Feng H.,Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Science |
Qu J.,Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Science |
Yang D.,Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Science |
Zhang L.,Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Science
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2015
The study aimed to investigate the effects of exogenous microorganisms on fermentation efficiency of Sophora flavescens branches for substrate production. The randomized block design was used with dried chicken manure as the nitrogen source. The effects of exogenous microorganisms on fermentation performance parameters of Sophora flavescens branches in substrate production were studied. The results showed that the vaccination crude fiber degrading bacteria inoculation and cellulose enzyme preparation, which had a persistent high temperature (higher than 50℃ and reached to 5 d) and a shorter body decomposition time of Sophora flavescens, had a significant temperature increasing speed which faster than CK. At the end of the pile, for the vaccination crude fiber degrading bacteria inoculation and cellulose enzyme preparation, the TOC decreased by 8.52% and 8.01%, C/N ratio decreased by 5.35% and 5.00%, content of cellulose decreased by 3.31% and 3.29%, degradation rate of hemicellulose decreased by 2.89% and 2.93%, lignin content decreased by 2.01% and 1.98%, total nitrogen increased by 16.1% and 18.2%, total phosphorus increased by 18.5% and 19.0%, total potassium increased by 49.1% and 48.1%, respectively, which accelerated the decomposition of organic matter and cellulose, improved the content of total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium and ensured the fertility after maturity. Moreover, with the vaccination crude fiber degrading bacteria inoculation and cellulose enzyme preparation, the pile density increased by 6.10% and 9.20%, the total porosity increased by 9.28% and 9.90%, the water holding porosity increased by 4.83% and 6.09%, respectively. After the maturity, the physical and chemical indicators were in line with the requirements of an ideal matrix. The germination index (GI) of cabbage and cucumber seed were up to more than 85%, eliminating the toxic effects of Sophora decomposing products effectively. There was no significant difference between the performance parameters of vaccination crude fiber degrading bacteria inoculation and cellulose enzyme preparation. Considering the demanding of fermentation temperature, decomposition cycle, crop protected plant root growth and fixed function of the physicochemical properties, the vaccination crude fiber degrading bacteria inoculation and cellulose enzyme preparation had a good promoting effect on Sophora flavescens substrate. ©, 2014, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.
Sha Y.,Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2011
Post harvest diseases of jujube(Zizyphus jujuba Mill.) fruits are serous problem during storage. Many microbes including benefit and harmful organisms, and pathogens are associated with jujube. The aim of the study was to characterize the microbial diversity in stored jujube fruits and their potential effect on the storage diseases. Microbial diversity of the Ningxia jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.) fruit surface at different mature levels during the harvesting and storage stages was investigated. The jujube maturity was graded based on the percentage of erubescent area of the jujube fruit surface and the tenth grade was with the 100% of the area erubescent and the eighth grade was with 2 third of the area erubescent. The samples were collected at the picking time, and after storages of 15 d, 30 d, and 45 d. The result showed that 80% of the microbes isolated on the jujube surface are bacteria. Fungi including species of Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Mucor and Rhizopus were detected at all sampling stages. Alternaria spp. were the dominant and Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. were common at the picking stage and the storage stages, while species of Alternaria, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Fusarium were dominant and species of Aspergillus, Mucor and Rhizopus were common at the storage stages. The preservative treatment was significantly reduced the fungi colonized on the jujube surface during the storage compared with non-treatment. More microbial diversity was found on the full mature jujubes than that on the eighth grade mature jujubes. Microbial diversity and their effect on the jujube quality were significantly increased along with the time of jujube storage. The biodiversity analysis showed that microbial diverse index of the jujube surface increased during the storage period. The Shannon-Wiener index has increasing tendency for all test treatments and reached to the highest at the storage of 45 d. The Simpson index was significantly inhibited at the picking time and earlier storage stages by the preservative treatment and reached the same as the non-treatment at the storage of 45 d. Although our current result was preliminary, it provided comprehensive understanding on the microbial community of jujube fruits and their effect on the jujube storage diseases. Our performance encouraged that the microbial community of other fruits should be conducted and investigated during storage, and the microbial community function should be determined. The antagonistic microbes may find from the community and are potential in biocontrol of fruit post harvest diseases.
