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Kolkata, India
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Lenka P.,NIOH
Electronics Letters | Year: 2016

The development of an active ankle foot orthosis (AFO) to enhance the walking capacity is presented. The proposed device consists of a linear actuator mechanism with supportive brace and is controlled by measuring user's interaction force. Initial experimental characterisation of performance of the control system and system usability tested on healthy individuals are reported. Results indicate a decrease in muscle activation, by a factor of 29 and 26% for plantar flexion and dorsiflexion motion while walking with assistance from the developed AFO. The developed system has potential application in the field of assistive technology for geriatrics or for patient with mobility impairments, muscle weakness or as a performance enhancer. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2016.


Study design:Retrospective, 1 year case series.Objectives:To analyze the relationship between gender, age, injury-related variables and rehabilitation outcomes in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting:Tertiary Rehabilitation Center, Inpatient rehabilitation unit, India.Methods:The data from a series of SCI cases were analyzed. Each case was followed from admission into the hospital until their discharge. Patients were described according to age, gender, etiology of SCI, neurological classification, medical complications, American spinal injury association (ASIA) classification, length of rehabilitation stay and spinal cord independence measure (SCIM).Results: Forty-seven new SCI cases, 37 (78.7%) male and 10 (21.3%) female patients, were reported over a 1-year period during 2009-2010. Male patients were younger than the female ones, but the difference was not statistically significant. There was no statistically significant relationship between age or gender, and the following SCI variables: ASIA classification, neurological classification, SCI complications and length of stay (P>0.05). Traumatic etiology and Pott's disease was found be related with gender (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant relationship between age or gender and SCIM score at admission or discharge (P>0.05).Conclusion:Age and gender are not significantly related to outcomes of rehabilitation or characteristics of SCI in this sample. Further research is needed to confirm the generalizability of these findings and to identify which factors contribute more strongly to SCI rehabilitation outcomes. © 2013 International Spinal Cord Society. All rights reserved.


Kumar T.,NIOH | Kumar S.,Uttar Pradesh Rural Institute of Medical science and Research | Nezamuddin Md.,NIOH | Sharma V.P.,University of Lucknow
Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low back pain is a common health problem in human being and about 5 to 15% will develop chronic low back pain (CLBP). The clinical findings of CLBP suggest that lumbar mobility is decreased and recruitment order of core muscles is altered. In literature, there is no data about the effect of core muscles strengthening in the chronicity (short duration, long duration) of CLBP. This study evaluated the effect of core muscle strengthening intervention on chronicity of chronic low back pain. METHOD: Thirty patients were recruited from the outpatient department of the National Institute for the Orthopaedically Handicapped. These 30 patients divided into two groups: A and B on the basis of duration of low back pain. Group-A patients complain about pain duration for more than twelve months and Group B complains about pain duration from three to twelve months. Both the groups were received same intervention for six weeks. Assessment was done pre intervention and post intervention after six weeks for both the groups. RESULTS: The result described both the groups showed improvement in all the outcome measures including pain as well as in function using Numerical pain rating scale, Oswestry Disability Index, Sorensen test, Gluteus Maximus Strength, Activation of transversus abdominis and Modified-Modified Schober's Test. The improvement was statistically non-significant with inter groups and significant within group. CONCLUSION: This study concludes that core muscle strengthening exercise along with lumbar flexibility and gluteus maximus strengthening is an effective rehabilitation technique for all chronic low back pain patients irrespective of duration (less than one year and more than one year) of their pain. © 2015 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Nigam S.K.,National Institute of Occupational Health NIOH | Venkatakrishna-Bhatt H.,NIOH
Eurasian Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013

