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News Article | May 10, 2017
Site: www.npr.org

Firearms safety is key for people who use weapons at work or for recreational shooting. But one risk has been little acknowledged: Lead dust exposure. In a standard bullet, a solid lead core wrapped in a copper jacket sits atop a stack of gunpowder and lead primer. When the gun fires, the primer ignites, the gunpowder lights, and some of the lead on the bullet boils. When the casing snaps out of the ejection port, lead particles trail behind it. As the bullet hurtles down the barrel of the gun, a shower of lead particles follows. If a gun range isn't ventilated well, lead dust collects on shooters' clothing and hands and lingers in the air, where it can be inhaled. The more people shoot, the greater the risk of being exposed to dangerous amounts of lead. It becomes an occupational hazard for weapons instructors, police and defense personnel. It can also put family members at risk. A 1-year-old boy in Connecticut was found to have high blood lead levels at a routine doctor's visit. There were no lead paint or pipes in the child's home. The exposure was traced to his father's job as a maintenance worker at an indoor shooting range; the father cared for his son after work in lead-contaminated clothing, according to a 2015 report from the state public health department. In order to reduce risk, the Department of Defense has lowered its blood lead standard to 20 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood, three times more restrictive than its previous standard, which relied on Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines. These OSHA guidelines apply to workers inside the United States, including employees of private firing ranges, but not to customers of those ranges. The DoD's new blood lead policy, in effect as of April, comes after a National Academy of Sciences report published in 2012 showing that defense personnel face significant health risks from lead from firing ranges, defense department spokesperson Lieutenant Colonel James Brindle told NPR. "DoD's subject matter experts in toxicology and occupational medicine used the Committee's report to propose the lower allowable blood lead level." The study also showed that people should expect negative health consequences at the blood lead standard set by OSHA. The OSHA standards for blood lead and exposure to lead have long been criticized as inadequate and dangerously outdated. "The current [Occupational Safety and Health Administration] standard hasn't been updated since the 1970s," says Dr. Elena Page, an occupational and environmental hazards physician at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. "It's widely acknowledged that the OSHA standard is not protective. They're clearly aware of that, and there's been a lot of pressure to change it." OSHA did not provide comments or interviews requested for this story. About 1 million law enforcement officers train on indoor ranges, according to the CDC, and there are 16,000 to 18,000 private indoor ranges in the U.S. Currently, the OSHA standards for lead exposure decree that employees must stop working if they have a blood lead level of 60 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood, and workers can return to the job if their blood lead level drops below 40 for two consecutive tests. But adverse effects on cardiovascular health, brain function and kidney function have been connected to blood lead levels as low as 5. "There's no amount of lead in your blood that's safe," Page says. The issue of lead exposure and firearms is divisive, even the question of whether higher lead levels are unsafe. "Well, that's their opinion," says Larry Keane, the vice president and general counsel for the National Shooting Sports Foundation. "We believe there are efforts by others that want to diminish people's participation in shooting sports or exercise their second amendment rights. They put out or advocate positions that are unsupported by the evidence." The need for a stricter lead standard is obvious, says Adam Finkel, a law professor at the University of Pennsylvania and a former OSHA official. "OSHA is really letting people down," he says. "We're learning more about the neurologic effects of lead, and for whatever reason this substance has the capability of causing a whole spectrum of health effects at the OSHA standard that people don't appreciate." Many effects from lead can be subtle or nonspecific, says Mark Laidlaw, an environmental health scientist at RMIT University in Australia. "Memory and concentration problems, headache, abdominal pain, mood disorders – they can be attributed to a number of things unrelated to lead," he says. "You can have one of these health effects, but the shooters might not realize these are associated with their shooting. They just don't know they're being lead poisoned." At levels slightly higher than 5 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood, people may begin suffering spontaneous abortions or kidney dysfunction, according to the CDC. As the volume of lead in the body increases, the effects become more severe. "At levels of 10 or less, there's definitely evidence of increased incidence of tremor. Some are more cognitive effects," says Catherine Beaucham, an industrial hygienist at NIOSH and author of a 2014 report that found that most people with elevated blood levels were exposed from working at recreational firing ranges. "With acute lead poisoning, you can get wrist drop, nerve problems, abdominal pain. If it gets high enough, you can get a coma and death." Firing ranges can be particularly hazardous environments. Defense department ranges, private recreational firing ranges and law enforcement facilities have been found to be