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Zhu M.-M.,Ningxia Academy of Agricultural science | Cai F.-H.,Ningxia Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau | Zhang R.,Ningxia Academy of Agricultural science | Zhang Y.,Ningxia Academy of Agricultural science | And 4 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology

Based on geographic information system (GIS) and geostatistical analysis, this paper studied the spatial structure of Aphis gossipii Glover population in Xiangshan District of Zhongwei City, Ningxia Province, with the spatial distribution of the population simulated by ordinary Kriging interpretation. The spatial structure of A. gossipii population varied with its occurrence stage (initial, blossom, and final stage). The semivariograms of A. gossipii could be described by exponential or Gaussian model, indicating that A. gossipii had an aggregated spatial arrangement. The aggregation degrees at different occurrence stages were all beyond 45%, and the spatial correlation ranged from 10.37 km to 29.11 km. The spatial variance was greatly affected by spatial autocorrelation. The population dynamics of A. gossipii at its different occurrence stages could be easily analyzed and intuitively simulated from the two aspects of time and space by spatial distribution simulation, and thus, the occurrence position and degree of A. gossipii could be easily determined. Source

Lu C.,Nanjing University of Technology | Ding T.,Laboratory of Food | Ma X.,Ningxia Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau | Chen G.,Nanjing University of Technology | And 8 more authors.
Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography / Zhongguo hua xue hui

A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of five pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) (monocrotaline, senkirkine, retrorsine, seneciphylline and senecionine) in honey. The honey samples were dissolved in 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid solution and a strong-cation exchange column was used to purify and concentrate the target analytes. The separation of the analytes was carried out on a Phenomenex C18 column (100 mm x 4.6 mm, 2.6 microm) using the mobile phases of acetonitrile and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate-0.1% (volume percentage) formic acid aqueous solution with gradient elution. The separated compounds were detected in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via positive electrospray ionization (ESI+). The calibration curves were of good linearity in the range of 1-100 microg/L (r > 0.99). The limit of quantification of the method was 1.0 microg/kg. The average recoveries were between 73.1% to 107.1% at three spiked levels (1, 20 and 50 microg/kg) with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 4.1% to 17.0%. The proposed method was applied to different kinds of honey from China, New Zealand, Spain and Australia. The samples included rape, vitex, sunflower, cotton, tilia tree, date, acacia, buckwheat, manuka and eucalyptus honey. Monocrotaline, senkirkine and retrorsine were not detected in the collected honey samples. However, seneciphylline and senecionine were found in most of the honey samples. The concentrations of seneciphylline and senecionine were 11.0 -31.1 microg/kg and 8.3-29.1 microg/kg, respectively. Source

Zhou H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen L.,Ningxia Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau | Chen J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Francis F.,University of Liege | And 4 more authors.
Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems

The use of intercropping as a strategy for increasing biodiversity in fields has the potential to reduce pest damage and improve the crop production. Here, a study was undertaken to evaluate the role of different wheat-pea intercropping patterns in conserving arthropod natural enemies and suppressing cereal aphids in agroecosystems. Wheat-pea intercropping in an 8-2 row pattern of wheat and pea, respectively, preserved and augmented natural enemies more than a monoculture of wheat. The highest abundance of ladybeetles in 2008 and 2009 occurred in the 8-2 row pattern, whereas the highest densities of aphid parasitoids were found in the 4-2 row pattern in 2008 and the 8-2 row pattern in 2009. The distribution of aphid populations in the peak stage was spatially heterogeneous, and the highest density of aphids was shown visually in wheat monoculture fields. The land equivalent ratio of 1.121:1.187 for wheat-pea intercropping in 2008 and 1.114:1.174 for wheat-pea intercropping in 2009 showed that intercropping of wheat and pea has potential to improve the utilization of plant growth resources as compared to sole crops. Wheat-pea intercropping has potential to control English grain aphids effectively by enhancing the abundance of natural enemies, especially with an 8-2 row pattern of wheat-pea, respectively. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Zhang Y.,Northeast Normal University | Chao K.,Ningxia Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau | Sun J.,Hubei Normal University | Zhang W.,Northeast Normal University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Chemical Physics

The reaction of allyl chloride with the hydroxyl radical has been investigated on a sound theoretical basis. This is the first time to gain a conclusive insight into the reaction mechanism and kinetics for important pathways in detail. The reaction mechanism confirms that OH addition to the C=C double bond forms the chemically activated adducts, IM1 (CH 2CHOHCH2Cl) and IM2 (CH2OHCHCH2Cl) via low barriers, and direct H-abstraction paths may also occur. Variational transition state model and multichannel RRKM theory are employed to calculate the temperature-, pressure-dependent rate constants. The calculated rate constants are in good agreement with the experimental data. At 100 Torr with He as bath gas, IM6 formed by collisional stabilization is the major products in the temperature range 200-600 K; the production of CH2CHCHCl via hydrogen abstractions becomes dominant at high temperatures (600-3000 K). © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. Source

Zhang Y.,Northeast Normal University | Chao K.,Ningxia Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau | Sun J.,Hubei Normal University | Su Z.,Northeast Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry A

The complex potential energy surface of allyl alcohol (CH 2CHCH2OH) with hydroxyl radical (OH) has been investigated at the G3(MP2)//MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level. On the surface, two kinds of pathways are revealed, namely, direct hydrogen abstraction and addition/elimination. Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory and transition state theory are carried out to calculate the total and individual rate constants over a wide temperature and pressure region with tunneling correction. It is predicted that CH 2CHOHCH2OH (IM1) formed by collisional stabilization is dominate in the temperature range (200-440 K) at atmospheric pressure with N2 (200-315 K at 10 Torr Ar and 100 Torr He). The production of CH2CHCHOH + H2O via direct hydrogen abstraction becomes dominate at higher temperature. The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) has also been calculated for the title reaction. Moreover, the calculated rate constants and KIE are in good agreement with the experimental data. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

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