Rieux A.,Niort Laboratory |
Paraud C.,Niort Laboratory |
Pors I.,Niort Laboratory |
Chartier C.,University of Nantes |
Chartier C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2014
Cohorts of pre-weaned calves were studied for Cryptosporidium infection over three successive years (2010-2012) in one beef cattle herd in western France. Each year 25-34 calves were sampled weekly from 3 days to one month of age in order to characterize oocyst output, Cryptosporidium species and clinical features associated with infection. Faecal samples were screened for the presence of oocysts using immunofluorescence analysis. DNA was extracted from positive samples and a PCR SSU rRNA followed by RFLP or sequencing was performed. For the subtyping of C. parvum, a gp60 PCR was carried out. Regardless of the year, 92-100% of the animals excreted oocysts on at least one sampling date. Depending on the year of observation, the age of highest prevalence varied. In contrast, the peak of excretion was systematically observed almost at the same age (2nd-3rd week of life) with excretion levels ranging from between 100 and 1.7×107oocysts/g of faeces. Differences concerning clinical signs depending on the year of sampling were observed. Different species patterns were observed, with a predominance of C. bovis in the 1st year and a predominance of C. parvum in the last year. Moreover, two zoonotic subtypes of C. parvum, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA18G2R1, were recorded in different years. This study shows that, in a given farm, the Cryptosporidium species and C. parvum subtypes identified as well as the prevalence of infection and level of excretion may vary greatly and show distinct patterns according to the year. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Paraud C.,Niort laboratory |
Pors I.,Niort laboratory |
Rieux A.,Niort laboratory |
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2014
Cryptosporidium spp. is an important agent of neonatal diarrhoea in goat kids. Little is known about its molecular characterization in adult goats. A longitudinal study was set up to identify the species excreted by adult goats around parturition. Individual faecal samples were collected from 20 pregnant adult goats between 1 and 5 years old in one flock. Samplings began 3 weeks before the estimated kidding date and were done weekly until kidding and for 2 weeks after kidding. Cryptosporidium oocysts were concentrated from 15g of faeces using a caesium chloride (CsCl) method. Oocyst output was determined using a direct immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Genomic DNA was extracted from each CsCl-concentrated faecal sample positive by IFAT and submitted to a nested PCR-RFLP on the SSU rDNA gene followed by sequencing to identify the isolates at species level. According to their kidding date, goats were sampled between 4 and 8 times. Sixteen goats, out of the eighteen which kidded, were found positive at least at one sampling date. Infection was asymptomatic. Prevalence of excretion was maximal 14 days before kidding with half of the goats excreting oocysts at this date. Excretion was higher before kidding than after kidding. Unexpected levels of excretion were observed with individual oocyst excretion ranging from 6 to 2.5 × 105 oocysts per gram of faeces. All isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
PubMed | Savoie Analytical Laboratory, Sophia Antipolis Laboratory, Cooperative de lAgneau de Haute Provence, Ariege Veterinary Laboratory and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2016
The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological situation of the caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) infection in nine districts in mainland France, mostly in the south, near Italy or Spain, where high seroprevalence has been observed. Two more central areas were also included in the study. The serosurvey was carried out in 9564 goats (275 herds) using bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) glycoprotein B and E ELISAs. To confirm the presence of specific CpHV-1 antibodies, some of the samples were tested in neutralization assay. Results demonstrate, for the first time, CpHV-1 infection in goat herds on the French mainland. The analysis found cases of alphaherpesviruses infection in each district studied, with different levels of seroprevalence observed within each district (ranging from 0.2% to 31.56% at an individual level and from 9% to 46.2% for herd seroprevalence). Moreover, in the Alpes-Maritimes district, the seroprevalence seemed to be higher in older goats (79.45% of animals 6 years old or more) than in younger animals (40.99% of one-year-olds). This result suggests frequent virus re-excretion and circulation in herds. Results analysis also shows that the seroprevalence was higher when the herd size increased. In addition, the first French CpHV-1 strain was isolated from nasal swabs taken on an infected goat. The data reported herein demonstrate that CpHV-1 circulates in mainland France, which should henceforth be taken into consideration in cases of unexplained abortion in goats.
