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Kolkata, India

Nigam S.K.,National Institute of Occupational Health NIOH | Venkatakrishna-Bhatt H.,NIOH
Eurasian Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013

Objective: Betel leaf combined with areca nut is known as betel quid pan masala (PM), and tobacco with areca nut, catechu and lime is pan masala (PMT) blended with gulkhand. These narcotics are popular among young and old individuals. A prima facia chemical analysis and a toxicity assessment of PM in mice were conducted to study the relationship between longtime consumption of PM and health hazards. Materials and Methods: Chemical analysis of different types of PM was done employing HPLC, GLC, AAS, ES, TLC, GCMS and sequential extraction for PAH, pesticides, metals and minerals, electrolytes, drugs and xenobiotics. Ethanolic PM extracts were tested by IP and PO routes in inbred Swiss mice. Results: PAH, which are known xenobiotics for pre-cancerous lesions, were significantly high (p<0.01) in Rajaniganda and Pan Parag Zarda. Isomers of DDT and BHC, which principally act on nerves and muscles, were also high (p<0.01) in PM. The enhanced metal and mineral content of PM results in massive oral fibrosis. There is a high level of narcotics in PM, especially nicotine, a potentially cancerous agent in the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion: Experimental studies with different extracts of plain and blended PM in mice fed for 16 and 90 days revealed no effect on blood and organ weights (kidney, heart, spleen and liver), but we did observe attenuated testis. However, in the bone marrow of the mice, chromosomes were most affected in the mice fed PM-Zarda blend for 3 months. The chromosomal abnormalities included ploidy, loss, breaks, gaps, deletions and exchanges in ring chromosomes. The PM caused sperm head anomalies (narrow, blunt, triangular and banana shapes), and the sperm were irregular, amorphous, tailless and rudimentary, with the maximum effect among the groups fed PM for 3 months. Significantly higher levels (p<0.01) of testis glycogen, cholesterol and protein were found. The group fed for 16 days showed no change in red blood corpuscles (RBC), white blood corpuscles (WBC), hemoglobin and erythrocyte sedimentation counts. Source


Kumar T.,NIOH | Kumar S.,Uttar Pradesh Rural Institute of Medical science and Research | Nezamuddin Md.,NIOH | Sharma V.P.,University of Lucknow
Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low back pain is a common health problem in human being and about 5 to 15% will develop chronic low back pain (CLBP). The clinical findings of CLBP suggest that lumbar mobility is decreased and recruitment order of core muscles is altered. In literature, there is no data about the effect of core muscles strengthening in the chronicity (short duration, long duration) of CLBP. This study evaluated the effect of core muscle strengthening intervention on chronicity of chronic low back pain. METHOD: Thirty patients were recruited from the outpatient department of the National Institute for the Orthopaedically Handicapped. These 30 patients divided into two groups: A and B on the basis of duration of low back pain. Group-A patients complain about pain duration for more than twelve months and Group B complains about pain duration from three to twelve months. Both the groups were received same intervention for six weeks. Assessment was done pre intervention and post intervention after six weeks for both the groups. RESULTS: The result described both the groups showed improvement in all the outcome measures including pain as well as in function using Numerical pain rating scale, Oswestry Disability Index, Sorensen test, Gluteus Maximus Strength, Activation of transversus abdominis and Modified-Modified Schober's Test. The improvement was statistically non-significant with inter groups and significant within group. CONCLUSION: This study concludes that core muscle strengthening exercise along with lumbar flexibility and gluteus maximus strengthening is an effective rehabilitation technique for all chronic low back pain patients irrespective of duration (less than one year and more than one year) of their pain. © 2015 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source


Kumar S.,Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Institute for the Physically Handicapped PtDDUIPH | Kumar A.,NIOH | Kumar R.,NIOH
Journal of Musculoskeletal Research | Year: 2013

Osteoarthritis (OA) is steadily becoming the most common cause of disability with advancing age. So, this study was aimed to prevent and rehabilitate the patient with such disability. Proprioception along with other deficits have been established with threat to the concerned joint. Hence, objective of the study was set to show the efficacy of proprioceptive training with conventional physiotherapy versus conventional physiotherapy. A Pre test- Post test single blind experimental study was designed with 44 patients having knee OA and randomly divided in two groups. Outcome measures were pain intensity on NRS, functional disability on Reduced WOMAC and joint position sense (JPS) error on Electronic Goniometer. Results between group comparisons showed significant improvement in pain intensity (p < 0.05), WOMAC score (p < 0.05) and JPS error (p < 0.05). However both the groups improved significantly but there was more significant improvement in group with proprioception intervention. Hence, it can be concluded that proprioceptive training should be included along with conventional physiotherapy in knee OA rehabilitation. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source


Painkra J.P.,NIOH | Kumar S.,Rural Institute of Medical science and Research | Anwer S.,NIOH | Kumar R.,NIOH | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation | Year: 2014

Background: Deep neck flexor (DNF) muscles assist in stabilising the cervical spine during gross neck movements. Patients with neck pain often exhibit reduced deep neck flexor muscle endurance. Aims: This study's primary purpose was to determine the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of measurements obtained using a simple clinical test of DNF muscle endurance in a healthy Indian population. The secondary purpose was to determine and compare the average hold time for deep neck flexor muscle endurance in healthy male and female participants, to add to the body of knowledge around deep neck flexor muscle endurance testing. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 participants (30 male, 30 female) were evaluated using a deep neck flexor endurance test, which involved them lifting their head while maintaining their craniocervical region in a flexed position. Deep neck flexor endurance was measured by two physiotherapists. Each tester measured the DNF hold time of each participant twice, and there was a 5-minute rest between trials. Results: Inter-rater reliability was moderate to good (ICC = 0.69-0.88) and intra-rater reliability was good to excellent (ICC = 0.82-0.93). Neck flexor endurance time was significantly greater in males (mean = 63.73 seconds; SD = 20.27 seconds) than females (mean = 38.43 seconds, SD = 11.71 seconds, (F = 72.89, P<0.001). Conclusion: The results suggest that healthy males have greater deep neck flexor endurance than females. This is the first normative data available that reports on deep neck flexor endurance in healthy Indian adults. © 2013 MA Healthcare Ltd. Source


Sethy D.,NIOH | Bajpai P.,NIOH | Kujur E.S.,NIOH
NeuroRehabilitation | Year: 2010

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of task related circuit training on walking ability in a Multiple Sclerosis subject. Design: Single case study of a man diagnosed with moderate primary progressive type of multiple sclerosis. Method: Baseline measurement of lower limb muscle strength, speed test, Timed "Up and Go" test and 6-minute walk test, Modified fatigue impact scale and Expanded Disability Status Score were taken. After baseline measurement, subject was explained the sequence of tasks to be used in circuit training and the subject was given task related circuit training for 12 weeks. Post training measurements for all the outcome measures were taken. Setting: Department of Occupational Therapy, NIOH, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Participant: A 34 -year -old male. Intervention: Task related Circuit training for a session of 45 minutes, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Results: The subject showed improvement in speed test, step test, 6-minute Walk Test. Also, fatigue was reduced. The walking ability of the subject improved, with increase in muscle strength, endurance, and physical fitness. Conclusion: Task-related circuit training is effective in improving muscle strength and endurance, and in decreasing the fatigue of the subject thereby improving the subject's ability to walk. © 2010 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

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