, please contact our media team at media@technavio.com.

News Article | May 5, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Etymotic Research, an innovator in hearing safety solutions, announced today that it will be bringing the company’s full array of hearing protection products to the National Hardware Show, May 9-11 at the Las Vegas Convention Center in Las Vegas, NV. Led by the company’s new HD-15 Elite adaptive electronic hearing protection, Etymotic’s line of high-fidelity safety earplugs, as well as high definition earphones and headsets have become essential products for home hobbyists, construction, landscape and automotive workers, factory workers and farmers. “Noise-induced hearing loss is preventable,” said Dr. Patty Johnson, Director of Audiology at Etymotic. “And those in the safety and hardware industries now know that it is essential to offer hearing protection products to employees and customers. Etymotic’s HD-15 Elite earplugs allow wearers to hear naturally with no loss of clarity while protecting their ears when sound exceeds safe levels.” Created in safety colors and packaged for retail display, Etymotic’s state-of-the-art noise isolating safety and high fidelity earphones, earplugs, and adaptive electronic earplugs represent the finest line of personal audio and hearing health products available to hardware retailers today. Etymotic’s hearing protection products have been honored with the inaugural Design and Engineering Innovations Award in the Health and Wellness category from the Consumer Electronics Association, and the prestigious Safe-in-Sound Award for decades of innovation in hearing loss prevention from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the National Hearing Conservation Association. Visitors to Etymotic’s National Hardware Show booth #8555 will be able to experience demonstrations of Etymotic’s extraordinary hearing protection products, and meet Etymotic’s expert customer relations team. For more on Etymotic and its safety products, go to etymotic.com. Etymotic is a research, development and manufacturing company that designs high-fidelity personal audio products and hearing wellness solutions to assess enhance and protect hearing. For over 30 years, innovation and education have been central to Etymotic’s mission. Etymotic is one of the most respected leaders in high-fidelity audio and hearing conservation. For more information about Etymotic, its hearing wellness mission and its products, please visit http://www.etymotic.com.