Olech M.,National Veterinary Research Institute |
Rachid A.,Niort Laboratory |
Croise B.,Niort Laboratory |
Kuzmak J.,National Veterinary Research Institute |
Valas S.,Niort Laboratory
Virus Research | Year: 2012
Small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infections are widespread in Poland, but the genetic features of sheep viruses are still lacking and limited to partial gag sequences for goat viruses. In this study, segments from the gag and env genes of Polish SRLV strains screened by heteroduplex mobility assay were subjected to genetic analyses. Subtype A1 was found in both sheep and goats, while subtypes B1 and B2 were found in goats and sheep, respectively. In addition, two novel subtypes (named A12 and A13) were found in sheep. Their close phylogenetic relatedness with SRLV strains previously isolated from Polish goats indicated that these new subtypes are predominant and circulate in both species. The antigenic relationships of subtypes A12 and A13 with other SRLV subtypes were tested in an ELISA assay based on recombinant antigens carrying the immunodominant domains of structural proteins (MA, CA and SU). Antigenic cross-reactivity in the Gag epitopes was evident among genotype A subtypes and, to a lower extent, between genotypes A and B. In contrast, a subtype-specific immunoresponse was detected in the SU epitopes. These results emphasize the broad genetic and antigenic diversity of SRLV strains circulating in Europe and confirmed the need to consider all viral genotypes to choose the antigens in serological tests in order to avoid misdiagnosis in control and eradication programs. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Tardy F.,Lyon Laboratory |
Gaurivaud P.,Lyon Laboratory |
Manso-Silvan L.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development |
Thiaucourt F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development |
And 4 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease of cattle and buffalo caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides " Small Colony" (MmmSC). The agent of CBPP has been isolated from goats in different countries including CBPP-free areas. Goats can therefore be regarded as a putative MmmSC reservoir. No diagnostic test for CBPP surveillance in goats has been proposed as yet. Furthermore, serological tests could be seriously hampered by a widespread caprine infection due to the subspecies M. mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc), which is antigenically very close to MmmSC and displays high levels of genetic variability. A competition ELISA (cELISA) is currently used to screen for CBPP in cattle at the herd level in infected areas. The aim of this study was to see if the same cELISA would be specific enough to be used to screen goats despite the potential concomitant infection with Mmc.The cELISA titers of goats from Mmc-infected and non-infected herds were comparable and negative using the accepted cutoff for bovine sera. In contrast, seroconversion was observed in goats experimentally inoculated with an Mmc strain that cross-reacted with a monoclonal antibody targeting the same epitope as that used in cELISA. The probability of such false positivity occurring under field conditions is very low since Mmc strains with such an atypical antigenic profile emerge only rarely as a result of random nucleotide variation of the epitope-coding region. In conclusion, the commercially available cELISA can be considered specific enough to be used as a primary test to monitor passage of the CBPP agent in goats, but its sensitivity in goats requires further investigation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Delafosse A.,British Petroleum |
Chartier C.,College of the Atlantic |
Dupuy M.C.,British Petroleum |
Dumoulin M.,British Petroleum |
And 2 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2015
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection in calf neonates on dairy farms in Normandy.Fecal samples were randomly collected between July 2010 and September 2011 from 968 calves (7-21 days old) on 97 farms. Up to 10 calves were selected and sampled per farm, and feces examined for oocysts by microscopy. C. parvum oocyst shedding was scored semi-quantitatively (0-5). A questionnaire about calf-level care and management was completed, and mortality rates were obtained from the French national registration database (BDNI). Bivariable and multivariable analyses of potential risk factors for C. parvum oocyst shedding were conducted using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models (family. =. Binomial).Overall, 402 out of 968 calves (41.5%) were positive for oocysts, and 25.1% of animals had a shedding score >2. Seven of the 97 farms (7%) were negative for oocysts in all fecal samples. At the time of collection, 375 calves (39%) had diarrhea, and its prevalence strongly correlated with the score for C. parvum oocyst shedding (. p<. 0.0001). The mortality rate at 90 days was significantly greater for calves with high combined scores of diarrhea and shedding. Factors associated with the shedding of C. parvum were the Normande breed (odds ratio. =. 1.49; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-2.37), dispensing of colostrum using a bucket (odds ratio. =. 1.37; 95% CI: 1.00-1.89), treatment with halofuginone (odds ratio. =. 0.46; 95% CI: 0.19-1.15) and feeding with fermented milk (odds ratio. =. 0.32; 95% CI: 0.17-0.63).C. parvum is widespread among calves under 21 days old in dairy herds of western France. Shedding of C. parvum is associated with a high incidence of diarrhea and increased risk of mortality in young calves. This study identified some associated calf-level factors, although further investigations are necessary to determine appropriate measures that farmers and veterinary practitioners should take to reduce the prevalence of C. parvum. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
PubMed | ALICOOP and Niort laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary parasitology | Year: 2014
Cryptosporidium spp. is an important agent of neonatal diarrhoea in goat kids. Little is known about its molecular characterization in adult goats. A longitudinal study was set up to identify the species excreted by adult goats around parturition. Individual faecal samples were collected from 20 pregnant adult goats between 1 and 5 years old in one flock. Samplings began 3 weeks before the estimated kidding date and were done weekly until kidding and for 2 weeks after kidding. Cryptosporidium oocysts were concentrated from 15 g of faeces using a caesium chloride (CsCl) method. Oocyst output was determined using a direct immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Genomic DNA was extracted from each CsCl-concentrated faecal sample positive by IFAT and submitted to a nested PCR-RFLP on the SSU rDNA gene followed by sequencing to identify the isolates at species level. According to their kidding date, goats were sampled between 4 and 8 times. Sixteen goats, out of the eighteen which kidded, were found positive at least at one sampling date. Infection was asymptomatic. Prevalence of excretion was maximal 14 days before kidding with half of the goats excreting oocysts at this date. Excretion was higher before kidding than after kidding. Unexpected levels of excretion were observed with individual oocyst excretion ranging from 6 to 2.5 10(5) oocysts per gram of faeces. All isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium ubiquitum.