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Sha Y.,Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2011

Post harvest diseases of jujube(Zizyphus jujuba Mill.) fruits are serous problem during storage. Many microbes including benefit and harmful organisms, and pathogens are associated with jujube. The aim of the study was to characterize the microbial diversity in stored jujube fruits and their potential effect on the storage diseases. Microbial diversity of the Ningxia jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.) fruit surface at different mature levels during the harvesting and storage stages was investigated. The jujube maturity was graded based on the percentage of erubescent area of the jujube fruit surface and the tenth grade was with the 100% of the area erubescent and the eighth grade was with 2 third of the area erubescent. The samples were collected at the picking time, and after storages of 15 d, 30 d, and 45 d. The result showed that 80% of the microbes isolated on the jujube surface are bacteria. Fungi including species of Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Mucor and Rhizopus were detected at all sampling stages. Alternaria spp. were the dominant and Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. were common at the picking stage and the storage stages, while species of Alternaria, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Fusarium were dominant and species of Aspergillus, Mucor and Rhizopus were common at the storage stages. The preservative treatment was significantly reduced the fungi colonized on the jujube surface during the storage compared with non-treatment. More microbial diversity was found on the full mature jujubes than that on the eighth grade mature jujubes. Microbial diversity and their effect on the jujube quality were significantly increased along with the time of jujube storage. The biodiversity analysis showed that microbial diverse index of the jujube surface increased during the storage period. The Shannon-Wiener index has increasing tendency for all test treatments and reached to the highest at the storage of 45 d. The Simpson index was significantly inhibited at the picking time and earlier storage stages by the preservative treatment and reached the same as the non-treatment at the storage of 45 d. Although our current result was preliminary, it provided comprehensive understanding on the microbial community of jujube fruits and their effect on the jujube storage diseases. Our performance encouraged that the microbial community of other fruits should be conducted and investigated during storage, and the microbial community function should be determined. The antagonistic microbes may find from the community and are potential in biocontrol of fruit post harvest diseases. Source

Yan H.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Yan H.,Academy of economics Research | Zhang X.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Xu H.,Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science | Liu Y.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2010

The plants growing at the Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt has been safe-guarding the highway located in hinterland of Taklimakan Desert, by preventing sand erosion and sand intrusion. Thus, the sustainability of the green belt is vital to the maintenance of the highway. The objective of this study is on the impact of drought stress to the photosynthetic accumulation of shelterbelt plants. LI- 6400 portable photosynthesis system was used to measure the photosynthetic characteristics of three plants (Haloxylon ammodendron, Tamarix ramosissima and Calligonum arborescens) under different water conditions. The results showed that: the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, water use efficiency, light use efficiency and potential photosynthesis capacity of C. arborescens are most sensitive to water deficit, while T. ramosissima was the least sensitive among the three species. The differences in photosynthetic responses of these three species to drought dress indicated that the three species have different adaptive mechanisms to water deficit. In addition, under drought stress, water use efficiency of all three species did not improve and their light use efficiency was even reduced. Under drought and high temperature conditions, T. ramosissima, the only C3 species, maintained more stable photosynthetic accumulation and water use efficiency than H. ammodendron and C. arborescens, the two C4 species, which demonstrated that C3 plants also could have high ability of drought resistance than C4 plants under desert conditions. Although water deficit has inhibited, to certain degree, the photosynthesis ability of all three species, it did not have irreversible impact on their photosynthetic accumulation. Therefore, all plants have demonstrated high ability of drought tolerance, and this ability implies that there might still room for water-saving in shelterbelts irrigation. Source

Melland A.R.,University of Southern Queensland | Silburn D.M.,University of Southern Queensland | Silburn D.M.,Queensland Government | McHugh A.D.,Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

Zhang W.-J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang W.-J.,Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science | Niu Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Bu S.-H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Soil salinity and alkalinity are important abiotic components that frequently have critical effects on crop growth, productivity and quality. Developing soybean cultivars with high salt tolerance is recognized as an efficient way to maintain sustainable soybean production in a salt stress environment. However, the genetic mechanism of the tolerance must first be elucidated. In this study, 257 soybean cultivars with 135 SSR markers were used to perform epistatic association mapping for salt tolerance. Tolerance was evaluated by assessing the main root length (RL), the fresh and dry weights of roots (FWR and DWR), the biomass of seedlings (BS) and the length of hypocotyls (LH) of healthy seedlings after treatments with control, 100 mM NaCl or 10 mM Na2CO3 solutions for approximately one week under greenhouse conditions. A total of 83 QTL-by-environment (QE) interactions for salt tolerance index were detected: 24 for LR, 12 for FWR, 11 for DWR, 15 for LH and 21 for BS, as well as one epistatic QTL for FWR. Furthermore, 86 QE interactions for alkaline tolerance index were found: 17 for LR, 16 for FWR, 17 for DWR, 18 for LH and 18 for BS. A total of 77 QE interactions for the original trait indicator were detected: 17 for LR, 14 for FWR, 4 for DWR, 21 for LH and 21 for BS, as well as 3 epistatic QTL for BS. Small-effect QTL were frequently observed. Several soybean genes with homology to Arabidopsis thaliana and soybean salt tolerance genes were found in close proximity to the above QTL. Using the novel alleles of the QTL detected above, some elite parental combinations were designed, although these QTL need to be further confirmed. The above results provide a valuable foundation for fine mapping, cloning and molecular breeding by design for soybean alkaline and salt tolerance. © 2014 Zhang et al. Source

An H.,Ningxia University | An Y.,Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2011

Taking the artificial sand-fixing Salix psammophila shrubs with different plant density (0.2, 0.6, and 0.8 plants · m -2) in Mu Us Sandy Land as test objects, this paper studied the soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration during growth season. There existed obvious differences in the soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration among the shrubs. The soil moisture content changed in single-hump-shape with the increase of plant density, and in "S" shape during growth season, being closely correlated with precipitation. The evapotranspiration was the highest (114.5 mm) in the shrubs with a density 0.8 plants · m -2, accounting for 90.8% of the total precipitation during growth season, and the lowest (109.7 mm) in the shrubs with a density 0.6 plants · m -2 Based on the soil moisture dynamics and water balance characteristics, the appropriate planting density of S. psammophila shrubs in Mu Us Sandy Land could be 0.6 plants · m -2. Source

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