Objective: Betel leaf combined with areca nut is known as betel quid pan masala (PM), and tobacco with areca nut, catechu and lime is pan masala (PMT) blended with gulkhand. These narcotics are popular among young and old individuals. A prima facia chemical analysis and a toxicity assessment of PM in mice were conducted to study the relationship between longtime consumption of PM and health hazards. Materials and Methods: Chemical analysis of different types of PM was done employing HPLC, GLC, AAS, ES, TLC, GCMS and sequential extraction for PAH, pesticides, metals and minerals, electrolytes, drugs and xenobiotics. Ethanolic PM extracts were tested by IP and PO routes in inbred Swiss mice. Results: PAH, which are known xenobiotics for pre-cancerous lesions, were significantly high (p<0.01) in Rajaniganda and Pan Parag Zarda. Isomers of DDT and BHC, which principally act on nerves and muscles, were also high (p<0.01) in PM. The enhanced metal and mineral content of PM results in massive oral fibrosis. There is a high level of narcotics in PM, especially nicotine, a potentially cancerous agent in the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion: Experimental studies with different extracts of plain and blended PM in mice fed for 16 and 90 days revealed no effect on blood and organ weights (kidney, heart, spleen and liver), but we did observe attenuated testis. However, in the bone marrow of the mice, chromosomes were most affected in the mice fed PM-Zarda blend for 3 months. The chromosomal abnormalities included ploidy, loss, breaks, gaps, deletions and exchanges in ring chromosomes. The PM caused sperm head anomalies (narrow, blunt, triangular and banana shapes), and the sperm were irregular, amorphous, tailless and rudimentary, with the maximum effect among the groups fed PM for 3 months. Significantly higher levels (p<0.01) of testis glycogen, cholesterol and protein were found. The group fed for 16 days showed no change in red blood corpuscles (RBC), white blood corpuscles (WBC), hemoglobin and erythrocyte sedimentation counts.


Sanabria N.M.,NIOH | Vetten M.,NIOH | Andraos C.,NIOH | Boodhia K.,NIOH | Gulumian M.,NIOH
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Investigations have been conducted regarding the interference of nanoparticles (NPs) with different toxicological assay systems, but there is a lack of validation when conducting routine tests for nucleic acid isolation, quantification, integrity, and purity analyses. The interference of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was investigated herein. The AuNPs were added to either BEAS-2B bronchial human cells for 24 h, the isolated pure RNA, or added during the isolation procedure, and the resultant interaction was assessed. Total RNA that was isolated from untreated BEAS-2B cells was spiked with various concentrations (v/v%) of AuNPs and quantified. A decrease in the absorbance spectrum (220-340 nm) was observed in a concentration-dependent manner. The 260 and 280 nm absorbance ratios that traditionally infer RNA purity were also altered. Electrophoresis was performed to determine RNA integrity, but could not differentiate between AuNP-exposed samples. However, the spiked post-isolation samples did produce differences in spectra (190-220 nm), where shifts were observed at a shorter wavelength. These shifts could be due to alterations to chromophores found in nucleic acids. The co-isolation samples, spiked with 100 μL AuNP during the isolation procedure, displayed a peak shift to a longer wavelength and were similar to the results obtained from a 24 h AuNP treatment, under non-cytotoxic test conditions. Moreover, hyperspectral imaging using CytoViva dark field microscopy did not detect AuNP spectral signatures in the RNA isolated from treated cells. However, despite the lack of AuNPs in the final RNA product, structural changes in RNA could still be observed between 190-220 nm. Consequently, full spectral analyses should replace the traditional ratios based on readings at 230, 260, and 280 nm. These are critical points of analyses, validation, and optimization for RNA-based techniques used to assess AuNPs effects. © 2014 Sanabria et al.


Sethy D.,NIOH | Bajpai P.,NIOH | Kujur E.S.,NIOH
NeuroRehabilitation | Year: 2010

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of task related circuit training on walking ability in a Multiple Sclerosis subject. Design: Single case study of a man diagnosed with moderate primary progressive type of multiple sclerosis. Method: Baseline measurement of lower limb muscle strength, speed test, Timed "Up and Go" test and 6-minute walk test, Modified fatigue impact scale and Expanded Disability Status Score were taken. After baseline measurement, subject was explained the sequence of tasks to be used in circuit training and the subject was given task related circuit training for 12 weeks. Post training measurements for all the outcome measures were taken. Setting: Department of Occupational Therapy, NIOH, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Participant: A 34 -year -old male. Intervention: Task related Circuit training for a session of 45 minutes, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Results: The subject showed improvement in speed test, step test, 6-minute Walk Test. Also, fatigue was reduced. The walking ability of the subject improved, with increase in muscle strength, endurance, and physical fitness. Conclusion: Task-related circuit training is effective in improving muscle strength and endurance, and in decreasing the fatigue of the subject thereby improving the subject's ability to walk. © 2010 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Kumar S.,Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Institute for the Physically Handicapped PtDDUIPH | Kumar A.,NIOH | Kumar R.,NIOH
Journal of Musculoskeletal Research | Year: 2013