contaminated with high levels of lead, according to investigations by The Oregonian and Seattle Times in 2016 and 2014. Often, neglected or failing ventilation equipment was to blame. A review of lead exposure at shooting ranges that Laidlaw published last month found that nearly all participants in the 36 studies had blood lead levels above the 5 microgram ceiling recommended by the CDC; some had levels higher than 40. "You got to understand, the more bullets you shoot, the higher your blood lead level. The more visits you take to the range, then the higher your blood lead level." And when OSHA has inspected firing ranges in the last few decades, the agency has commonly found lead contamination violations. "It's about 30 years of sampling. They haven't done very many, but just a quick look shows about 350 air samples," Finkel says. About half of samples exceed the 50 microgram per cubic meter air level standard for workplaces, Finkel says, and some gun ranges had contamination levels]up to 24,100 micrograms per cubic meter of air. "So, it's terribly, terribly common, and [OSHA] finds overexposures even to their 40-year-old inadequate standard." The defense department's new blood lead limit of 20 does not go far enough, Laidlaw says. He thinks a better standard would be a maximum of 10 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood. "It is a step in the right direction, however the best way to deal with the problem is to eliminate lead from bullets and primers," he says. "I worry about the health of the young men and women in the military who are exposed to lead regularly while using firearms." The Defense department has a long-term goal of reducing employees' blood lead levels to below 10, Brindle says. "The DoD policy requires mandatory removal of the worker from workplace exposures when their blood lead level exceeds 20, and effectively will achieve the long-term average blood lead level to stay below 10," he writes to NPR in an email. But some within the industry say it's not necessary to abandon lead ammunition. "[Lead] is only a problem if [gun ranges] are not designed maintained properly," says Bill Provencher, the co-founder of Carey's Small Arms Range Ventilation in Tinley Park, Ill. "Even if OSHA standards are somewhat risky, a properly ventilated range has hardly detectible lead levels at 0.6 [micrograms per cubic meter of air.]" The most important thing aside from range ventilation, Provencher says, is to make sure that people are using safe practices like carefully washing their hands and clothes after shooting. "I would say [awareness] is going from not very good to good," he says. "The people I've met with really high lead levels, most of them did seriously silly things like working in the environment while drinking coffee. Ranges can be an unsafe place, but they can be perfectly safe places. There are people out there who are just hard headed and do silly things."


News Article | May 10, 2017
Site: www.npr.org

Firearms safety is key for people who use weapons at work or for recreational shooting. But one risk has been little acknowledged: Lead dust exposure. In a standard bullet, a solid lead core wrapped in a copper jacket sits atop a stack of gunpowder and lead primer. When the gun fires, the primer ignites, the gunpowder lights, and some of the lead on the bullet boils. When the casing snaps out of the ejection port, lead particles trail behind it. As the bullet hurtles down the barrel of the gun, a shower of lead particles follows. If a gun range isn't ventilated well, lead dust collects on shooters' clothing and hands and lingers in the air, where it can be inhaled. The more people shoot, the greater the risk of being exposed to dangerous amounts of lead. It becomes an occupational hazard for weapons instructors, police and defense personnel. It can also put family members at risk. A 1-year-old boy in Connecticut was found to have high blood lead levels at a routine doctor's visit. There were no lead paint or pipes in the child's home. The exposure was traced to his father's job as a maintenance worker at an indoor shooting range; the father cared for his son after work in lead-contaminated clothing, according to a 2015 report from the state public health department. In order to reduce risk, the Department of Defense has lowered its blood lead standard to 20 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood, three times more restrictive than its previous standard, which relied on Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines. These OSHA guidelines apply to workers inside the United States, including employees of private firing ranges, but not to customers of those ranges. The DoD's new blood lead policy, in effect as of April, comes after a National Academy of Sciences report published in 2012 showing that defense personnel face significant health risks from lead from firing ranges, defense department spokesperson Lieutenant Colonel James Brindle told NPR. "DoD's subject matter experts in toxicology and occupational medicine used the Committee's report to propose the lower allowable blood lead level." The study also showed that people should expect negative health consequences at the blood lead standard set by OSHA. The OSHA standards for blood lead and exposure to lead have long been criticized as inadequate and dangerously outdated. "The current [Occupational Safety and Health Administration] standard hasn't been updated since the 1970s," says Dr. Elena Page, an occupational and environmental hazards physician at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. "It's widely acknowledged that the OSHA standard is not protective. They're clearly aware of that, and there's been a lot of pressure to change it." OSHA did not provide comments or interviews requested for