Zhang Z.-K.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Zhang Z.-K.,Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science |
Lei Z.-R.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015
Using RT-PCR and RACE-PCR strategies, we cloned and identified a new chemosensory protein (FoccCSP) from the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, a species for which no chemosensory protein (CSP) has yet been identified. The FoccCSP gene contains a 387 bp open-reading frame encoding a putative protein of 128 amino acids with a molecular weight of 14.51 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.41. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues at the N-terminus, as well as the typical four- cysteine signature found in other insect CSPs. As FoccCSP is from a different order of insect than other known CSPs, the GenBank FoccCSP homolog showed only 31-50% sequence identity with them. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed and revealed that FoccCSP is in a group with CSPs from Homopteran insects (e.g., AgosCSP4, AgosCSP10, ApisCSP, and NlugCSP9), suggesting that these genes likely developed from a common ancestral gene. The FoccCSP gene expression profile of different tissues and development stages was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The results of this analysis revealed this gene is predominantly expressed in the antennae and also highly expressed in the first instar nymph, suggesting a function for FoccCSP in olfactory reception and in particular life activities during the first instar nymph stage. We expressed recombinant FoccCSP protein in a prokaryotic expression system and purified FoccCSP protein by affinity chromatography using a Ni-NTA-Sepharose column. Using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (1-NPN) as a fluorescent probe in fluorescence-based competitive binding assay, we determined the binding affinities of 19 volatile substances for FoccCSP protein. This analysis revealed that anisic aldehyde, geraniol and methyl salicylate have high binding affinities for FoccCSP, with KD values of 10.50, 15.35 and 35.24 μM, respectively. Thus, our study indicates that FoccCSP may play an important role in regulating the development of the first instar nymph and mediate F. occidentalis host recognition. © 2015 Zhang Lei.
Ma B.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University |
Li Z.B.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University |
Ma F.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University |
Ma F.,Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Science |
Wu F.Q.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2015
Water from rainfall or sprinkler irrigation is partitioned into four components as it passes through the crop canopy: stemflow, throughfall, interception storage and in-canopy evaporation. The crop canopy significantly changes the distribution of rain water and irrigation water in the canopy and topsoil, thus potentially causing uneven distribution of surface soil water content and altering water use efficiency. The objective of this experiment was to measure throughfall, stemflow, and interception storage at different times during the maize (Zea mays L.) growing season. Throughfall and stemflow were measured indoors during simulated rainfall events. The spray method was used to measure the interception storage of maize canopies with different leaf area index (LAI). The effects of LAI and rainfall intensity on throughfall, stemflow, and interception storage were analyzed and the spatial distribution of throughfall was clarified. The results showed that there had a significant effect in rainfall redistribution by maize canopy under simulated rainfall. Throughfall accounted for 30.97% to 94.02% of the total rainfall, averaging 63.92% across the entire experiment. Stemflow accounted for 5.98% to 70.42% of the total rainfall, averaging 35.28%.Interception storage ranged from 0.02 mm to 0.43 mm. The average interception storage was 0.16 mm. These amounts were equivalent to less than 1% of the total rainfall amount. The variation of maize canopy had significant effect on rainfall redistribution. The amount of throughfall declined gradually as the maize leaf area index increased, whereas stemflow and interception storage gradually increased. There was close correlation between the throughfall amount and the stemflow amount. As a percentage of the total rainfall amount, throughfall decreased from 93.55% early in the growing season to 36.22% later in the growing season. In contrast, the percentage of stemflow increased from 5.98% to 70.42%. Rainfall intensity showed different effect on throughfall and stemflow. There was a positive correlation between rainfall intensity and throughfall amount. There was also a positive correlation between rainfall intensity and stemflow amount. The ratio of throughfall to total rainfall was not significantly related to rainfall intensity (P>0.05). Similarly, the ratio of stemflow to total rainfall was not was not significantly related to rainfall intensity (P >0.05). The effect of rainfall intensity on throughfall ratio was uncertain, and this effect was restricted and influenced by physiological state of maize plant. The throughfall intensity was large in some region under maize canopy, and even beyond the rainfall intensity, which lead to significant difference of spatial distribution under maize canopy. As the maize grew, the spatial distribution of throughfall gradually became uneven. Rainwater tended to concentrate in the inter-row area. However, when the maize leaves began to decompose at the end of the growing season, the amount of rainwater in the inter-row area decreased. The redistribution of rainfall by maize canopy would make uneven distribution of rainfall on the surface soil. And this would lead to redistribute rainfall energy on the surface soil under maize canopy, which may has large influence on splash detachment and its distribution under maize canopy. This study provides important insights into the effect of the maize canopy on the redistribution of rainfall. The study also provides information about ecological and hydrological processes in far and. Information from this study could be used as a theoretical basis for effectively using agricultural water and for controlling soil erosion on slopes. © 2015, Science Press. All rights reserved.