News Article | February 17, 2017
Site: www.forbes.com

Health and safety concerns about fracking are huge and likely to grow even more if Scott Pruitt, a man who has been described as a “stenographer for the oil and gas industry," is confirmed as director of the Environmental Protection Agency. Pruitt has sued the EPA repeatedly while he was the attorney general in Oklahoma—a state suffering multiple earthquakes as a result of fracking, and where he took no action. This multipart report will review some of the myriad of health and environmental concerns and the competing business interests surrounding fracking. In order to understand the health problems, you need to first understand how fracking is done. Thousands of feet deep below the ground surface, some types of rocks, particularly shale, a soft-layered rock formed from mud and clay, contain gas and oil. The problem is how to release the gas and oil from the rock. For hydraulic fracturing, a.k.a. fracking, a well is initially drilled to an average depth of 7,700 feet. When it reaches the right depth, the well drill and pipes are redirected horizontally, extending 1,000-6,000 feet. A mixture of water, sand and chemicals is injected into the wells under high pressure to fracture, or crack, the shale, enabling gas to be released and flow up the well. The process requires heavy construction equipment. It’s estimated that 200 tankers are needed to haul in 1 million gallons of water, and that each deep well might require 2-10 million gallons of water mixed with thousands of gallons of a sand “proppant" and chemical mixture. What makes fracking especially hazardous is the very high pressure needed to shatter the rock, and that the metal and concrete well casings are often not strong enough to tolerate the intense pressure, resulting in leaks of toxic fluids. This "well integrity" has NOT been safer in new wells. In addition to the chemicals injected into the wells during the fracking process, other chemicals are released from the shale, including these: But there are many others…and many of these are proprietary and, thanks to the “Halliburton Loophole,” which exempted the injection of these fracking chemicals (now euphemistically called “tools”) from the EPA’s regulation under the Safe Drinking Water Act. In many states, companies don’t even have to disclose what these chemicals are that they are injecting into these wells. Some states, like Pennsylvania, have even had gag orders prohibiting physicians who were given access to these trade secret concoctions in order to take care of their patients from disclosing this information either to other physicians or to the patients themselves! This gag rule was overturned in December, 2013. A similar rule was recently proposed in Virginia, and another, in Maryland, has been withdrawn. What do we know about some of these chemicals? During fracking, a number of chemicals are released into the air, as well as into the water. Benzene is one, naturally occurring in the rock but toxic when vented into the air. Dr. Carol Kwiatkowski of University of Colorado, examined air samples within a mile of shale gas wells. Her team found 61 airborne chemicals, including methylene chloride, which can cause respiratory symptoms and memory loss, and can be fatal acutely, as well as being a possible carcinogen in the longer term. The Colorado researchers also found levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons well above the threshold shown to cause lower IQs and developmental delays in prenatal exposures. Increased levels of radon, the second most common cause of lung cancer in the U.S., has been increasing in homes near unconventional (horizontal) drilling (a.k.a. fracking). Besides the chemical exposures, oil and gas drilling workers have a much higher fatality rate than average—2.5x that of the construction industry and 7x higher than industry as a whole. Silicosis is an additional risk borne by the drilling workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)’s field studies show that workers may be exposed to high levels of silica in the dust surrounding the work site, even if using respirators, which are often inadequate to compensate for the high levels of exposure. The silica crystals then enter the workers’ lungs, causing difficulty breathing and permanent lung damage. Besides disability and premature death from chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), lung cancer is also a risk. The EPA has equivocated as to health problems from water contamination. In 2015, it said it had found no evidence that fracking had “led to widespread, systemic impacts on drinking water resources,” although it did find specific instances of problems, including contamination of drinking water wells. It revised its report in December 2016, noting that there was evidence that “fracking contributed to drinking water contamination—'cases of impact'—in all stages of the process,” as ProPublica explained in its in-depth series on fracking. ProPublica also notes that in Dimock, Pa., the EPA concluded that their foul, brown water “did not require emergency action, such as a federal cleanup.” Yet another study of the same water, by the CDC’s Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, found dangerously high levels of lead, cadmium, arsenic and copper in residents’ wells, as well as non-natural pollutants including acetone, toluene and chloroform, and a compound called 4-chlorophenyl phenyl ether. The water in 17 homes contained enough methane to risk an explosion. Overall, it appears the EPA has downplayed risks to the public from contaminated water in a number of cases. Two new reports from the Public Herald are damning. In a multiyear study of fracking in Pennsylvania, the investigative journalists contacted the Department of Environmental Protection repeatedly. In their first report, "Hidden Data," they note that in 2011, DEP “never produced a single document, and we (PH) learned that complaints were being held as 'confidential.'" When asked why, an attorney from DEP’s Southwest Regional Office explained that Deputy Secretary Scott Perry didn’t want complaints to ‘cause alarm.’” By December 2016, through the reporters' dogged persistence, the DEP produced a new list revealing a statewide total of 9,442 complaints from 2004 onwards. Dr. Anthony Ingraffea, an oil and gas engineering expert from Cornell University, analyzed the data. From a baseline in 2004, where there was one complaint for every 10 conventional wells that were drilled, to one complaint per unconventional (fracked) well, now there are two complaints per well, with the number of complaints now exceeding the number of gas wells. The DEP now receives an average of three oil and gas complaints per business day. Yet the DEP concluded that only 6% of the drinking water complaints were related to the drilling. In their newly released report, “To Hell With Us,” the investigators reviewed 1,000 of the DEP’s 4,108 drinking water complaints, finding 177 cases of misconduct by the DEP. They detail each report here. (Many of the remaining reports were incomplete, precluding analysis.) They divide the violations into three types: The reporters conclude that DEP “cooks” its findings and shreds reports prematurely, precluding further analysis. A number of states and countries currently ban fracking, including Monterey County and five others in California, the states of New York, Maryland (though this is being reconsidered) and Florida and counties in Ohio, Texas and Pennsylvania, among others. Local decisions to ban fracking because of concerns about the environment and water quality are increasingly being challenged. It should be obvious that it is critical to all of us to have clean air and water, and that this issue should be above politics and business interests. Scott Pruitt is but the latest example of nominating a candidate who is most likely to dismantle an essential department to a cabinet position. Perhaps, as industry would claim, there is “nothing to see here” and no problem…but we don’t know, given limited research and that not many are looking. Is this an experiment we should be doing on our children? Further posts in this series will look more deeply at health studies and the impact of fracking on local communities. For more medical/pharma news and perspective, follow me on Twitter @drjudystone or here at Forbes