this story. About 1 million law enforcement officers train on indoor ranges, according to the CDC, and there are 16,000 to 18,000 private indoor ranges in the U.S. Currently, the OSHA standards for lead exposure decree that employees must stop working if they have a blood lead level of 60 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood, and workers can return to the job if their blood lead level drops below 40 for two consecutive tests. But adverse effects on cardiovascular health, brain function and kidney function have been connected to blood lead levels as low as 5. "There's no amount of lead in your blood that's safe," Page says. The issue of lead exposure and firearms is divisive, even the question of whether higher lead levels are unsafe. "Well, that's their opinion," says Larry Keane, the vice president and general counsel for the National Shooting Sports Foundation. "We believe there are efforts by others that want to diminish people's participation in shooting sports or exercise their second amendment rights. They put out or advocate positions that are unsupported by the evidence." The need for a stricter lead standard is obvious, says Adam Finkel, a law professor at the University of Pennsylvania and a former OSHA official. "OSHA is really letting people down," he says. "We're learning more about the neurologic effects of lead, and for whatever reason this substance has the capability of causing a whole spectrum of health effects at the OSHA standard that people don't appreciate." Many effects from lead can be subtle or nonspecific, says Mark Laidlaw, an environmental health scientist at RMIT University in Australia. "Memory and concentration problems, headache, abdominal pain, mood disorders – they can be attributed to a number of things unrelated to lead," he says. "You can have one of these health effects, but the shooters might not realize these are associated with their shooting. They just don't know they're being lead poisoned." At levels slightly higher than 5 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood, people may begin suffering spontaneous abortions or kidney dysfunction, according to the CDC. As the volume of lead in the body increases, the effects become more severe. "At levels of 10 or less, there's definitely evidence of increased incidence of tremor. Some are more cognitive effects," says Catherine Beaucham, an industrial hygienist at NIOSH and author of a 2014 report that found that most people with elevated blood levels were exposed from working at recreational firing ranges. "With acute lead poisoning, you can get wrist drop, nerve problems, abdominal pain. If it gets high enough, you can get a coma and death." Firing ranges can be particularly hazardous environments. Defense department ranges, private recreational firing ranges and law enforcement facilities have been found to be contaminated with high levels of lead, according to investigations by The Oregonian and Seattle Times in 2016 and 2014. Often, neglected or failing ventilation equipment was to blame. A review of lead exposure at shooting ranges that Laidlaw published last month found that nearly all participants in the 36 studies had blood lead levels above the 5 microgram ceiling recommended by the CDC; some had levels higher than 40. "You got to understand, the more bullets you shoot, the higher your blood lead level. The more visits you take to the range, then the higher your blood lead level." And when OSHA has inspected firing ranges in the last few decades, the agency has commonly found lead contamination violations. "It's about 30 years of sampling. They haven't done very many, but just a quick look shows about 350 air samples," Finkel says. About half of samples exceed the 50 microgram per cubic meter air level standard for workplaces, Finkel says, and some gun ranges had contamination levels]up to 24,100 micrograms per cubic meter of air. "So, it's terribly, terribly common, and [OSHA] finds overexposures even to their 40-year-old inadequate standard." The defense department's new blood lead limit of 20 does not go far enough, Laidlaw says. He thinks a better standard would be a maximum of 10 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood. "It is a step in the right direction, however the best way to deal with the problem is to eliminate lead from bullets and primers," he says. "I worry about the health of the young men and women in the military who are exposed to lead regularly while using firearms." The Defense department has a long-term goal of reducing employees' blood lead levels to below 10, Brindle says. "The DoD policy requires mandatory removal of the worker from workplace exposures when their blood lead level exceeds 20, and effectively will achieve the long-term average blood lead level to stay below 10," he writes to NPR in an email. But some within the industry say it's not necessary to abandon lead ammunition. "[Lead] is only a problem if [gun ranges] are not designed maintained properly," says Bill Provencher, the co-founder of Carey's Small Arms Range Ventilation in Tinley Park, Ill. "Even if OSHA standards are somewhat risky, a properly ventilated range has hardly detectible lead levels at 0.6 [micrograms per cubic meter of air.]" The most important thing aside from range ventilation, Provencher says, is to make sure that people are using safe practices like carefully washing their hands and clothes after shooting. "I would say [awareness] is going from not very good to good," he says. "The people I've met with really high lead levels, most of them did seriously silly things like working in the environment while drinking coffee. Ranges can be an unsafe place, but they can be perfectly safe places. There are people out there who are just hard headed and do silly things."


FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: Release No. SPR-17-0504-01 CONTACT: Gabriella Lehimdjian, AIHA Communications (703) 846-0700; glehimdjian@aiha.org   FALLS CHURCH, Va. (May 4, 2017) – Nearly 80% of teens are currently in the workforce. Research shows that these teens are twice as likely to be injured at work compared to adults. As a result, nearly 60,000 teens end up in the emergency room annually from workplace injuries. Recognizing this problem, Texas State House Representative Dr. Greg Bonnen (R-24) introduced House Bill 2010, which would encourage school districts and educators to include workplace health and safety training information in the curriculum of appropriate courses for students in Grades 7 – 12. On May 2, AIHA President Steven E. Lacey, PhD, CIH, CSP traveled to Texas to testify in support of this bill at a House Public Education Committee hearing. “We tell our children to not play with matches and to be careful around swimming pools as soon as they are old enough to understand the message, but we rarely say a word about how to stay safe and healthy when they get their first job,” Lacey said. “Teen workplace injuries can permanently damage kids and their families, cost the US economy billions of dollars each year, and they are preventable,” he continued. During the hearing, President Lacey also discussed how AIHA partnered with experts at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to address the widespread problem of teen workplace health and safety issues by developing the Safety Matters program. This program raises awareness among teens in Grades 7 – 12 about workplace health and safety, and provides basic skills that contribute to a safe work environment. This program is 100% free, voluntary, with no special training required to deliver it. AIHA hopes to see House Bill 2010 enacted into law before the State Legislature adjourns at the end of May, and views the Public Education Committee hearing as a positive sign of momentum. The Association, along with its six Local Sections in Texas, and American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE), Institute for Safety and Health Management, and the National Safety Council recently sent letters to key Texas State Legislators in support of House Bill 2010. By enacting this bill, Texas would join a growing list of states that are taking steps to improve teen workplace health and safety. ###


LONDON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--According to the latest market study released by Technavio, the global PPE market for oil and gas industry is projected to grow to USD 9.7 billion by 2021, at a CAGR of close to 8% over the forecast period. This research report titled ‘Global PPE Market for Oil and Gas Industry 2017-2021’ provides an in-depth analysis of the market in terms of revenue and emerging market trends. This market research report also includes up to date analysis and forecasts for various market segments and all geographical regions. Personal protective equipment is worn by workers to protect themselves from occupational, as well as household hazards. The global PPE market for the oil and gas industry is expected to be driven by the stringent and comprehensive safety regulations that enforce employers to provide necessary PPE for workers. Looking for more information on this market? Request a free sample report Technavio’s sample reports are free of charge and contain multiple sections of the report including the market size and forecast, drivers, challenges, trends, and more. Based on the product type, the report categorizes the global PPE market for oil and gas industry into the following segments: The top three revenue-generating product segments in the global PPE market for oil and gas industry are discussed below: “Head, eye, and face protection equipment occupied a majority 22% of the global market and is expected to continue its dominance through the forecast period. The major types of head, eye, and face protection equipment include safety spectacles, face shields, hard hats, welding shields, and bump caps,” says Neelesh Prakash Singh, a lead analyst at Technavio for power research. The vendors in the market are currently exploring various material technologies to optimize weight, comfort, and performance of PPE gear. For instance, vendors of safety eyewear are incorporating cushioned materials at all points of contact, in addition to offering products with soft material-based nosepieces for enhanced comfort. Workers in the oil and gas industry are exposed to various respiratory threats, including exposure to hydrogen sulfide, mercury vapor, silica, and drilling fluid. Employers ensure that all the workers on the floor are equipped with OSHA- and NIOSH-compliant respirators to minimize the impact of such harmful chemicals. These