Liu H.,Northwest University, China |
Wang Y.,Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science |
Tang M.,Northwest University, China
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2016
The Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) community in saline soils of Ningxia, China, was rarely reported. Soils in the rhizosphere of two important food plants, Lycium barbarum L. (Goji) and Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (Oleaster), were sampled from Ningxia (Goji from Huinong, HNGQ; Goji from Yinchuan, YCGQ; Oleaster from Yinchuan, YCSZ) to investigate the AMF community. Thirty-three AMF species from 11 genera were identified in total. The dominant family and genera were Glomeraceae, Acaulospora and Glomus, respectively. Septoglomus constrictum was the most abundant species. The AMF community composition of Goji was different from that of Oleaster (R = 0.26, p < 0.05), while the AMF community from Huinong differed from Yinchuan (R = 1.0, p = 0.01). These findings suggest a high AMF diversity in Ningxia saline soils and the effect of host plant identity on AMF community composition. Furthermore, the AMF diversity index positively correlated with available potassium (AK), available phosphorus (AP), available nitrogen (AN) and organic matter (OM), but negatively correlated with electric conductivity (EC). This result demonstrated that a high level of salinity might reduce soil fertility and AMF diversity. The saline area with high diversity of the AMF community in Ningxia is promising for screening AMF isolates for utilization in crop production. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
Melland A.R.,University of Southern Queensland |
Silburn D.M.,University of Southern Queensland |
Silburn D.M.,Queensland Government |
McHugh A.D.,Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016
Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations. © 2015 American Chemical Society.
An H.,Ningxia University |
An Y.,Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2011
Taking the artificial sand-fixing Salix psammophila shrubs with different plant density (0.2, 0.6, and 0.8 plants · m -2) in Mu Us Sandy Land as test objects, this paper studied the soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration during growth season. There existed obvious differences in the soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration among the shrubs. The soil moisture content changed in single-hump-shape with the increase of plant density, and in "S" shape during growth season, being closely correlated with precipitation. The evapotranspiration was the highest (114.5 mm) in the shrubs with a density 0.8 plants · m -2, accounting for 90.8% of the total precipitation during growth season, and the lowest (109.7 mm) in the shrubs with a density 0.6 plants · m -2 Based on the soil moisture dynamics and water balance characteristics, the appropriate planting density of S. psammophila shrubs in Mu Us Sandy Land could be 0.6 plants · m -2.
PubMed | Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Science, Ningxia University and CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016
For quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, the key prerequisite that determines result accuracy is the selection of appropriate reference gene(s). Goji (Lycium barbarum L.) is a multi-branched shrub belonging to the Solanaceae family. To date, no systematic screening or evaluation of reference gene(s) in Goji has been performed. In this work, we identified 18 candidate reference genes from the transcriptomic sequencing data of 14 samples of Goji at different developmental stages and under drought stress condition. The expression stability of these candidate genes was rigorously analyzed using qRT-PCR and four different statistical algorithms: geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder and RefFinder. Two novel reference genes LbCML38 and LbRH52 showed the most stable expression, whereas the traditionally used reference genes such as LbGAPDH, LbHSP90 and LbTUB showed unstable expression in the tested samples. Expression of a target gene LbMYB1 was also tested and compared using optimal reference genes LbCML38 and LbRH52, mediocre reference gene LbActin7, and poor reference gene LbHSP90 as normalization standards, respectively. As expected, calculation of the target gene expression by normalization against LbCML38, LbActin7 or LbHSP90 showed significant differences. Our findings suggest that LbCML38 and LbRH52 can be used as reference genes for gene expression analysis in Goji.
PubMed | Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science, University of Southern Queensland, Queensland Government, Sugar Research Australia Ltd. and James Cook University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2016
Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicides sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations.
PubMed | Yangtze University, CAS Institute of Zoology, Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science and University of Neuchatel
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pest management science | Year: 2016
The cochineal scale, Porphyrophora sophorae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea, Margarodidae), is one of the most serious arthropod pests of Chinese liquorice, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Fabaceae), an important medicinal herb. The adult females tend to deposit the ovisacs in soil relatively far away from liquorice plants. After hatching, neonates move out of the soil and may use chemical cues to search for new hosts.We collected and analysed the volatiles from soils with and without liquorice roots, and chromatographic profiles revealed hexanal, -pinene and hexanol as potential host-finding cues for P. sphorae. The attractiveness of these compounds to neonates was studied in the laboratory using four-arm olfactometer bioassays. The larvae showed a clear preference for -pinene over hexanal and hexanol, as well as all possible combinations of the three compounds. In addition, a field experiment confirmed that -pinene was significantly more attractive than hexanal and hexanol.Newly eclosed larvae of P. sphorae exploit root volatiles as chemical cues to locate their host plant. -Pinene proved to be the major chemical cue used by P. sphorae neonates searching for roots of their host plant. 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.