News Article | February 23, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

The oil and gas industry is always innovating and for related trades, like transportation, it is important to keep up. That is why Arrows Up, LLC., an affiliate of OmniTRAX Inc., has introduced a revolutionary method to get frac sand into the blender at the wellhead in a way that eliminates dust, saves time and cuts costs. “Anyone who has ever fracked a well knows there are a million things to consider when it comes to safety, costs and efficiencies,” said Ken White, Director of Sales for Arrows Up, LLC. “Our system makes their job easier by providing a last-mile containerized proppant delivery solution that addresses all three of those business priorities.” Speaking at the North American Frac Sand Exhibition & Conference, today, White will explain how their delivery solution combines unitized Jumbo Bins with a riser that allows the sand to be directly discharged into the blender at the wellhead. This flexible system offers tailored solutions that customers love because it reduces transportation costs and demurrage without compromising safety. In fact, the patent-pending containers are proven to substantially reduce silica dust, which is heavily regulated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The Arrows Up Jumbo Bin can hold 25 tons of frac sand and decrease product shrinkage by reducing the number of times the product needs to be transferred. It can also be moved by standard transportation equipment, giving customers the flexibility they need to control costs. White’s presentation is entitled: “Creating Supply Chain Efficiencies Through Unitized Solutions for Last-Mile Delivery.” Ken White Bio: Ken White has been in Business Development and Product Integration for over 25 years. The last 5 years he has been providing proppants to the oil and gas industry nationwide. He has an extensive background in all types of proppants from ceramic proppant, resin coated proppant, as well as northern and southern sands. He has been heavily involved in understanding the importance of the integrity of these products, which includes logistics and delivery to the blender. Ken joined Arrows UP, LLC in 2017 as the Director of Sales and has been tasked the role of growing the Arrows Up footprint. Ken attended Ouachita Baptist University as a Business Major in Arkadelphia, Arkansas. About OmniTRAX, Inc. As one of North America’s largest private railroad and transportation management companies, OmniTRAX’s core capabilities range from providing management services to railroad and port services and to intermodal and industrial switching operations. Through its affiliation with The Broe Group and its portfolio of managed companies, OmniTRAX also has the unique capability of offering specialized industrial development and real estate solutions, both on and off the rail network managed by OmniTRAX. More information is available at http://www.omnitrax.com. About Arrows Up, LLC. Arrows Up, LLC. began following a company’s request to create better products to serve the bulk storage and transportation industry. The management and operations teams of Arrows Up have over 65 years of combined experience in the packaging and logistics industry. Our mission is to create innovative, efficient and safer solutions for the bulk storage and transportation industries. This will be accomplished by research, customer involvement and continued experimentation with materials, design and assemble concepts. More information is available at http://www.arrowsupllc.com/.