respirators and masks effectively filter out chemicals and other contaminants and provide a supply of clean breathing air to the wearers. The fall in oil prices has led to its increased demand, which is positively impacting the respiratory protection market. “The fall protection segment of the market is expected to be worth USD 1.7 billion by 2021, driven by the need to protect workers working on access platforms and equipment located high above the ground,” says Neelesh. Working from a height poses fall hazards, such as climbing and working from derrick, unprotected sides and edges, and uneven working surfaces. Various organizations including OSHA, have constantly been introducing reforms to reduce occupational hazards caused by falls, trips, and slips, which is positively impacting the growth of fall protection PPE gear. The top vendors highlighted by Technavio’s research analysts in this report are: Become a Technavio Insights member and access all three of these reports for a fraction of their original cost. As a Technavio Insights member, you will have immediate access to new reports as they’re published in addition to all 6,000+ existing reports covering segments like energy storage, oil and gas, and smart grid. This subscription nets you thousands in savings, while staying connected to Technavio’s constant transforming research library, helping you make informed business decisions more efficiently. Technavio is a leading global technology research and advisory company. The company develops over 2000 pieces of research every year, covering more than 500 technologies across 80 countries. Technavio has about 300 analysts globally who specialize in customized consulting and business research assignments across the latest leading edge technologies. Technavio analysts employ primary as well as secondary research techniques to ascertain the size and vendor landscape in a range of markets. Analysts obtain information using a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches, besides using in-house market modeling tools and proprietary databases. They corroborate this data with the data obtained from various market participants and stakeholders across the value chain, including vendors, service providers, distributors, resellers, and end-users. If you are interested in more information, please contact our media team at media@technavio.com.


News Article | May 5, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Etymotic Research, an innovator in hearing safety solutions, announced today that it will be bringing the company’s full array of hearing protection products to the National Hardware Show, May 9-11 at the Las Vegas Convention Center in Las Vegas, NV. Led by the company’s new HD-15 Elite adaptive electronic hearing protection, Etymotic’s line of high-fidelity safety earplugs, as well as high definition earphones and headsets have become essential products for home hobbyists, construction, landscape and automotive workers, factory workers and farmers. “Noise-induced hearing loss is preventable,” said Dr. Patty Johnson, Director of Audiology at Etymotic. “And those in the safety and hardware industries now know that it is essential to offer hearing protection products to employees and customers. Etymotic’s HD-15 Elite earplugs allow wearers to hear naturally with no loss of clarity while protecting their ears when sound exceeds safe levels.” Created in safety colors and packaged for retail display, Etymotic’s state-of-the-art noise isolating safety and high fidelity earphones, earplugs, and adaptive electronic earplugs represent the finest line of personal audio and hearing health products available to hardware retailers today. Etymotic’s hearing protection products have been honored with the inaugural Design and Engineering Innovations Award in the Health and Wellness category from the Consumer Electronics Association, and the prestigious Safe-in-Sound Award for decades of innovation in hearing loss prevention from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the National Hearing Conservation Association. Visitors to Etymotic’s National Hardware Show booth #8555 will be able to experience demonstrations of Etymotic’s extraordinary hearing protection products, and meet Etymotic’s expert customer relations team. For more on Etymotic and its safety products, go to etymotic.com. Etymotic is a research, development and manufacturing company that designs high-fidelity personal audio products and hearing wellness solutions to assess enhance and protect hearing. For over 30 years, innovation and education have been central to Etymotic’s mission. Etymotic is one of the most respected leaders in high-fidelity audio and hearing conservation. For more information about Etymotic, its hearing wellness mission and its products, please visit http://www.etymotic.com.


