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Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port, France

Tardy F.,Lyon Laboratory | Gaurivaud P.,Lyon Laboratory | Manso-Silvan L.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Thiaucourt F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 4 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease of cattle and buffalo caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides " Small Colony" (MmmSC). The agent of CBPP has been isolated from goats in different countries including CBPP-free areas. Goats can therefore be regarded as a putative MmmSC reservoir. No diagnostic test for CBPP surveillance in goats has been proposed as yet. Furthermore, serological tests could be seriously hampered by a widespread caprine infection due to the subspecies M. mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc), which is antigenically very close to MmmSC and displays high levels of genetic variability. A competition ELISA (cELISA) is currently used to screen for CBPP in cattle at the herd level in infected areas. The aim of this study was to see if the same cELISA would be specific enough to be used to screen goats despite the potential concomitant infection with Mmc.The cELISA titers of goats from Mmc-infected and non-infected herds were comparable and negative using the accepted cutoff for bovine sera. In contrast, seroconversion was observed in goats experimentally inoculated with an Mmc strain that cross-reacted with a monoclonal antibody targeting the same epitope as that used in cELISA. The probability of such false positivity occurring under field conditions is very low since Mmc strains with such an atypical antigenic profile emerge only rarely as a result of random nucleotide variation of the epitope-coding region. In conclusion, the commercially available cELISA can be considered specific enough to be used as a primary test to monitor passage of the CBPP agent in goats, but its sensitivity in goats requires further investigation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Delafosse A.,British Petroleum | Chartier C.,College of the Atlantic | Dupuy M.C.,British Petroleum | Dumoulin M.,British Petroleum | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2015

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection in calf neonates on dairy farms in Normandy.Fecal samples were randomly collected between July 2010 and September 2011 from 968 calves (7-21 days old) on 97 farms. Up to 10 calves were selected and sampled per farm, and feces examined for oocysts by microscopy. C. parvum oocyst shedding was scored semi-quantitatively (0-5). A questionnaire about calf-level care and management was completed, and mortality rates were obtained from the French national registration database (BDNI). Bivariable and multivariable analyses of potential risk factors for C. parvum oocyst shedding were conducted using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models (family. =. Binomial).Overall, 402 out of 968 calves (41.5%) were positive for oocysts, and 25.1% of animals had a shedding score >2. Seven of the 97 farms (7%) were negative for oocysts in all fecal samples. At the time of collection, 375 calves (39%) had diarrhea, and its prevalence strongly correlated with the score for C. parvum oocyst shedding (. p<. 0.0001). The mortality rate at 90 days was significantly greater for calves with high combined scores of diarrhea and shedding. Factors associated with the shedding of C. parvum were the Normande breed (odds ratio. =. 1.49; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-2.37), dispensing of colostrum using a bucket (odds ratio. =. 1.37; 95% CI: 1.00-1.89), treatment with halofuginone (odds ratio. =. 0.46; 95% CI: 0.19-1.15) and feeding with fermented milk (odds ratio. =. 0.32; 95% CI: 0.17-0.63).C. parvum is widespread among calves under 21 days old in dairy herds of western France. Shedding of C. parvum is associated with a high incidence of diarrhea and increased risk of mortality in young calves. This study identified some associated calf-level factors, although further investigations are necessary to determine appropriate measures that farmers and veterinary practitioners should take to reduce the prevalence of C. parvum. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Olech M.,National Veterinary Research Institute | Rachid A.,Niort Laboratory | Croise B.,Niort Laboratory | Kuzmak J.,National Veterinary Research Institute | Valas S.,Niort Laboratory
Virus Research | Year: 2012

Small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infections are widespread in Poland, but the genetic features of sheep viruses are still lacking and limited to partial gag sequences for goat viruses. In this study, segments from the gag and env genes of Polish SRLV strains screened by heteroduplex mobility assay were subjected to genetic analyses. Subtype A1 was found in both sheep and goats, while subtypes B1 and B2 were found in goats and sheep, respectively. In addition, two novel subtypes (named A12 and A13) were found in sheep. Their close phylogenetic relatedness with SRLV strains previously isolated from Polish goats indicated that these new subtypes are predominant and circulate in both species. The antigenic relationships of subtypes A12 and A13 with other SRLV subtypes were tested in an ELISA assay based on recombinant antigens carrying the immunodominant domains of structural proteins (MA, CA and SU). Antigenic cross-reactivity in the Gag epitopes was evident among genotype A subtypes and, to a lower extent, between genotypes A and B. In contrast, a subtype-specific immunoresponse was detected in the SU epitopes. These results emphasize the broad genetic and antigenic diversity of SRLV strains circulating in Europe and confirmed the need to consider all viral genotypes to choose the antigens in serological tests in order to avoid misdiagnosis in control and eradication programs. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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