When I offered to write a Pump Handle review of Dr. Paul Blanc’s new book Fake Silk, I had no idea that it would make me question the clothes I was wearing, which I believe to be “environmentally sustainable.”  I didn’t even put that connection together after hearing Blanc speak at a recent book-signing party in Los Angeles. But at the party, Dr. Blanc mentioned that “rayon” (or “fake silk”) fibers had once been made in Axis, Alabama at a plant that went through several owners with one of its novel rayon patents (for a product called Tencel), bought out by Lenzing Fibers. Lenzing advertises the fabric it as Tencel – “a botanic fiber”… “that comes from nature.”  As I delved into the frightening tale that is Blanc’s book, I read about Lenzing and its sordid history during World War II in Austria.  The pants I have confidently bought from a local L.A. manufacturer are made of, you guessed it, Tencel, and apparently by Lenzing Fibers. That certainly spurred my interest in reading the whole story behind “Fake Silk”! As part of his worldwide research for the book, Dr. Blanc visited the Lenzing plant in Austria and reviewed the NIOSH archives on Axis, Alabama, among many other locales. Notable about the Austrian plant was its use in WWII for slave labor by the Nazis, where the plant made fabric for military and other uses. Like most of the industry, the plant’s process for creating rayon, or viscose, emitted the toxic chemical, carbon disulfide, the underlying topic of Blanc’s book. Exposure to this chemical causes severe neurologic problems, to the point that workers at manufacturing sites in the U.S. and around the world  actually committed suicide after overexposure to it. Others developed Parkinson’s or suffered strokes. In an interview last week with Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), Blanc said: Author Paul Blanc, who holds an endowed chair at UC San Francisco School of Medicine, is an occupational health physician. But this book illustrates how he is so much more… an historian… a humanist…  a corporate investigator… and someone who understands both politics and economics. His book reflects a wide range of intellectual interests. Fake Silk tells the story of “the lethal history of viscose rayon” during WWI and WWII, how the industry moved to developing countries, and efforts of corporations to “greenwash” viscose. But back to Tencel for a moment. It is hard to fathom that the fabric in my clothing is made by a company that once used slave labor under the Nazis. But actually, it turns out that Tencel is an innovation that does not require carbon disulfide, although it is unclear how toxic the alternative solvent used (something called “NMMO”) might be; NMMO is usually referred to as “benign.” Tencel is a small part of the overall viscose market, which also includes carbon disulfide-using cellophane and rayon sponges which are common in kitchens. For those of us whose careers started out in the 1970s with occupational health, and for those of us who have since been involved more in environmental health (rather than worker safety) issues, this book shows the close connection between the two fields. Workers got sick inside the plants from carbon disulfide exposure; nearby residents got sick from what the plants emitted. As I bet many Pump Handle readers do, I think of myself as someone who knows quite a bit about the history of worker health. But I had no idea about the grim history that Paul Blanc so compellingly describes, with meticulous footnotes. I hope you will enjoy reading Paul Blanc’s history of this industry as much as I did – even though being horrified by the tale that he unravels. Andrea Hricko is a professor of preventive medicine at the University of Southern California.

Castranova V.,NIOSH | Schulte P.A.,U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health | Zumwalde R.D.,U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are carbon atoms arranged in a crystalline graphene lattice with a tubular morphology. CNTs exhibit high tensile strength, possess unique electrical properties, are durable, and can be functionalized. These properties allow applications as structural materials, in electronics, as heating elements, in batteries, in the production of stain-resistant fabric, for bone grafting and dental implants, and for targeted drug delivery. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are strong, flexible fibers that are currently used to produce composite materials.Agitation can lead to aerosolized CNTs and CNFs, and peak airborne particulate concentrations are associated with workplace activities such as weighing, transferring, mixing, blending, or sonication. Most airborne CNTs or CNFs found in workplaces are loose agglomerates of micrometer diameter. However, due to their low density, they linger in workplace air for a considerable time, and a large fraction of these structures are respirable.In rat and mouse models, pulmonary exposure to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), or CNFs causes the following pulmonary reactions: acute pulmonary inflammation and injury, rapid and persistent formation of granulomatous lesions at deposition sites of large CNT agglomerates, and rapid and progressive alveolar interstitial fibrosis at deposition sites of more dispersed CNT or CNF structures.Pulmonary exposure to SWCNTs can induce oxidant stress in aortic tissue and increases plaque formation in an atherosclerotic mouse model. Pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs depresses the ability of coronary arterioles to respond to dilators. These cardiovascular effects may result from neurogenic signals from sensory irritant receptors in the lung. Pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs also upregulates mRNA for inflammatory mediators in selected brain regions, and pulmonary exposure to SWCNTs upregulates the baroreceptor reflex. In addition, pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs may induce levels of inflammatory mediators in the blood, which may affect the cardiovascular system. Intraperitoneal instillation of MWCNTs in mice has been associated with abdominal mesothelioma. MWCNTs deposited in the distal alveoli can migrate to the intrapleural space, and MWCNTs injected in the intrapleural space can cause lesions at the parietal pleura. However, further studies are required to determine whether pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs can induce pleural lesions or mesothelioma.In light of the anticipated growth in the production and use of CNTs and CNFs, worker exposure is possible. Because pulmonary exposure to CNTs and CNFs causes inflammatory and fibrotic reactions in the rodent lung, adverse health effects in workers represent a concern. NIOSH has conducted a risk assessment using available animal exposure-response data and is developing a recommended exposure limit for CNTs and CNFs.Evidence indicates that engineering controls and personal protective equipment can significantly decrease workplace exposure to CNTs and CNFs. Considering the available data on health risks, it appears prudent to develop prevention strategies to minimize workplace exposure. These strategies would include engineering controls (enclosure, exhaust ventilation), worker training, administrative controls, implementation of good handling practices, and the use of personal protective equipment (such as respirators) when necessary. NIOSH has published a document containing recommendations for the safe handling of nanomaterials. © This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2012 by the American Chemical Society.