1 in 5 Students Have Hearing Loss; Motes Audio Launches Kickstarter Campaign with the First Headphone Specifically Designed to Protect Students Hearing Salt Lake City, UT, May 02, 2017 --( Motes Audio engineered its first headphones, the KadenceTM, to address the problem of high-volume sounds in headphones by automatically keeping sounds at or below 85 dB. These parameters align with CDC and OSHA recommendations for preventing permanent hearing loss from repeated exposure to high volume sounds. [ii] [iii] The KadenceTM headphones also provide up to 17 dB of sound isolation. The KadenceTM headphone is ideal for educators and parents. It is easy to clean, durable, compatible (3.5mm), affordable (MSRP $40), and comfortable to wear. Company Founder Denarius Motes, a musician and music producer, knows firsthand the importance of protecting your hearing. “At a young age, I was exposed to loud music. I was not properly taught how to protect my ears. If I had a product like what we’re developing here at Motes Audio I could have avoided permanent hearing loss.” Dr. Spencer Lifferth, AuD oversees the integrity of the technology within the Motes Audio headphones and products. While the Kadence was designed with school aged students in mind, it is equally important for adults to protect their hearing. “Adults are just as vulnerable to hearing loss from loud sounds as students and children. At Motes Audio, we dedicate ourselves to creating products that can protect hearing at any age,” explains Dr. Lifferth. As Motes Audio is still in its initial stages of development, the Kickstarter campaign will help bring the full suite of its products to market. Motes Audio products are available for preorder on Kickstarter. www.kickstarter.com/projects/motesaudio/motes-audio-headphones Contact Trish Alderman, CPA Managing Partner 435-201-4347 [i] Dr. Gary C. Curhan, MD, ScD, Associate Professor at Harvard Medical School, Change in Prevelance of Hearing Loss in US Adolescence; JAMA. 2010;304(7):772-778. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.1124 [ii] CDC/NIOSH. Revised Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Noise Exposure (NIOSH Publication 98-126). Cincinnati: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1998. [iii] OSHA Regulation 1910.95 Salt Lake City, UT, May 02, 2017 --( PR.com )-- Motes Audio today launched a Kickstarter campaign featuring the first volume governing headphones specifically designed for schools and school age students. According to a study by Harvard Medical School Associate Professor Dr. Curhan, one in five students has permanent hearing loss most likely due to high-volume sounds. [i] With the increasing use of headphones in the classroom and the spike in recreational use of them by children and teenagers, parents and educators now have a solution to help protect against hearing loss.Motes Audio engineered its first headphones, the KadenceTM, to address the problem of high-volume sounds in headphones by automatically keeping sounds at or below 85 dB. These parameters align with CDC and OSHA recommendations for preventing permanent hearing loss from repeated exposure to high volume sounds. [ii] [iii] The KadenceTM headphones also provide up to 17 dB of sound isolation.The KadenceTM headphone is ideal for educators and parents. It is easy to clean, durable, compatible (3.5mm), affordable (MSRP $40), and comfortable to wear.Company Founder Denarius Motes, a musician and music producer, knows firsthand the importance of protecting your hearing. “At a young age, I was exposed to loud music. I was not properly taught how to protect my ears. If I had a product like what we’re developing here at Motes Audio I could have avoided permanent hearing loss.”Dr. Spencer Lifferth, AuD oversees the integrity of the technology within the Motes Audio headphones and products. While the Kadence was designed with school aged students in mind, it is equally important for adults to protect their hearing. “Adults are just as vulnerable to hearing loss from loud sounds as students and children. At Motes Audio, we dedicate ourselves to creating products that can protect hearing at any age,” explains Dr. Lifferth.As Motes Audio is still in its initial stages of development, the Kickstarter campaign will help bring the full suite of its products to market. Motes Audio products are available for preorder on Kickstarter.ContactTrish Alderman, CPAManaging Partner435-201-4347[i] Dr. Gary C. Curhan, MD, ScD, Associate Professor at Harvard Medical School, Change in Prevelance of Hearing Loss in US Adolescence; JAMA. 2010;304(7):772-778. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.1124[ii] CDC/NIOSH. Revised Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Noise Exposure (NIOSH Publication 98-126). Cincinnati: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1998.[iii] OSHA Regulation 1910.95 OSHA Recommendations for Safe Listening OSHA recommends listening to sounds no louder than 85 dB in order to prevent permanent hearing loss. Filename: Graph-1copy.jpg My Hearing Matters Keeping headphones at or below 85 dB can help preserve a students hearing. Filename: Student.jpg Click here to view the list of recent Press Releases from Motes Audio, LLC


News Article | June 6, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