Osteoarthritis (OA) is steadily becoming the most common cause of disability with advancing age. So, this study was aimed to prevent and rehabilitate the patient with such disability. Proprioception along with other deficits have been established with threat to the concerned joint. Hence, objective of the study was set to show the efficacy of proprioceptive training with conventional physiotherapy versus conventional physiotherapy. A Pre test- Post test single blind experimental study was designed with 44 patients having knee OA and randomly divided in two groups. Outcome measures were pain intensity on NRS, functional disability on Reduced WOMAC and joint position sense (JPS) error on Electronic Goniometer. Results between group comparisons showed significant improvement in pain intensity (p < 0.05), WOMAC score (p < 0.05) and JPS error (p < 0.05). However both the groups improved significantly but there was more significant improvement in group with proprioception intervention. Hence, it can be concluded that proprioceptive training should be included along with conventional physiotherapy in knee OA rehabilitation. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.


Ulvestad B.,NIOH | Thomassen Y.,NIOH | Friisk G.,NIOH | Ellingsen D.,NIOH
Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2011

The effect of exposure to particles and gases to tunnel workers during tunnel drilling was studied. The tunnel workers had a mean exposure to thoracic aerosol of 0.85 mg/cu m. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s dropped significantly by 64 mL in the exposed workers, in contrast to a non-significant decline of 4 mL in the referents. Non-smoking tunnel workers showed a significant decline of 55 mL. The exposed workers showed significant increased pulmonary obstruction during the work period.


PubMed | NIOH
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Occupational and environmental medicine | Year: 2011

In 1984, South Africa had one of the highest mesothelioma rates in the world. The objective of this analysis was to calculate mesothelioma mortality rates in the South African population from 1995 to 2007.Annual mortality data and midyear population estimates were used to compute mortality rates by age group and gender for each year. The WHO World Standard Population was used as the reference population to calculate age-adjusted rates. Poisson regression models were used to test for trends.In total, 2509 deaths due to mesothelioma were identified in the study period: 1920 in men and 588 in women. There were no significant trends in mesothelioma mortality rates: age-adjusted mortality rates fluctuated from 11 to 16 and from 3 to 5 per million per year for men and women, respectively.These mortality rates are much lower than expected, given the historical production and use of, and high exposure to, asbestos in South Africa. Possible reasons for this are discussed, including the effect of HIV which has been instrumental in reducing the life expectancy of South Africans in the last two decades. Asbestos-exposed individuals may not live long enough to develop mesothelioma. Competing causes of death need to be taken into account when constructing models to predict mesothelioma mortality rates.


Retrospective, 1 year case series.To analyze the relationship between gender, age, injury-related variables and rehabilitation outcomes in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI).Tertiary Rehabilitation Center, Inpatient rehabilitation unit, India.The data from a series of SCI cases were analyzed. Each case was followed from admission into the hospital until their discharge. Patients were described according to age, gender, etiology of SCI, neurological classification, medical complications, American spinal injury association (ASIA) classification, length of rehabilitation stay and spinal cord independence measure (SCIM).Forty-seven new SCI cases, 37 (78.7%) male and 10 (21.3%) female patients, were reported over a 1-year period during 2009-2010. Male patients were younger than the female ones, but the difference was not statistically significant. There was no statistically significant relationship between age or gender, and the following SCI variables: ASIA classification, neurological classification, SCI complications and length of stay (P>0.05). Traumatic etiology and Potts disease was found be related with gender (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant relationship between age or gender and SCIM score at admission or discharge (P>0.05).Age and gender are not significantly related to outcomes of rehabilitation or characteristics of SCI in this sample. Further research is needed to confirm the generalizability of these findings and to identify which factors contribute more strongly to SCI rehabilitation outcomes.

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