Shvedova A.A.,NIOSH
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology | Year: 2014

The hallmark geometric feature of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and carbon nanofibers (CNF), high length to width ratio, makes them similar to a hazardous agent, asbestos. Very limited data are available concerning long-term effects of pulmonary exposure to SWCNT or CNF. Here, we compared inflammatory, fibrogenic, and genotoxic effects of CNF, SWCNT, or asbestos in mice 1 yr after pharyngeal aspiration. In addition, we compared pulmonary responses to SWCNT by bolus dosing through pharyngeal aspiration and inhalation 5 h/day for 4 days, to evaluate the effect of dose rate. The aspiration studies showed that these particles can be visualized in the lung at 1 yr postexposure, whereas some translocate to lymphatics. All these particles induced chronic bronchopneumonia and lymphadenitis, accompanied by pulmonary fibrosis. CNF and asbestos were found to promote the greatest degree of inflammation, followed by SWCNT, whereas SWCNT were the most fibrogenic of these three particles. Furthermore, SWCNT induced cytogenetic alterations seen as micronuclei formation and nuclear protrusions in vivo. Importantly, inhalation exposure to SWCNT showed significantly greater inflammatory, fibrotic, and genotoxic effects than bolus pharyngeal aspiration. Finally, SWCNT and CNF, but not asbestos exposures, increased the incidence of K-ras oncogene mutations in the lung. No increased lung tumor incidence occurred after 1 yr postexposure to SWCNT, CNF, and asbestos. Overall, our data suggest that long-term pulmonary toxicity of SWCNT, CNF, and asbestos is defined, not only by their chemical composition, but also by the specific surface area and type of exposure.

Castranova V.,NIOSH
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective: Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on a near-atomic scale to produce nanoparticles with unique properties, allowing newcommercial applications. Since nanoparticles exhibit unique physicochemical properties, they are likely to exhibit biological activity significantly different from fine-sized particles of the same chemical composition. Therefore, evaluation of the biological effects of nanoparticles is critical. Methods: The article lists the major objectives of nanotoxicology and briefly reviews the literature concerning biological responses to pulmonary exposure. Results: Interactions of nanoparticles with biological systems depend on particle size, shape, oxidant generation, surface functionalization, and rate of dissolution. Pulmonary, cardiovascular, and central nervous system responses to pulmonary exposure to nanotitanium dioxide and carbon nanotubes are described. Conclusions: Significant biological responses occur in animal models after pulmonary exposure to certain nanoparticles. Control of exposure appears prudent to protect worker health. Clinical Significance: Nanotechnology is synthesizing a wide range of nanoparticles, which exhibit unique physicochemical properties. These unique properties make unique biological activity likely. If certain nanoparticles induce adverse effects in vitro or in animal models, then occupational health surveillance and exposure control may be prudent steps in the protection of worker health. Copyright © 2011 by American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

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