"With the hot summer months on our doorstep, this app is a valuable tool for employers and workers to help prevent heat-related illnesses," said John Howard, M.D., director of NIOSH. "In many cases, workers rely on their employers to provide opportunities for taking rest breaks and drinking water. This app puts life-saving information at the fingertips of both supervisors and workers to inform them when they need to take precautions to stay safe at the worksite." Extreme heat causes more deaths than any other weather-related hazard; each year more than 65,000 people seek medical treatment for extreme heat exposure. In 2014 alone, 2,630 workers suffered from heat-related illness, and 18 died from heat stroke and related causes on the job, according to OSHA. Work-related exposure to heat can also result in reduced productivity and growing risk of injuries, such as those caused by sweaty palms, fogged-up safety glasses, and cognitive impairment (that is, mental confusion, impaired judgment, and poor coordination). The app, an updated version of OSHA's original Heat Safety Tool, uses the device's geolocation capabilities to pull temperature and humidity data from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellites to determine the heat index. The app shows the current risk level (minimal, low, moderate, high, or extreme) and forecasts the hourly heat index throughout the entire workday giving employers information they can use to adjust the work environment as needed to protect workers. "We applaud NIOSH for updating this important worker safety tool. Workers are most vulnerable in the first few days of working in the heat and the app helps users to calculate risk levels and learn the protective measures they can take to prevent heat illness," said Dorothy Dougherty, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health. "Being aware of the risks, gradually building a tolerance, and taking the necessary precautions can keep workers safe and save lives." How to stay safe outdoors in extreme heat In addition to calculating the heat index, the app provides users with specific NIOSH and OSHA recommendations for protection against the heat based on the calculated risk level. This includes information about staying cool, proper hydration, and scheduling rest breaks. Recommendations are based on the 2016 publication NIOSH Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments, which was recently updated to reflect the latest science. Some examples of NIOSH recommendations that can be applied in many different outdoor workplaces include: For more information on heat-related illnesses, visit www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/heatstress. To install the OSHA-NIOSH Heat Safety app on your iOS or Android device, visit www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/heatstress/heatapp.html. NIOSH is the federal institute that conducts research and makes recommendations for preventing work-related injuries, illnesses and deaths. For more information about NIOSH, visit www.cdc.gov/niosh/. Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, employers are responsible for providing safe and healthful workplaces for their employees. OSHA's role is to ensure these conditions for America's working men and women by setting and enforcing standards, and providing training, education and assistance. For more information, visit www.osha.gov. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services CDC works 24/7 saving lives and protecting people from health threats to have a more secure nation.  Whether these threats are chronic or acute, manmade or natural, human error or deliberate attack, global or domestic, CDC is the U.S. health protection agency. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/niosh-and-osha-introduce-improved-heat-safety-app-for-outdoor-workers-300469837.html


Castranova V.,NIOSH | Schulte P.A.,U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health | Zumwalde R.D.,U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are carbon atoms arranged in a crystalline graphene lattice with a tubular morphology. CNTs exhibit high tensile strength, possess unique electrical properties, are durable, and can be functionalized. These properties allow applications as structural materials, in electronics, as heating elements, in batteries, in the production of stain-resistant fabric, for bone grafting and dental implants, and for targeted drug delivery. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are strong, flexible fibers that are currently used to produce composite materials.Agitation can lead to aerosolized CNTs and CNFs, and peak airborne particulate concentrations are associated with workplace activities such as weighing, transferring, mixing, blending, or sonication. Most airborne CNTs or CNFs found in workplaces are loose agglomerates of micrometer diameter. However, due to their low density, they linger in workplace air for a considerable time, and a large fraction of these structures are respirable.In rat and mouse models, pulmonary exposure to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), or CNFs causes the following pulmonary reactions: acute pulmonary inflammation and injury, rapid and persistent formation of granulomatous lesions at deposition sites of large CNT agglomerates, and rapid and progressive alveolar interstitial fibrosis at deposition sites of more dispersed CNT or CNF structures.Pulmonary exposure to SWCNTs can induce oxidant stress in aortic tissue and increases plaque formation in an atherosclerotic mouse model. Pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs depresses the ability of coronary arterioles to respond to dilators. These cardiovascular effects may result from neurogenic signals from sensory irritant receptors in the lung. Pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs also upregulates mRNA for inflammatory mediators in selected brain regions, and pulmonary exposure to SWCNTs upregulates the baroreceptor reflex. In addition, pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs may induce levels of inflammatory mediators in the blood, which may affect the cardiovascular system. Intraperitoneal instillation of MWCNTs in mice has been associated with abdominal mesothelioma. MWCNTs deposited in the distal alveoli can migrate to the intrapleural space, and MWCNTs injected in the intrapleural space can cause lesions at the parietal pleura. However, further studies are required to determine whether pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs can induce pleural lesions or mesothelioma.In light of the anticipated growth in the production and use of CNTs and CNFs, worker exposure is possible. Because pulmonary exposure to CNTs and CNFs causes inflammatory and fibrotic reactions in the rodent lung, adverse health effects in workers represent a concern. NIOSH has conducted a risk assessment using available animal exposure-response data and is developing a recommended exposure limit for CNTs and CNFs.Evidence indicates that engineering controls and personal protective equipment can significantly decrease workplace exposure to CNTs and CNFs. Considering the available data on health risks, it appears prudent to develop prevention strategies to minimize workplace exposure. These strategies would include engineering controls (enclosure, exhaust ventilation), worker training, administrative controls, implementation of good handling practices, and the use of personal protective equipment (such as respirators) when necessary. NIOSH has published a document containing recommendations for the safe handling of nanomaterials. © This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2012 by the American Chemical Society.


Shvedova A.A.,NIOSH
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology | Year: 2014

The hallmark geometric feature of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and carbon nanofibers (CNF), high length to width ratio, makes them similar to a hazardous agent, asbestos. Very limited data are available concerning long-term effects of pulmonary exposure to SWCNT or CNF. Here, we compared inflammatory, fibrogenic, and genotoxic effects of CNF, SWCNT, or asbestos in mice 1 yr after pharyngeal aspiration. In addition, we compared pulmonary responses to SWCNT by bolus dosing through pharyngeal aspiration and inhalation 5 h/day for 4 days, to evaluate the effect of dose rate. The aspiration studies showed that these particles can be visualized in the lung at 1 yr postexposure, whereas some translocate to lymphatics. All these particles induced chronic bronchopneumonia and lymphadenitis, accompanied by pulmonary fibrosis. CNF and asbestos were found to promote the greatest degree of inflammation, followed by SWCNT, whereas SWCNT were the most fibrogenic of these three particles. Furthermore, SWCNT induced cytogenetic alterations seen as micronuclei formation and nuclear protrusions in vivo. Importantly, inhalation exposure to SWCNT showed significantly greater inflammatory, fibrotic, and genotoxic effects than bolus pharyngeal aspiration. Finally, SWCNT and CNF, but not asbestos exposures, increased the incidence of K-ras oncogene mutations in the lung. No increased lung tumor incidence occurred after 1 yr postexposure to SWCNT, CNF, and asbestos. Overall, our data suggest that long-term pulmonary toxicity of SWCNT, CNF, and asbestos is defined, not only by their chemical composition, but also by the specific surface area and type of exposure.


Castranova V.,NIOSH
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective: Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on a near-atomic scale to produce nanoparticles with unique properties, allowing newcommercial applications. Since nanoparticles exhibit unique physicochemical properties, they are likely to exhibit biological activity significantly different from fine-sized particles of the same chemical composition. Therefore, evaluation of the biological effects of nanoparticles is critical. Methods: The article lists the major objectives of nanotoxicology and briefly reviews the literature concerning biological responses to pulmonary exposure. Results: Interactions of nanoparticles with biological systems depend on particle size, shape, oxidant generation, surface functionalization, and rate of dissolution. Pulmonary, cardiovascular, and central nervous system responses to pulmonary exposure to nanotitanium dioxide and carbon nanotubes are described. Conclusions: Significant biological responses occur in animal models after pulmonary exposure to certain nanoparticles. Control of exposure appears prudent to protect worker health. Clinical Significance: Nanotechnology is synthesizing a wide range of nanoparticles, which exhibit unique physicochemical properties. These unique properties make unique biological activity likely. If certain nanoparticles induce adverse effects in vitro or in animal models, then occupational health surveillance and exposure control may be prudent steps in the protection of worker health. Copyright © 2011 by American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

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